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Domitila (or Domitília) de Castro do Canto e Melo, 1st Viscountess with Grandess, then 1st Marchioness of Santosmarker (1797–1867) was a Brazilianmarker noblewoman and the long-term mistress and favorite of Emperor Pedro I of Brazil.

The Regent of Brazil first met D. Domitila (who was born in São Paulomarker) in 1822 during his travel through São Paulo which would lead to the Brazilian independence. She was married to Felício Muniz, a military officer of low rank. Crowned emperor, Pedro I invited her to move to Rio de Janeiromarker and offered her an office at the Court, placing her at the Empress's entourage as her lady in waiting. There she managed to have her first marriage nullified.

The emperor proved himself very generous when it came to honour his favourite and her family as well. Bestowing on her the title of Viscountness of Santos was a slap in the face of the family of José Bonifácio, the patriarch of the independence and the most eminent people of the city of Santos, SPmarker. He also did not hesitate in bestowing titles on their three daughters (the Duchesses of Goiásmarker and Cearámarker and the Countess of Iguaçu) and insisting on them being educated with the royal princesses. The Marchioness' sister was made Baroness of Sorocabamarker and eventually joined the extensive roll of royal mistresses bearing him a child.

D. Leopoldina, the empress, died in 1826 due to complications caused by a miscarriage. The public opinion held the Marchioness responsible for the grievances and humiliations put through by the first.

Since marrying D. Domitila was not an option, Pedro sent an ambassador to Europe to find him a new wife. His reputation as a bad husband made the Baron of Barbacenamarker's errand very difficult though. Not only was Pedro a womanizer and rather poor, but the South American emperor was also said to be violent according to rumours arisen after the dramatic death of D. Leopoldina.

In 1829, when Pedro married for the second time the young Bavarianmarker princess Amélie de Beauharnais von Leuchtenberg, granddaughter of the Empress Josephine, D. Domitila was dismissed, returning to São Paulo. There she married again the brigadier Rafael Tobias de Aguiar.

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