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Dog meat is eaten in some countries and certain breeds of dogs are raised on farms and slaughter for their meat. Dog meat may be consumed as an alternative source of meat or for specific medicinal benefits attributed to various parts of a dog. Cultural attitudes, legal treatment, and history regarding eating dog meat vary from country to country. Very little statistical information is available on attitudes to the consumption of dog meat.

In some societies, the consumption of dog meat is viewed as part of their traditional or contemporary culture, while in others, the consumption of dog meat is generally viewed as taboo, such as most Western cultures. (However, some Westerners support the right to eat dog meat and accuse other Westerners who protest against dog eating in non-Western countries of cultural imperialism and intolerance. Joey Skaggs, for instance, organized a hoax in the United States in which a fictitious Korean restaurant asked animal shelters for unwanted dogs to be made into dog meat in order to expose the alleged intolerance, hypocrisy and racism of those opposed to dog-eating.) Some cultures or individuals, including some non-Westerners, however, oppose the consumption of dog meat in non-Western countries. They may perceive dogs as inherently emotional and friendly to humanity and/or argue that methods used in the slaughter of dogs for food are excessively cruel.In the Islamic and Jewish cultures, eating dogs is forbidden under Muslim dietary laws and Jewish laws of Kashrut.

The raising and consumption of dog meat has been linked to the transmission of rabies to humans with two reported cases in China, one in Vietnam, and two deaths reported in the Philippines.

By region

Arctic and Antarctic

Dogs have historically been an emergency food source for various peoples in Siberiamarker, Alaskamarker, northern Canada, and Greenlandmarker. Sled dogs are usually maintained for pulling sleds, but occasionally are eaten when no other food is available.

Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen was known to have eaten sled dogs during his expedition to the South Pole. By eating some of the sled dogs, he required less human or dog food, thus lightening his load. When comparing sled dogs to ponies as draught animals he also notes:
"...there is the obvious advantage that dog can be fed on dog.
One can reduce one's pack little by little, slaughtering the feebler ones and feeding the chosen with them.
In this way they get fresh meat.
Our dogs lived on dog's flesh and pemmican the whole way, and this enabled them to do splendid work.
And if we ourselves wanted a piece of fresh meat we could cut off a delicate little fillet; it tasted to us as good as the best beef.
The dogs do not object at all; as long as they get their share they do not mind what part of their comrade's carcass it comes from.
All that was left after one of these canine meals was the teeth of the victim - and if it had been a really hard day, these also disappeared."


Douglas Mawson and Xavier Mertz were part of a three-man sledging team with Lieutenant B. E. S. Ninnis to survey King George V Land, Antarctica. On 14 December 1912 Ninnis fell through a snow-covered crevasse along with most of the party's rations, he was never seen again. Mawson and Mertz turned back immediately. They had one and a half weeks' food for themselves and nothing at all for the dogs. Their meagre provisions forced them to eat their remaining sled dogs on their 315 mile return journey. Their meat was tough, stringy and without a vestige of fat. Each animal yielded very little, and the major part was fed to the surviving dogs which ate the meat, skin and bones until nothing remained. The men also ate the dog's brains and livers. Unfortunately eating the liver of sled dogs produces the condition Hypervitaminosis A. Mertz suffered a quick deterioration. He developed stomach pains and he became incapacitated and incoherent. On 7 January 1913 Mertz died. Mawson continued alone, eventually making it back to camp alive.

Canada

Consumption of dog meat is taboo in mainstream Canadian culture. However it may be practised by some cultural minorities.Under Canada's Wildlife Act, it is illegal to sell meat from any wild species. But there is no law against selling and serving canine meat, including dogs, if it is killed and gutted in front of federal inspectors.

In 2003, health inspectors discovered four frozen canine carcasses in the freezer of a Chinese restaurant in Edmontonmarkerwhich, in the end, were found to be coyotes.The Edmonton health inspector said that it is not illegal to sell and eat the meat of dogs and other canines, as long as the meat has been inspected.Ed Greenburg, an official with Edmonton's Capital Health Region, said the fact that the animals were coyotes doesn't change anything and inspectors are still looking into the possibility that uninspected meat was served at the restaurant.

China



Dog meat ( ) has been a source of food in small parts of China from at least around 500 BC, and possibly even before. Mencius, the philosopher, recommended dog meat because of its pharmaceutical properties. Ancient writings from the Zhou Dynasty referred to the "three beasts" (which were bred for food), including pig, goat, and dog. Dog meat is sometimes euphemistically called "fragrant meat" (香肉 xiāng ròu) or "mutton of the earth" (地羊 dì yáng) in Mandarin Chinese and "3-6 fragrant meat" ( ) in Cantonese (3 plus 6 is 9 and the words "nine" and "dog" are homophones, both pronounced gáu in Cantonese. In Mandarin, "nine" and "dog" are pronounced differently).

The eating of dog meat China dates back thousands of years. Dog meat has long been thought by some to have medicinal properties, and is especially popular in winter months as it is believed to generate heat and promote bodily warmth. Also, dogs have occasionally been eaten as an emergency food supply.

The Chinese usually only eat dogs raised specifically for meat, not those raised as pets. The dogs are slaughtered between 6 and 12 months of age.

Despite it being a socially acceptable practice, the average Chinese does not usually consume dog meat, which has led to a decline in the price of dog meat. However, dog meat has become relatively expensive in recent years compared to other meat choices.More concentrated dog meat consumption areas in China are in the northeastern, southern, and southwestern areas. Peixian County in Northern Jiangsumarker is well-known in China for the production of a dog-meat stew flavoured with soft-shelled turtle. The dish is said to have been invented by Fan Kuai and to have been a favourite with Liu Bang, founder of the Han dynasty.

The Chinese normally cook the dog meat by stewing it with thick gravy or by roasting it. Some methods of preparing the dog carcass are by immersion in boiling water, or flash-burning the fur off in a fire.

Some controversy has emerged about the treatment of dogs in China not because of the consumption itself, but because of other factors like cruelty involved with the killing including allegations that animals are sometimes skinned while still alive.

A growing movement against consumption of cat and dog meat has gained attention from people in mainland China. Those changes began about two years after the formation of the Chinese Companion Animal Protection Network, a networking project of Chinese Animal Protection Network. Expanded to more than 40 member societies, CCAPN in January 2006 began organizing well-publicized protests against dog and cat eating, starting in Guangzhou, following up in more than ten other cities "with very optimal response from public."

Since January 2007, more than ten Chinese groups have joined an online signing event against the consumption of cat and dog meat. The signatures indicate that the participants will avoid eating cat and dog meat in the future. This online signing event received more than 42,000 signatures from public and has been circulated around the country. Supportors of this online event also organized offline events in many cities, including several high profile performance-art shows.

Some Chinese restaurants in the United States serve "imitation dog meat", which is usually pulled pork and purportedly flavored like dog meat. e.g. "Northern Chinese Restaurant", Rosemead, California

In 2008 a series of incidents of increased consumption of cat and dog meat in Guangdongmarker areas have appeared in local mass media.

Taiwan

In Taiwan,dog meat (Minnan: 狗肉 káu-bah) is known by the euphemism "fragrant meat" (香肉 xiāng ròu) in Mandarin Chinese in Taiwan. Eating dogs has never been commonplace in Taiwan, but it is particularly eaten in the winter months, especially black dogs, which are believed to help retain body warmth.In 2004, the Taiwanese government imposed a ban on the sale of dog meat, due to both pressure from domestic animal welfare groups and a desire to improve international perceptions, although there were some protests.According to Lonely Planet's Taiwan guide, it is still possible to find dog meat on some restaurant menus, but this is becoming increasingly rare.

East Timor

Dog meat is a delicacy popular in East Timor.[210175]

France

Although consumption of dog meat is not well-known in France and now considered taboo, dog meat has been consumed in the past. The earliest evidence of dog consumption in France was found at Gaulish archaeological sites where butchered dog bones were discovered. Similar findings, corresponding to that time or earlier periods, have also been recorded through Europe.French news sources from the late 19th century carried stories reporting lines of people buying dog meat, which was described as being "beautiful and light." Dog meat was also reported as being sold by some butchers in Paris, 1910..

Germany

Dog meat has been eaten in every major German crisis at least since the time of Frederick the Great, and is commonly referred to as "blockade mutton." In the early 20th century, consumption of dog meat in Germany was common. In 1937, trichina inspection was introduced for pigs, dogs, boars, foxes, badgers, and other carnivores. Dog meat has been prohibited in Germany since 1986.

Ghana

Dogs are eaten in some states of Ghana. They are believed to have medicinal powers.

Hong Kong

In Hong Kongmarker, the Dogs and Cats Ordinance were introduced on 6 January, 1950 , it prohibits the slaughter of any dog or cat for use as food, whether for mankind or otherwise, on pain of fine and imprisonment. Four local men were sentenced to 30 days imprisonment in December 2006 for having slaughtered two dogs. In an earlier case, in February 1998, a Hongkonger was sentenced to one month imprisonment and a fine of two thousand HK dollars for hunting street dogs for food.Apart from this, a large proportion of Hong Kong residents are currently against the consumption of dog meat.

India

There have been reports of locals in remote parts of North-East India, such as those in Mizorammarker and Nagalandmarker, consuming dog meat. Apart from these areas, eating dog meat is a taboo throughout India. Hinduism, the primary religion of India, has a strong vegetarian tradition. Eating any meat is considered a taboo by many devout Hindus. However, in Hindu mythology, there is a story of people eating dog meat when in complete scarcity of food supplies.

Indonesia

In Indonesiamarker, the consumption of dog meat are usually associated with the Minahasa, a Christian ethnic group in northern Sulawesimarker, and Bataks of Northern Sumatra who consider dog meat to be a festive dish and usually reserve it for special occasions like weddings and Christmas.. Popular Indonesian dog-meat dish are rica-rica, called variably as "RW" or Rintek Wuuk, rica-Rica Waung, Guk-Guk, and "B1". Locally on Javamarker there are several names for dishes made from dog meat such as Sengsu (Tongseng Asu), Sate Jamu, and Kambing Balap.

Japan

Dog meat was consumed widely in Japan until 675 A.D, when Emperor Temmu decreed a prohibition on its consumption during the 4th-9th months of the year.China is the only exporter of dog meat to Japan and exported 31 tons in 2006. In Japan dog meat is available in Koreatowns such as the ones found in Tsuruhashimarker, Osaka and Okubomarker, Tokyomarker. Residents in Japan frequent dog meat restaurants there.[210176]

Korea

Gaegogi (개고기) literally means "dog meat" in Korean. Gaegogi, however, is often mistaken as the term for Korean soup made from dog meat, bosintang (보신탕; 補身湯).

History

The consumption of dog meat can be traced back to antiquity. Dog bones were excavated in a neolithic settlement in Changnyeong, South Gyeongsangmarker Province. A wall painting in the Goguryeo tombs complexmarker in South Hwangghae Province, a UNESCO World Heritage site which dates from 4th century AD, depicts a slaughtered dog in a storehouse. The Balhae people also enjoyed dog meat, and the Koreans' appetite for canine cuisine seems to have come from those days.

Current situation

Selling dog meat has been illegal in South Korea since 1984, as manufacturing and processing of dog meat has been outlawed. This is because that South Korean Food Sanitary Law (식품위생법; 食品衛生法) does not include dog meat as a legal food ingredient. Also, dog meat has been categorized as 'repugnant food' (혐오식품; 嫌汚食品) based on a regulation issued by Seoul Metropolitan Government, of which using as food ingredient is not permitted. 모든 국가에서는 식품을 『가공·조리』해서 판매할 경우 반드시 나라에서 허가한 것만을 식품으로 가공·조리하도록 정하고 있는데, <식품위생법> 제 7조 1항에 근거하여 식약청장이 고시한 "식품공전" (→아래 참조)을 보면 개는 식품으로 『가공·조리』할 수 있는 원자재 원료에 적혀 있지 않습니다. 정부는 동물의 도축 방법을 규정하는 <축산물 가공처리법=""> 에서 개는 식용 유통이 가능한 '12가지 가축'에 포함시키지 않음으로 식용으로 개를 도살하거나(동물보호법 "제 6조" 위반) 판매 또는 식용하는 행위 모두가 불법으로 축산물가공처리법 제 45조(벌칙)와 동물보호법 제 12조(벌칙)에 근거하여 개 도살을 처벌할 수 있습니다. Hankyore [210177] </식품위생법>

However, the laws are not strictlly enforced and some portion of South Korean population still consume dog meat. The primary dog breed raised for meat, the Nureongi (누렁이), or Hwangu (황구; 黃狗) differs from those breeds raised for pets which Koreans may keep in their homes. In March 2009, an article in the Korea Times reported that some 9,000 tons are being served at about 6,500 establishments across the country annually.

Even though a fair number of Koreans (anywhere from 5 to 30%) have tried it before, only a small percentage of the population eats it regularly. There is a large and vocal group of Korean people that are against the practice of eating dog meat. There is also a large population of people in South Korea that do not eat or enjoy the meat, but do feel strongly that it is the right of others to do so. There is a smaller but still vocal group of pro-dog cuisine people in South Korea who want to popularize the consumption of dog in Korea and the rest of the world.

Although technically illegal to sell dog meat in Korea, some restaurateurs still do so even though they risk losing their restaurant licenses. Currently, one can find dog meat in such cities as Gunsan, South Korea. In 1997 one dog meat wholesaler in Seoul was brought up on charges of selling dog meat illegally. BBC claim that, in 2003, approximately 4,000-6,000 restaurants served soups made from dog meat in Korea. The soups cost about US$10 while dishes of steamed dog meat with rice cost about US$25. The BBC claims that eighty-five hundred tons of dog meat are consumed per year, with another 93,600 tons used to produce a medicinal tonic called gaesoju (개소주). Koreans raise exceptional dogs which are edible. At the present day, the dogs are not beaten to death as they were in the past.

Dog meat is often consumed during the summer months and is either roasted or prepared in soups or stews. The most popular of these soups is gaejang-guk, a spicy stew meant to balance the body's heat during the summer months. This is thought to ensure good health by balancing one's "ki" or vital energy of the body. A 19th century version of gaejang-guk explains the preparation of the dish by boiling dog meat with green onions and chili powder. Variations of the dish contain chicken and bamboo shoots.

Types of dishes

  • bosintang - dog stew including dog meat as its primary ingredient.
  • gaejangguk - dog meat soup.
  • gaesuyuk - boiled dog meat.
  • gaesoju - a mixed drink that includes dog meat and other herbal ingredients used in Oriental medicine such as antlers.


Controversy

Use of dogs for meat and the methods of slaughter used have generated friction between dog lovers, both Western and Korean, and people who eat dogs; the conflict occasionally breaks out as headline news. During the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoulmarker, the South Koreanmarker government asked its citizens not to consume dog meat to avoid bad publicity during the games, along with a request to butcher shops not to hang dog carcasses in the windows. It also closed all restaurants serving gaejang-guk to better improve the country's image to Western visitors.

The controversy surfaced again in 2001 during the 2002 FIFA World Cup.The organizers of the games, under pressure from animal rights groups such as PETA. demanded that the Korean government re-address the issue. Brigitte Bardot, a prominent head of a Frenchmarker animal rights organization which is named after her, launched a crusade during the 2002 FIFA World Cup to have dog meat outlawed in Korea. She prompted people to boycott the games if the government did not outlaw the sale of dog meat in restaurants in Seoul. This concept seemed out of place to those people in Southern China and parts of Southeast Asia where dog meat is seen as an affordable meat source, especially in Chinamarker where records of dog consumption date back to 500 B.C. when recipes of dog dishes were listed in the Li Ji for ritual consumption.

In Korea, some people eat bosintang (literally "invigorating soup"), believing it to have medicinal properties, particularly as relates to virility. Dog meat is also believed to keep one cool during the intense Korean summer. Many Korean Buddhists consider eating meat an offense, which includes dog meat. Unlike beef, pork, or poultry, dog meat has no legal status as food in South Korea. Hence dog meat farming takes place in a legal grey area. Some in South Korea and abroad believe that dog meat should be expressly legalized so that only authorized preparers can deal with the meat in more humane and sanitary ways, while others think that the practice should be banned by law.

In recent years, many Korean people have changed their attitudes towards eating dog meat from "personal choice" to "unnecessary cruelty." Animal rights activists in South Korea protest against the custom of eating dog meat.

Some Koreans still eat dogs, but they eat dog meat from dogs raised specifically on dog farms, not the domestic pet variety. Some Koreans report that "civilised people don’t eat dogs in Korea", and many Koreans actually do not eat dog. Korean culture forbids making a meal of animals that are considered companions, but pigs, cows, lamb and other livestock are fair.

A recent survey by the Ministry of Agriculture showed that 59% of Koreans aged under 30 would not eat dog. Some 62% of the same age group said they regard dogs as pets, not food. Many young Koreans think those who eat dog are an anachronism. Although early Western media reports stated that some dogs were beaten to death, currently, the dogs are not beaten to death as they were in the past.

Mexico

Consumption of dog meat is taboo in Mexico. However, in the time of the Aztecs, dogs were historically bred for their meat. Hernán Cortés reported that when he arrived in Tenochtitlan in 1519, "small gelded dogs which they breed for eating" were among the goods sold in the city markets.These dogs, now extinct, were called itzcuintlis, and were similar to the modern Mexican Hairless Dog. They are often depicted in pre-Columbian Mexican pottery.

In May 2008 a man named Rubén Cuellar of Veracruz-Boca del Rio was accused of engaging in the slaughter of dogs and selling the meat to local taco restaurants. He was detained by police pending investigation.

Nigeria

Dogs are eaten in some states of Nigeria including Cross River, Plateau, Taraba and Gombe of Nigeria. They are believed to have medicinal powers.

Philippines

In the capital city of Manilamarker, Metro Manila Commission Ordinance 82-05specifically prohibits the killing and selling of dogs for food.More generally, the Philippine Animal Welfare Act 1998prohibits the killing of any animal other than cattle, pigs, goats, sheep, poultry, rabbits, carabaos, horses, deer and crocodiles except in the following instances:
  1. When it is done as part of the religious rituals of an established religion or sect or a ritual required by tribal or ethnic custom of indigenous cultural communities; however, leaders shall keep records in cooperation with the Committee on Animal Welfare;
  2. When the pet animal is afflicted with an incurable communicable disease as determined and certified by a duly licensed veterinarian;
  3. When the killing is deemed necessary to put an end to the misery suffered by the animal as determined and certified by a duly licensed veterinarian;
  4. When it is done to prevent an imminent danger to the life or limb of a human being;
  5. When done for the purpose of animal population control;
  6. When the animal is killed after it has been used in authorized research or experiments; and
  7. Any other ground analogous to the foregoing as determined and certified by a licensed veterinarian.


Nevertheless, as is reported from time to time in Philippine newspapers, the eating of dog meat is not uncommon in the Philippines.DogMeatTrade.com, an organization working in the Philippines to eliminate the eating of dogs in the country, estimates that 500,000 dogs are killed annually in the Philippine Islands for human consumption.

In the Province of Benguetmarker, Resolution 05-392 has been passed declaring, among other things, "it has been an evolved cultural practice of indigenous peoples of the Cordillera the butchering of animals, dogs included, as part of their rituals and practices leading to its commercialization to a limited extent, and had become an inevitable common necessity in their way of life"; and resolving, among other things, "to seek the help and assistance of the Committee on Animal Welfare, Department of Agriculture, the Regional Police Office, Cordillera Administrative Region, the Provincial Police Office, Benguet Province, for the proper observance of the said rights of indigenous peoples".

Poland

While the meat is not eaten, in some rural areas of Polandmarker dog fat is by tradition believed to have medicinal properties - being good for the lungs for instance. It can be made into smalec - lard. In 2009 a scandal erupted when a farm near Czestochowamarker was discovered rearing dogs to be rendered down into smalec.

Polynesia

Dogs were historically eaten in Tahitimarker and other islands of Polynesia including Hawaiimarker

at the time of first European contact. James Cook, when first visiting Tahiti in 1769, recorded in his journal that "few were there of us but what allowe'd that a South Sea Dog was next to an English Lamb, one thing in their favour is that they live entirely upon Vegetables".In Hawaii, the eating of dog meat was reserved to females until the system of kapu was overthrown in favor of 'Ai Noa (free eating) in 1819. Efforts to restore the kapu ended and free eating became policy after a feast of dog meat that King Kamehameha II partook of with his chiefesses.

Switzerland

According to the November 21, 1996, edition of the Rheintaler Bote, a Swissmarker newspaper covering the Rhine Valley area, the rural Swiss cantons of Appenzell and St. Gallenmarker are known to have had a tradition of eating dogs, curing dog meat into jerky and sausages, as well as using the lard for medicinal purposes. Dog sausage and smoked dog jerky remains a staple in the Swiss cantons of St. Gallen and Appenzell, where one farmer was quoted in a regional weekly newspaper as saying that "meat from dogs is the healthiest of all. It has shorter fibres than cow meat, has no hormones like veal, no antibiotics like pork."

A few years earlier, a news report on RTL Television on the two cantons set off a wave of protests from European animal rights activists and other concerned citizens. A 7000-name petition was filed to the commissions of the cantons, who rejected it, saying it wasn't the state's right to monitor the eating habits of its citizens.

The production of food from dog meat for commercial purposes, however, is illegal in Switzerland.

Tonga

Dog meat is barbecued in a umu in Tongamarker and considered a delicacy.

United Kingdom

Eating dog meat in the United Kingdommarker is highly taboo. Killing of dogs by anyone other than veterinarians for humane reasons is illegal and carries a prison sentence.

United States

In the United States, it is considered a social taboo and illegal in some jurisdictions to eat dogs or other animals traditionally considered to be pets or companion animals (see horse meat).

During their 1803–1806 expedition, Meriwether Lewis and the other members of the Corps of Discovery consumed dog meat, either from their own animals or supplied by Native American tribes including the Paiutes and Wah-clel-lah Indians, a branch of the Watlalas, the Clatsop, the Teton Sioux (Lakota), the Nez Perce Indians, and theHidatsas. Lewis and the members of the expedition ate dog meat except William Clark who reportedly could not bring himself to eat dogs.

Native Americans

The traditional culture surrounding the consumption of dog meat varied from tribe to tribe among the original inhabitants of North America, with some tribes relishing it as a delicacy and others (such as the Comanche) treating it as an abhorrent practice. Native peoples of the Great Plainsmarker, such as the Sioux and Cheyenne, consumed it, but there was a concurrent religious taboo against the meat of wild canines. The usual preparation method was boiling.

Vietnam

Dog meat is consumed in Vietnam to varying degrees of acceptability, though it predominantly exists in the north. There are multiple dishes featuring dog meat, and they often include the head, feet and internal organs. On Nhat Tan Street, Tây Hồ District, Hanoimarker, many restaurants serve dog meat, often imitating each other. Dog meat restaurants can be found throughout the country. Groups of customers, usually male, seated on mats, will spend their evenings sharing plates of dog meat and drinking alcohol. Dog meat is supposed to raise the libido in men and is sometimes considered unsuitable for women. Eating dog meat can serve as a male bonding exercise. Nevertheless, it is not uncommon for women to eat dog meat. The consumption of dog meat can be part of a ritual usually occurring toward the end of the lunar month for reasons of astrology and luck. Restaurants which mainly exist to serve dog meat may only open for the last half of the lunar month.

Almost all dogs that are used for meat are imported from other Southeast Asian countries (Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, etc.) and from dog robbers.

In 2009, dog meat was found to be a main carrier of the Vibrio cholerae bacterium, which caused the summer epidemic of cholera in northern Vietnam.

Types of dishes

In Vietnamese cuisine there are many ways to cook dog meat. Typically a chef will choose one of seven ways to cook dog, collectively known as "cầy tơ 7 món".

  • Thit cho hap - steamed dog meat
  • Rua man - steamed dog in shrimp paste, rice flour and lemon grass
  • Doi cho - dog sausage
  • Gieng Me Mam Tom - Steamed dog in shrimp paste, ginger, spices and rice vinegar
  • Thit cho nuong - grilled dog meat
  • Canh Xao Mang Cho - Bamboo shoots and dog bone marrow
  • Cho Xao Sa Ot - Fried dog in lemon grass and chili


See also



References

  1. Chapter 3: It is unlawful to eat fanged beasts of prey and birds with talons
  2. Contributions by Nicholas Lemann, Translated by Ta-tsun Chen.
  3. .
  4. .
  5. .
  6. ,
  7. Fleischbeschaugesetz (Meat Inspection Law), § 1a, RGBl. (Reich Law Gazette) 1937 I p. 458, then becoming § 1 para. 3, RGBl. 1940 I p. 1463 (in German)
  8. Fleischhygienegesetz (Law on Meat Hygiene), § 1 para. 1 sent. 4, BGBl. (Federal Law Gazette) 1986 I p. 398 (in German).
  9. Vishwamitra , rishiparampara.com
  10. Eating Karma in Classical South Asian Texts | Social Research | Find Articles at BNET
  11. "A Day in the Life: Seasonal Foods", The Japan Forum Newsletter No.14 September 1999. Ishige, 53-54.
  12. 平成19年動物検疫年報仕出地域別輸入検疫状況, Quarantine Statics, The Animal Quarantine Service,[1] Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries .
  13. A Study of the favorite Foods of the Balhae PeopleYang Ouk-da
  14. 대한민국에서 개고기는 불법입니다. 식품위생법 시행규칙 42조 별표 13을 보면, 보건복지부 장관이나 시·도지사가 인정한 혐오식품은 조리·판매해서는 안 된다는 규정이 있습니다. 식약청에서는 개고기는 혐오식품으로 식품 제조가공원료로 허용되지 않는다고 하고요, 서울시 고시에서 보신탕은 혐오식품으로 분류돼 있죠, 한국동물보호연합 [2]
  15. Jon Huer, Dog's Life in Korea, March 27, 2009, The Korea Times.
  16. Do Koreans Really Eat Dog? about.com
  17. Hopkins, Jerry. Extreme Cuisine: The Weird & Wonderful Foods that People Eat, Singapore: Tuttle Publishing, 2004, p. 23.
  18. South Korea's dog day, BBC News, 17 August 1999.
  19. Dog Meat Foods in Korea,Ann, Yong-Geun, Korean Medical Database
  20. Pettid, Michael J., Korean Cuisine: An Illustrated History, London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2008, 84-85.
  21. Activists protest against dog meat eating, BBC[3]
  22. Delicious yet sometimes peculiar Korean cuisine23 April 2009, Helsinki Times
  23. Young Koreans turn their noses up at dog dinnersBy Daniel Jeffreys in Seoul,3 August 2007, independent.co.uk
  24. Mata perros surtia de carne fresca a taqueros
  25. Polish couple accused of making dog meat delicacy , Telegraph
  26. Joongang Ilbo, January 13, 2004; Rheintaler Bote, November 21, 1996; excerpts from both articles translated in: "And you thought they just ate fondue", Marmot's Hole (blog), January 14, 2004. Retrieved 2007-08-08.
  27. FDHA Ordinance of 23 November 2005 on food of animal origin, Art.2.
  28. Man barbeques pet dog, no charges laid.
  29. http://www.rspca.org.uk/servlet/Satellite?pagename=RSPCA/RSPCARedirect&pg=prosecutions
  30. The specific prohibition may not be against the actual consumption of dog meat but some other related action. Section 589B of the California Penal Code, for example, prohibits the possession, import, export, sale, purchase, or giving away of a pet or companion animal or the carcass of such an animal for use as food.
  31. Back Through the Gorge, 1806
  32. Ecola
  33. Change of Heart
  34. Lemhi Pass to Fort Clatsop
  35. September 17, "Sinque Hole Camp"
  36. Sex, Dog Meat, and the Lash: Odd Facts About Lewis and Clark
  37. Native Radio
  38. Native American Diet
  39. Dẫn tôi đi thăm “khu công nghiệp” chó, anh Lai giới thiệu hiện tại đã có 25 trại, mỗi trại thường xuyên có hơn một tấn chó “dự bị”. Mỗi ngày, “khu công nghiệp” này của Sơn Đông cung cấp cho thị trường Hà Nội khoảng 10 tấn chó hơi, chủ yếu là chó ngoại của Lào, Campuchia, Thái Lan, Malaysia... Buôn chó xuyên quốc gia Tuoi Tre Newspaper
  40. Quán “cờ tây” mọc lên như nấm, giá thịt chó cũng leo thang tới 40.000 – 50.000 đồng/kg, nạn trộm chó cũng gia tăng khắp các tỉnh Miền Tây: Nạn… mất chó! Sai Gon Giai Phong Newspaper


Further reading

  • (contains some recipes)


External links




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