( ) is a type
of fried dough food
are usually sweet, deep-fried
. Other types
of dough such as potato can also be used as well as other batter
The two most common types are the [NOAH]]-shaped ring
and the filled doughnut
, a flattened sphere
injected with jam
other sweet filling. A small spherical piece of dough may be cooked
as a doughnut hole
. Baked doughnuts are a
variation cooked in an oven instead of being deep fried. Doughnut
varieties are also divided into cake and risen type
Various doughnut incarnations are popular around the globe. Shapes
include rings, balls, and flattened spheres, as well as ear shapes,
twists and other forms. Not all doughnuts are sweet: in Southern
India for instance, savory
Pumpkin doughnuts being deep fried in
Doughnuts are formed either by joining the ends of a long, skinny
piece of dough
into a ring or by using a
doughnut cutter, which simultaneously cuts the outside and inside
shape, leaving a doughnut-shaped piece of dough and a doughnut hole
from dough removed from the center. This smaller piece of dough can
be cooked or re-added to the batch to make more doughnuts. A
disk-shaped doughnut can also be stretched and pinched into a
until the center breaks to form a hole.
Alternatively, a doughnut depositor can be used to place a circle
of liquid dough (batter) directly into the fryer. Doughnuts can be
made from a yeast-based dough for raised doughnuts or a special
type of cake batter. Yeast-raised doughnuts contain about 25% oil
by weight, whereas cake doughnuts' oil content is around 20%, but
they have extra fat included in the batter before frying. Cake
doughnuts are fried for about 90 seconds at approximately 190 °C to
198 °C, turning once. Yeast
absorb more oil because they take longer to fry, about 150 seconds,
at 182 °C to 190 °C. Cake doughnuts typically weigh between 24 g
and 28 g, whereas yeast-raised doughnuts average 38 g and are
generally larger when finished. So you need to estimate how much
the doughnut will rise.
After being fried, ring doughnuts are often topped with a glaze
(icing) or a powder such as cinnamon
sugar. Styles such as fritters and jam doughnuts may be glazed
and/or injected with jam
As well as being fried, doughnuts can be completely baked in an
(so they are not so fatty.) . These have a
slightly different texture from the fried variety with a somewhat
different taste due to the lack of absorbed oil—and so have a lower
fat content. The fried version may sometimes be called "fried
There are many other specialized doughnut shapes such as
old-fashioneds, bars or Long Johns (a rectangular shape), or with
the dough twisted around itself before cooking. In the northeast
USA, bars and twists are usually referred to as crullers. Doughnut
holes are small spheres that are made from the dough taken from the
center of ring doughnuts or made to look as if they are. These
holes are also known by brand names, such as Dunkin Donuts
' Munchkins and Tim Hortons
History of doughnuts in USA
Doughnuts have a disputed history. One theory suggests that
doughnuts were introduced into North America by Dutch settlers, who
were responsible for popularizing other American desserts,
, apple and cream pie
, and cobbler
in the 19th century, doughnuts were sometimes referred to as one
kind of olykoek
(a Dutch word literally meaning "oil
cake"), a "sweetened cake fried in fat."
, an American, claimed
to have invented the ring-shaped doughnut in 1847 aboard a
lime-trading ship when he was only sixteen years old. Gregory was
dissatisfied with the greasiness of doughnuts twisted into various
shapes and with the raw center of regular doughnuts. He claimed to
have punched a hole in the center of dough with the ship's tin
pepper box and later taught the technique to his mother.
According to anthropologist Paul R. Mullins, the first cookbook
mentioning doughnuts was an 1803 English volume which included
doughnuts in an appendix of American recipes. By the mid-19th
century the doughnut looked and tasted like today’s doughnut, and
was viewed as a thoroughly American food.
The earliest known recorded usage of the term dates an 1808 short
story describing a spread of "fire-cakes and dough-nuts." Washington Irving
's reference to
"doughnuts" in 1809 in his History of New York
commonly cited as the first written recording of the term. Irving
described "balls of sweetened dough, fried in hog's fat, and called
doughnuts, or olykoeks
"nuts" of fried dough might now be called doughnut holes.
is the more traditional spelling, and still
dominates outside the US. At present, doughnut
shortened form donut
are both pervasive in American
English. The first known printed use of donut
Peck's Bad Boy and his Pa
by George W. Peck, published in
1900, in which a character is quoted as saying, "Pa said he guessed
he hadn't got much appetite, and he would just drink a cup of
coffee and eat a donut." The donut spelling also showed up in a
Los Angeles Times
article dated August 10
Bailey Millard jokingly complains about the decline of spelling,
and that he "can't swallow the 'wel-dun donut' nor the ever so 'gud
bred'. The interchangeability of the two spellings can be found in
a series of "National Donut Week" articles in The New York Times
that covered the
1939 World's Fair. In four articles beginning October 9
, two mention the donut
spelling. Dunkin' Donuts
, which was
founded in 1948 under the name Open Kettle (Quincy, Massachusetts),
is the oldest surviving company to use the donut
variation, but the now defunct Mayflower Donut Corporation appears
to be the first company to use that spelling, having done so prior
to World War II
Africa and Middle East
Persians are known for their zoolbia and bamiyeh, a fritter that
comes in various shapes and sizes and coated in a sugar water
syrup. Donuts are also made in the home in Iran, referred to as
donuts, even in the singular.
doughnuts, known as sufganiyah
(סופגניה, pl. Sufganyot סופגניות) in Israel, have become
a traditional Hanukkah food in the recent
era, as they are cooked in oil, associated with the holiday account
of the miracle of the oil.
Traditional sufganyot are filled
with red jelly and topped with icing
. However, many other varieties exist, with some being
filled with dulce de leche
In South Africa
, a variation known as
variation is the vetkoek
, which is also
dough deep fried in oil. It is served with mince, syrup, honey or
Horn of Africa
Sudan, Ethiopia, and
Eritrea, the signature doughnuts are lagaymat,
which are balls of fried dough drizzled with powdered sugar.
Tunisia, a pastry similar to doughnuts are yo-yo's.
They are very traditional and popular. They come in different
versions both as balls and in shape of donuts.
They are deep-fried and covered in a honey syrup or a kind of
frosting.As in other countries, sesame
are also used for flavor and decoration along with orange
juice and vanilla
Asia and Oceania
Custard-filled doughnut served by Il
Fornaio, St Kilda, Victoria, Australia
, the doughnut is a popular
snack food. Hot jam doughnuts, known simply as a
jam doughnut in Australia are particularly popular
and a unique aspect of Australian culture, especially in Melbourne, Victoria and the Queen Victoria Market, where they are a tradition.
are similar to a Berliner
, but are
served hot with red jam (raspberry or strawberry) injected into a
bun that is deep fried and then frosted in either sugar or
cinnamon. Jam doughnuts are sometimes also bought frozen. They are
known, however, to sometimes cause severe burns to the mouth,
especially when improperly microwave
-reheated, due to their distinct outer
and inner layers. In South Australia, they are known as Berliner or Kitchener and often
served in cafes.
A variant is the custard-filled
Mobile vans that serve doughnuts, traditional or jam, are often
seen at spectator events, carnivals and fetes and by the roadside
near high-traffic areas like airports and the carparks of large
shopping centres. Traditional cinnamon doughnuts are readily
available in Australia from specialised retailers and convenience
stores. Doughnuts are a popular choice for schools and other
not-for-profit groups to cook and sell as a fundraiser. Donut King
is the largest doughnut company in
There are a few sweet doughtnut-style pastries that are more
regional in nature. Cantonese
features an oval shaped pastry called
(牛脷酥, lit. "Ox-tongue pastry
" due to its tongue-like
shape). In Taiwan
, there is
(雙胞胎, lit. twins).
A spherical food called saa1 jung1 (沙翁) which is also similar to
, but denser in texture
(doughnut like texture) with sugar sprinkled on top is normally
available in Cantonese restaurants in the dim
style. An oilier Beijing
this called 高力豆沙, gaoli dousha, is filled with red bean paste
, originally, it is made with
egg white instead of dough.
Chinese restaurants in the
sometimes serve small fried pastries similar to doughnut
holes. They are served with condensed milk as a sauce.
deep-fried doughnut sticks that are often quite oily, hence their
name in Mandarin
(油條, lit. oil strips.); in Cantonese
, this doughnut-style pastry is
(油炸鬼, ghosts fried in oil
These pastries are not sweet and are often served with congee
, a traditional rice porridge
India, a savory, fried, ring-shaped snack called a
vada is often referred to as a doughnut.
The vada is made from dal
wheat flour. In North India, it is in the form of bulging disc
called dahi-bada, and are soaked in yoghurt
sprinkled with spices, and topped with a sweet and sour chutney
. In South India vadas are eaten with
and a coconut chutney
Sweet pastries similar to old-fashioned doughnuts called balushahi
and jalebi are also popular. Balushahi
also called badushah, is made from flour, deep fried in clarified
butter, and dipped in sugar syrup. Balushahi is ring shaped but the
hole in the center does not go all the way through. Jalebi
, which is typically pretzel shaped, is made by
deep frying batter in oil and soaking it in sugar syrup. A variant
of jalebi, called imarti
, is shaped with a
small ring in the center around which a geometric pattern is
Indonesian donat kentang is a potato doughnut, a ring-shaped fritter made
from flour and mashed potatoes, coated in powder sugar or icing
Japan, an-doughnut (あんドーナッツ, lit."bean jam doughnut") is widely available at
An-doughnut is similar to Germany's Berliner,
except it contains red azuki bean jam.Mister Donut is one of the most popular
doughnut chains in Japan.
Okinawa is a spheroid pastry similar to doughnuts called
Kuih keria is a hole doughnut made from boiled sweet cassava that
is mashed. The cassava mash is shaped into rings and fried. The hot
doughnut is then rolled in granulated sugar. The result is a
doughnut with a sugar crusted skin.
Local doughnuts are called 'kichori', which are filled with minced
meat (beef or chicken) and deep fried. Another variety is the
'mitha' or 'sweet' samosa, which is filled with 'Halwa' (flour
based sweet meat) and deep fried. Local variations on the classic
American doughnuts were made available in the early 90s, especially
with arrival of Dunkin' Donuts
have not over taken the traditional varieties.
Local varieties of doughnuts are sold by peddlers and street
vendors throughout the Philippines. Local varieties are usually
made of plain well-mead dough, deep-fried in refined coconut oil
and sprinkled with refined (not powdered or confectioner's) sugar.
Donuts are a popular mid-day snack.
Many bakeries in South Korea offer doughnuts either filled with or
made entirely from the Korean traditional rice
. These come in a
variety of different colors, though they are normally in green,
pink, or white. They are often filled with a sweet red bean
paste or sesame
These desserts, while the shape of doughnut holes, can in no way be
considered donuts as they are not fried nor have they any
similarities of origin. There are, however, newer inventions
referred to as tapioca or glutenous doughnuts, which are fried. The
ball-type doughnuts are usually filled with red bean
and coated with sugar. Finger style
glutinous doughnuts are not filled, but glazed like their American
, there is no real market
for American-style donuts. Not a single nationwide chain
specialized on donuts exists, although fast food chains like
and Burger King
are offering donuts nationwide.
store making itself quite famous selling donuts is the Viennese store Batriks Donuts.
The Austrian doughnut equivalents are called Krapfen
. They are especially popular
during Carneval season (Fasching
), and do
not have the typical ring shape, but instead are solid and usually
filled with apricot jam (traditional) or vanilla cream
Belgium, the smoutebollen are similar to the Dutch kind
of oliebollen, but they usually do not contain any fruit,
except for apple chunks sometimes.
They are typical carnival
and fair snacks and are eaten with powdered sugar on them.
Croatia and Serbia
similar to the Berliner are also prepared in the northern Balkans,
particularly in Croatia (pokladnice or krafne) and Serbia's Vojvodina province.
They are called krofna
, a name derived from a German word for this pastry.
of doughnut is popular in Chile because of
the large German community there and is called a Berlin
It may be filled with jam or
, the Chilean version of
dulce de leche
find in Czech
styles of doughnut, but for ages there are favorite in solid shape
and filled with jelly (strawberry or peach).
The shape is
similar to doughnuts in Germany or Poland. They are called Kobliha
(Koblihy in plural). They are very popular
also filed with nougat or with vanilla custard. Nowadays you can
find many variants of doughnut shapes and with many kinds of
fillings; cut in half or non-filled knots just with sugar and
cinnamon on top.
Denmark, doughnuts do also exist in their "American" shape,
and these can be obtained from various stores, e.g. McDonald's
and most gas
. The Berliner
however, is also broadly available in bakeries across the
of Germany, the doughnut equivalents are called Berliner (sg. and pl.), but not in
the capital city of Berlin itself and
neighboring areas, where they are called Pfannkuchen
(which is often found misleading by people in the rest of Germany,
who use the word Pfannkuchen to describe a pancake, which is also
the literal translation of it).
In middle Germany, they are
. In southern Germany, they are also called
and are especially popular during Carnival season
) in southern and middle Germany and
on New Year's Eve in northern Germany. Berliner
have the typical ring shape, but instead are solid and usually
filled with jam. Bismarcks and Berlin
doughnuts are also found in the U.S., Canada, Finland,
Denmark and Switzerland.
Today, American style
doughnuts are also available in Germany, but are less popular than
their native counterparts.
Greece, there is a
doughnut-like snack, called loukoumas
(λουκουμάς), which comes in two types (one is shaped like the
number 8; the other is torus shaped like the number 0), from which
the first one is crispier, whereas the second one is larger and
(pl. kleinuhringir and
kleinuhringar) are a type of old Icelandic cuisine which resembles
doughnuts are called
ciambelle, krapfen, zeppole, maritozzi or bomboloni.
Lithuania, a kind of doughnut called spurgos is
Sometimes spurgos are similar to Polish
doughnuts, but some specific recipes, such as cottage cheese
), have also been invented.
referred to in cookbooks as "Dutch doughnuts", are a type of
fritter, with or without raisins or currants, and usually sprinkled with powdered
Variations of the recipe contain slices of apple or
other fruits. They are traditionally eaten as part of New Year
Poland and parts of
the U.S. with a large Polish
community, like Chicago and Detroit, the round, jam-filled doughnuts eaten
especially—though not exclusively—during the Carnival are called pączki ( ).
, and Ukrainian "пампушки", pampushky
are the equivalent designations for pączki
, but could be
filled with cream or jam, or neither. Romanian gogoşi
similar to the Polish pączki. Pączki have been known in Poland at
least since the Middle Ages. Jędrzej Kitowicz
has described that
during the reign of the August III
influence of French cooks who came to Poland at that time, pączki
dough baked in Poland has been improved, so that pączki became
lighter, spongier, and more resilient.
Romania, donuts are a common desert, and they are called
Usually they are fried in oil like a pancake, with
no hole, and are stuffed with chocolate, jam, cheese and other
combinations. They might be covered with powdered sugar.
United Kingdom and Ireland
parts of Scotland, ring doughnuts are referred to as
doughrings, with the 'doughnut' moniker being reserved
exclusively for the nut-shaped variety.
rope-shaped doughnuts are known as yum-yums
. It is also
possible to buy fudge doughnuts in certain regions of Scotland.
parts of Northern
Ireland, ring doughnuts are referred to as "gravy rings"
due to their being cooked in oil, itself colloquially known as
Also known as doughnoughts, referring to the 'zero'
shape or 'nought', doughnuts are very common in the UK, with them
being supplied in most bakeries and supermarkets. Fillings include
jam, custard, and apple. Common ring toppings are sprinkle-iced and
In Canada, (where the spelling is almost always "doughnut"), the
doughnut designs are similar to those in the United States. In
certain parts of Canada, a jam filled doughnut is also referred to
as a 'jambuster'.
The Mexican donas
are very similar to donuts, including in
the name; the dona is a fried-dough pastry
covered with powdered brown sugar
, white sugar or chocolate.
Frosted, glazed, powdered, Boston
, sour cream
, cinammon, chocolate, and
are some of the varieties eaten
in the United States. There are also potato doughnuts
(sometimes referred to as
doughnut in Hawaii is the
Malasadas were brought to
the Hawaiian Islands by early Portuguese settlers, and are a
variation on Portugal's filhós
. They are
small eggy balls of yeast dough deep fried and coated in
Immigrants have brought various doughnut varieties to the United
States. To celebrate Fat
Tuesday in southeastern Pennsylvania, churches sell a potato
starch doughnut called a Fastnacht (or
The treats are so popular there that Fat Tuesday
is often called Fastnacht Day. The Polish doughnut, the pączki, is popular in U.S. cities with large
Polish communities such as Chicago, Milwaukee, and Detroit.
In regions of the country where apples are widely grown, especially
the Northeast and Midwest states, cider
are a harvest season specialty, especially at
orchards open to tourists, where they can be served fresh. Cider
donuts are a cake donut with apple cider
in the batter. The use of cider affects both the texture and
flavor, resulting in a denser, moister product. They are often
coated with either granulated or powdered sugar or cinnamon
In California, 90% of doughnut shops are owned by
A local donut known as "kurma", which are small, sweet, and fried
cubed or rectangular-shaped.
Jamaica, a local donut known as "Festival" is oval shaped,
and made of flour, cornmeal, sugar, and sometimes vanilla
They can range from slightly sweet to very
Argentina, the local equivalent to doughnuts are
facturas, a popular baked doughnut-like pastry of German origin.
Facturas are consumed
in large quantities, and can be found in every corner bakery.
However, doughnuts are starting to gain popularity, probably
because of American influence through television series and films.
be found in some bakeries and hypermarkets like the American
Wal-Mart or Chilean Jumbo.
stores and pastry shops sell ball-shaped doughnuts popularly known
as "sonhos" (lit. dreams).
The dessert was brought to Brazil
by Portuguese colonizers that had contact with Dutch and German
traders. They are the equivalent of nowadays "bolas de Berlim"
(lit. Berlin's balls) in Portugal, but the traditional Portuguese
yellow cream was substituted by local dairy and fruit products.
They are made of a special type of bread filled with "goiabada"
jelly) or milk cream, and covered by
Timbits, sold by Tim Hortons, are popular in Canada.
Commercially made ring doughnuts are not made by cutting out the
central portion of the cake but by dropping a ring of dough into
hot oil from a specially shaped nozzle. However, soon after ring
doughnuts became popular, doughnut sellers began to see the
opportunity to market "holes" as if they were the portions cut out
to make the ring.
In Canada, these baked items are sometimes generically called Timbits
, after the version available at
The following names are used by retailers to market doughnut
The doughnut in popular culture
The doughnut has made an appearance in popular culture,
particularly in the United States and Australia. References also
extend to objects or actions that are doughnut-shaped.
is Australia's largest
retailer of donuts. A Guiness
Book of Records largest donut made up of 90,000 individual
donuts was set in Sydney in 2007 as
part of a celebration for the release of The Simpsons Movie.
Several stores, including Tim Hortons
as well as some U.S. chains such as Dunkin' Donuts
and Krispy Kreme
, make the majority of their
profits by selling donuts. Tim Horton's
is the largest chain of donut and coffee retailers in Canada.
capita, Canadians consume the most donuts in the world, and Canada
also has the most donut stores per capita.
Doughnuts, especially crullers
, are a
favorite food of Bob and Doug
, hosts of "The Great White North". A single track of
is a skit
featuring the two ordering doughnuts at the fictional Peter's
National Doughnut Day
celebrates the doughnut's history and role in popular culture.
a race in Staunton,
Illinois featuring doughnuts called Tour de Donut.
A stereotype associates donuts with policemen
. The practice of buying donuts at
takeaway convenience stores
their being a fattening food is satirized in popular television
shows like The Simpsons
are well-known as the preferred food item of Homer Simpson
, the doughnut has inspired Dora's Dunking Doughnuts
(1963) and Tour de Donut: Gluttons for
. In video games, the doughnut has appeared in games
like The Simpsons Game
and Donut Dilemma
. In the
cartoon Mucha Lucha
, there are
four things that make up the code of mask wrestling: honor, family,
tradition, and doughnuts. There is also a children's book
Arnie the Doughnut
music albums The
Doughnut in Granny's Greenhouse
and Desert Doughnuts
is the largest and
most well known purveyor of donuts. Krispy Kreme
and Winchell's Donuts are also a
large donut-selling company and specialty donut sellers include
- Baked Doughnuts Recipe
- See entries for oliebol and olykoek in
- "'Old Salt' Doughnut hole inventor tells just how discovery was
made and stomachs of earth saved." Special to The Washington
Post.; The Washington Post (1877–1954), Washington,
D.C.; Mar 26, 1916; pg. ES9
- Glazed America: Anthropologist Examines Doughnut as Symbol
of Consumer Culture Newswise, Retrieved on July 22, 2008.
- Originals, Selections, &C. for the Times. Sketches and
Views-No. V; The Times, page , vol. I, iss. 8; January 30,
1808; Boston, Massachusetts.
- A hot piece of history from theage.com.au
- http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,22873599-2,00.html World's
largest D'oh Nut
- The unofficial national sugary snack
- – Origins of the doughnut hole
- Rosana G Moreira et al., Deep Fat Frying: Fundamentals and
Applications. ISBN 0-8342-1321-4