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The donkey walk ( ) is a Russian Orthodox Palm Sunday ritual reenactment of Jesus Christ's entry into Jerusalemmarker. The best known historical donkey walk was practiced in Moscow from 1558 until 1693. The Metropolitan and later Patriarch of Moscow, allegory of Jesus Christ, rode on a "donkey" (actually a horse), while the Tsar of Russia humbly led the donkey on foot. From 1561 to 1655 donkey walk began in Kremlinmarker and terminated at Trinity Cathedral (now Saint Basil's Cathedralmarker), but in 1656 Patriarch Nikon reversed the order of procession. Donkey walk and the blessing of the water on Epiphany were the two most important Muscovite court ceremonies emphasizing the tsar's respect for the Church, projecting an image (not necessarily true) of harmony in politics. Similar rituals in other cities existed until 1678 until Moscow monopolized the ritual. The tradition was abolished by Peter I.

Donkey walks were occasionally recreated in the 2000s.

Contemporary accounts

In the first half of the 16th century the ritual, of either Western or Byzantine origin, emerged in Novgorodmarker, where key roles were played by Archbishop of Novgorod and namestniks. It was imported to Moscow by Metropolitan Makarius; first attested donkey walk attended by Makarius and Ivan the Terrible took place in 1558, when Trinity Cathedral was under construction. After completion of Trinity Cathedral in 1561 the processions terminated at its western sanctuary dedicated to Entry into Jerusalem; the cathedral itself became known as Jerusalem (current popular name of Saint Basil's Cathedralmarker emerged only in the 18th century). Western visitors left description of the procession as it existed before the Time of Troubles:

Mikhail Kudryavtsev noted that all cross processions of the period began, as described by Petreius, from the Dormition Cathedral, passed through St. Frol's Gate and ended at Trinity Cathedral, popularly known simply as Jerusalem. For these processions the Kremlin itself became an open-air temple, properly oriented from its "narthex" (Cathedral Square) in the west, through the "royal doors" (Saviour's Gate), to "sanctuary" (Trinity Cathedral) in the east.

The ritual was mocked and abused by Ivan the Terrible in his 1570 campaign against Novgorod clergy. After looting the churches of Novgorod, Ivan demoted archbishop of Novgorod and ordered him, a tonsured monk, to mount a mare backwards, ride to Moscow in a skomorokh's garb, marry there and lead a life of a skomorokh until the end of his days.

Nikon's reform

The Donkey Walk.
Dutch print, 17th century
Patriarch Nikon, among his other disastrous reforms, reversed the order of donkey walk; since 1656 it began at Lobnoye Mestomarker (allegory of Golgotha) and terminated in the Kremlin (the new allegory of Jerusalem). Nikon's voluntary retirement in 1658 vacated the Patriarch's seat de facto but not de jure; Metropolitan Pitirim of Krutitsy acted for the Patriarch during the 1659 donkey walk, causing Nikon's instant, unforgiving response. Nikon, still the head of Orthodox Church, banished Pitirim from his seat and bitterly reprimanded Alexis I of Russia as an accomplice in "promiscuity of spirit". He wrote that for him riding the donkey was a fearful act of being a living icon of Christ himself, a deed and burden that only the Head of Church may bear. Pitirim repeated his act in 1661 and 1662 and was anathemized by Nikon although the retired patriarch's rage had little effect in real politics and Pitirim remained at the helm of the church.

According to a description by Adam Olearius, who attended the 1636 procession, direction of the donkey walk has been already changed then. Olearius left an account of the procession starting at Lobnoye Mestomarker (incorrectly called Execution Place but in reality only a platform for public announcements) and proceeding into Saviour's Gate of the Kremlin. The procession was led by a wagon carrying "a beautiful tree whose branches are hung with apples and various other treats" and six boys singing Hosanna. Similar processions, without the tree, were also held on the day of inthronisation of the Patriarch in Moscow and ordination of the bishops in other cities, but in 1678 donkey walks outside of Moscow were prohibited by the Sobor.

Demise of the tradition

Feeble-bodied tsar Feodor III of Russia, the eldest surviving son of Alexis, was too weak to attend the ceremonies of 1676 and 1677. By 1678 he recovered and participated in that year's donkey walk along with Patriarch Joachim; later, he seems to have attended most of the ceremonies of his short reign until failing to take part in the donkey walk of 1681.

After Fyodor's death the throne passed to co-rulers, brothers Ivan and Peter. In 1683 Ivan was sick and Peter led the donkey alone but in the next few years Ivan and Peter participated in the ritual together. As Ivan's health declined, Peter became the sole leader of the procession. After the death of his mother (January 25, 1694) he cancelled the procession; in fact, 1694 became the last year of Muscovite court ritual as it existed under the first Romanovs.

Peter, who forced the church into submission to the state, needed no external shows of political harmony and formally abolished the ritual in 1697; instead, it was replaced with a mock drunk orgy of Peter's statesmen and minstrels.

Modern Russia

The ritual was resurrected in 2000s in Rostovmarker, with key roles played by the Archbishop of Rostov and Yaroslavl and the governor of Yaroslavl Oblast.

See also



References

  1. Muir, p. 252
  2. Bushkovitch, p. 21
  3. Muir, p. 253
  4. Kudryavtsev, p. 85
  5. Madariaga, pp. 246-247
  6. Uspensky, chapter 2.1
  7. Gardner and Moosan, p. 326
  8. Gardner and Moosan, p. 327
  9. Uspensky, chapter 2.1
  10. Bushkovitch, p. 112
  11. Bushkovitch, p. 118
  12. Bushkovitch, p. 140
  13. Bushkovitch, p. 181


Sources

  • (second edition; first edition: 1991)
  • (Original book written in 1615 and printed in Leipzigmarker, in German language, in 1620; translated to Russian in 1847 by Mikhail Shemyakin).



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