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, published as Dragon Warrior in North America until the 2005 release of Dragon Quest VIII: Journey of the Cursed King — which is also the first main series game to be released outside Japanmarker and North America, is a series internationally best-selling console role-playing game (RPG) titles created by Yūji Horii and his studio, Armor Project, and published by Square Enix (formerly Enix). Some of these titles have had significant impact on the development of the console RPGs that is still felt in the industry today; the series is also noted for other landmark accomplishments. Installments of the series have appeared on MSX computers, Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES), Game Boy Color (GBC), Game Boy Advance (GBA), Nintendo DS, PlayStation (PS1), PlayStation 2 (PS2) and Wii video game consoles, as well as on several models of mobile phone. Almost every main series game has had an anime and manga adaptation for it. One original anime series which was partially translated into English was also released. All of the Dragon Quest video game soundtracks have been adapted to orchestra pieces; the series is noted as being the first video game to have this occur.


Dragon Quest's North American name was changed due to a trademark conflict with the RPG DragonQuest, which was published by veteran wargame publisher Simulations Publications in the 1980s until the company's bankruptcy in 1982 and purchase by TSR, Inc., which then published it as an alternate line to Dungeons & Dragons (D&D) until 1987. In 2003, Square Enix registered the Dragon Quest trademark in the US, making the Dragon Warrior name obsolete.

The series is known for its lack of change compared to Final Fantasy. Common elements persist throughout the series and its spinoff titles: turn-based combat, recurring monsters, including one who has become the series mascot; text-based menu systems until the English version of Dragon Quest VIII; and until Dragon Quest IX, random encounters in the main series. The series is also known for being one of the few long-running video game series to have a stable key development team.

As of November 2009, the Dragon Quest series has shipped over 51 million units worldwide. It is Square Enix's second most successful franchise after Final Fantasy and is often cited as the most popular video game franchise in Japan.

Games

Main series

ImageSize = width:250 height:500PlotArea = left:50 bottom:10 top:10 right:0

DateFormat = yyyyPeriod = from:1986 till:2009TimeAxis = orientation:vertical order:reverseScaleMajor = unit:year increment:1 start:1986ScaleMinor = unit:year increment:1 start:1986

  1. there is no automatic collision detection,
  2. so shift texts up or down manually to avoid overlap


Colors =
id:blue value:rgb(0.05,0.65,0.95)


Define $dx = 25 # shift text to right side of bar

  1. shift texts up or down when two have same year


Define $up = shift:($dx,1)Define $dw = shift:($dx,-8)

PlotData=
bar:Games anchor:till color:blue width:15 align:left fontsize:XS mark:(line,white) shift:($dx,-4)
from:1986 till:2009
at:1986 text:"Dragon Warrior"
at:1987 text:"Dragon Warrior II"
at:1988 text:"Dragon Warrior III"
at:1990 text:"Dragon Quest IV: Chapters of the Chosen"
at:1992 text:"Dragon Quest V: Hand of the Heavenly Bride"
at:1995 text:"Dragon Quest VI: Realms of Reverie"
at:2000 text:"Dragon Warrior VII"
at:2004 text:"Dragon Quest VIII: Journey of the Cursed King"
at:2009 text:"Dragon Quest IX Hoshizora no Mamoribito"


  1. Don't add FF reamkes, including DW I&II to the above chart. It is a sequel and not part of the main series


  1. Don't change the Dragon Warrior titles as those have yet to be released in English under Dragon Quest titles.


  1. Don't add DQX. They have yet to be released and the year is subject to change.


The first four Dragon Quest installments were released on the NES with the first two concurrently released in Japan on the MSX; all of the games have been remade under newer systems. Dragon Quest was released in Japan in 1986 and North American in 1989 under the title Dragon Warrior. Dragon Quest II Akuryo no Kamigami was released in Japan in 1987 and in North American under the title Dragon Warrior II in 1990. Dragon Quest III Soshite Densetsu e… was released in Japan in 1988 and in North America in 1992 under the title Dragon Warrior III. Dragon Quest IV: Chapters of the Chosen was released in Japan in 1990 and in North America in 1992 under the title Dragon Warrior IV. A PS1 remake of Dragon Warrior IV was scheduled for release in North America, but was never released. The DS remake of Dragon Quest IV was later released in North America under its original translated title as well as Europe, but without the numbering.

The SNES had two featured two releases for the series; Dragon Quest V has been remade on newer systems while Dragon Quest VI is scheduled to be remade on a newer system. Dragon Quest V: Hand of the Heavenly Bride was released in 1992 and Dragon Dragon Quest VI: Realms of Reverie was released in 1995. Dragon Quest V was originally slated to be released in North America, but were later dropped due to technical reasons. The Nintendo DS remake was later released in North America and Europe, the latter without the numbering.

The PS1 has one release for it. Dragon Quest VII Eden no Senshi-tachi was released in 2000 and in North America in 2001 under the title Dragon Warrior VII.

The PS2 has had one release for it, Dragon Quest VIII: Journey of the Cursed King; The game was released in 2004 in Japan, 2005 in North America and 2006 in Europe, the latter without the numbering. Dragon Quest VIII was the first Dragon Quest title to be released in North America under its Japanese trademark title and the first release in Europe of a main series Dragon Quest game.

The DS has had one release for it, Dragon Quest IX Hoshizora no Mamoribito; the game was released in 2009 in Japan and is scheduled for release in North America in 2010.

Dragon Quest X was announced for the Wii in 2009 and is still in development.

Spin-offs

The franchise also includes several spin-off series, including Dragon Quest Monsters and Slime MoriMori Dragon Quest, as well as arcade games like the Japanese game Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road. Several games in both the Mystery Dungeon and Itadaki Street series have characters from the Dragon Quest games.

In 1993, Chunsoft created a Super Famicom game for , a fictional character first appearing in Dragon Warrior IV, in Japan. The roguelike game, Torneko no Daibōken: Fushigi no Dungeon,continues Torneko's story from Dragon Quest IV, where he wished to make his store famous by venturing into mysterious dungeons and getting items to stock it. The game was successful. In 2000, a direct sequel it came out in Japan and the United States, Torneko: The Last Hope. This gameplay is similar to the first, but considered much easier to play. The game sold enough copies in Japan to have a third direct sequel on the PS2 titled . Both the second and third Torneko games have been ported to the GBA. Following the success of Torneko, many other Mysterious Dungeon games were published by various companies — most of which were developed by Chunsoft.

Two spin-offs are played by physically swinging a controller using it as a sword to slash enemies among other things. Kenshin Dragon Quest: Yomigaerishi Densetsu no Ken is a stand alone game which comes with the a toy sword as the controller and a toy shield containing the game's hardware. Dragon Quest Swords is an exclusive Wii game; it uses the motion sensing of the Wii Remote to act as a sword.

Other Dragon Quest spinoff games have been released exclusively in Japan. These include a card-based arcade game, Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road, developed by Level-5 and a downloadable turn-based strategy game for the Nintendo DSi, Dragon Quest Wars, developed by Intelligent Systems.

Title

(followed by original title)
Platforms of release
In Japan In North America In the PAL region
Dragon Warrior Monsters

Dragon Quest Monsters
Game Boy Color (1998), PlayStation (2002), Mobile phone (2002) Game Boy Color (1999) Game Boy Color (1999)
Dragon Warrior Monsters 2: Cobi's Journey

Dragon Quest Monsters 2: Ruka's Journey
Game Boy Color (2001), PlayStation (2002) Game Boy Color (2001)
Dragon Warrior Monsters 2: Tara's Adventure

Dragon Quest Monsters 2: Iru's Adventure
Game Boy Color (2001), PlayStation (2002) Game Boy Color (2001)
Dragon Quest Monsters: Caravan Heart Game Boy Advance (2003)
Dragon Quest Monsters: Joker Nintendo DS (2006) Nintendo DS (2007) Nintendo DS (2008)
Torneko no Daibōken: Fushigi no Dungeon Super Famicom (1993)
Torneko: The Last Hope

Torneko no Daibōken 2: Fushigi no Dungeon
PlayStation (1999), Game Boy Advance (2001) PlayStation (2000)
Torneko no Daibōken 3: Fushigi no Dungeon PlayStation 2 (2002), Game Boy Advance (2004)
Shōnen Yangus to Fushigi no Dungeon PlayStation 2 (2006)
Slime MoriMori Dragon Quest: Shōgeki no Shippo Dan Game Boy Advance (2003)
Dragon Quest Heroes: Rocket Slime

Slime MoriMori Dragon Quest 2: Daisensha to Shippo Dan
Nintendo DS (2005) Nintendo DS (2006) Nintendo DS (2007)
Kenshin Dragon Quest: Yomigaerishi Densetsu no Ken Television Game (2003)
Dragon Quest Swords: The Masked Queen and the Tower of Mirrors

Dragon Quest Swords: Kamen no Joō to Kagami no Tō
Wii (2007) Wii (2008) Wii (2008)
Dragon Quest & Final Fantasy in Itadaki Street Special PlayStation 2 (2004)
Dragon Quest & Final Fantasy in Itadaki Street Portable PlayStation Portable (2006)
Itadaki Street DS Nintendo DS (2007)
Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road Arcade Game (2007)
Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road II Arcade Game (2009)
Dragon Quest Wars Nintendo DSi (DSiWare) (2009) Nintendo-DSi (DSiWare) (2009) Nintendo DSi (DSiWare) (2009)


Common elements

Gameplay

The game player's party walks into a town and buys weapons, armor, and items in order to defeat monsters easily. When the player's party is out of the town, the party is vulnerable to random monster attacks. When players encounter monsters, they have several options from which to choose through menus. The player can attack and defeat the enemy with weapons, magic, or items. The player can also attempt to run away from the fight. However, this option is not available during a boss battle. After a player wins a battle by defeating all the monsters, the player's party members gain experience points (EXP) in order to gain new levels. When a certain character gains a new level, the stats of the character are upgraded.

To save one's progress, the player must visit a Church (also known as a House of Healing in early North American versions) and talk to a priest or nun. In early versions of Dragon Quest, the player must visit a king in order to save his or her progress (this does not include the first two Dragon Quest titles for the Famicom, which use a password system). If the player's party dies in battle, the group will lose half of their gold and the leader of the party warps back to the nearest save location. The leader then needs to pay a priest to revive his/her party members. More recent games in the series have banks in many towns that allow the player to store gold, which prevents it from being lost when the party dies.

Dragon Warrior III, Dragon Quest VI, and Dragon Warrior VII feature several classes to choose for the party members. Each of these installments possesses its own particular set of classes, typical classes including the Cleric / Priest / Pilgrim, Fighter, Hero, Jester / Goof-Off, Thief, Warrior / Soldier and Wizard / Mage. Dragon Quest VI includes two monster classes, and Dragon Warrior VII includes dozens.

Monsters

The series features several recurring monsters, such as Slimes, Drackies, Shadows, Mummies, Trick Bags, and Dragons. Many of the monsters have been designed by Akira Toriyama. In Dragon Quest V monsters can join the player's party and fight in battle. This idea was used Dragon Quest Monsters, however, only the monsters fight in battles although there is still a player controlled human protagonist.

The official mascot of the Dragon Quest series is the Slime. A Slime is a small blue blob with a face, shaped like water droplet. It has appeared in every Dragon Quest game and it is usually one of the first monsters the player encounters. The Slime's popularity has netted it two spin-off: Slime MoriMori Dragon Quest and Dragon Quest Heroes: Rocket Slime. They also make a significant showing in the Japanese manga and two-episode anime Dragon Half. There have been two spinoff titles based around a slime protagonist.

Loto/Erdrick

Erdrick, also known as Roto in Japan or Loto in the North American localization of the Game Boy Color remakes of the first three games, is a legendary hero from the Dragon Quest series. The first three Dragon Quest games make up the "Erdrick trilogy," which are all connected to the legend of Erdrick. He is known in the game as the hero who freed Alefgard from darkness. The name Erdrick was first mentioned in the English localization, Dragon Warrior, in which the player is referred to as Erdrick's descendent. Erdrick’s legend was completed with the 1991 release of Dragon Warrior III.

In Dragon Warrior, Erdrick was the ancestor of the Hero. The Hero follows in the footsteps of Erdrick to ultimately reach the Dragonlord's Castle and confront the Dragonlord. In Dragon Warrior II, the heroes are descendants of Erdrick, and also of the Hero from Dragon Warrior. They explore the expanded world of Torland, including Alefgard as seen in the first game. At the end of Dragon Warrior III, the King of Alefgard bestows upon the Hero “the Order of Erdrick”, the country’s highest honor reserved only for true heroes. While this implies Erdrick is merely a title, it is possible to name the Hero Erdrick at the beginning of Dragon Warrior III. In Dragon Warrior III, the origins of the hero Erdrick are revealed; the chronological order of the first three games is Dragon Warrior III, Dragon Warrior I, and then Dragon Warrior II. The chronology is further evidenced in the naming of the hero's weapon, armor and shield. After the events of Dragon Warrior III, the hero's armaments are renamed as the Erdrick (or Loto) Sword and Armor in Dragon Warrior I and Dragon Warrior II. In addition writing "Erdrick" as a name for the player in Dragon Warrior III is impossible. After the input the name Erdrick a window opens saying, "INPUT YOUR NAME!"

The Hero, originally known as Erdrick to many English-speaking players, is also known by two other names. In the original Japanese language games, Erdrick is known exclusively by the name Roto, which is also used by some import gamers. Another romanization of the name is Loto, which was used in place of Erdrick when Enix America, Inc. re-released Dragon Warrior I, Dragon Warrior II, and Dragon Warrior III on the GBC. This was most likely used because the Japanese character (ロ) is not strictly an R or an L sound, but lies somewhere in between; therefore, it is properly transliterated either way.

In the original Final Fantasy, Square parodies Dragon Warrior by displaying a grave for Erdrick in the town of Elfland. In retaliation, Enix hid a Cid grave in Dragon Quest III. A parody of Erdrick's sword is wielded by Gilgamesh in Final Fantasy XII: it is referred to as the "Wyrmhero Blade" (In the Japanese version, it is called "Tolo Sword").

Zenithia

Zenithia, also called Zenith Castle or simply Zenith, is the name of a fictional sky castle from the series. The first appearance is in Dragon Warrior IV, and the castle is one of several elements from Dragon Quest IV, V, and VI which suggest the three games are linked as a trilogy; this group is often called the Tenkū (Japanese for Heaven), or the Tenkū no Shiro (Castle in the Sky) trilogy. Yūji Horii explained that the trilogy was never intended: "Each Dragon Quest title represents a fresh start and a new story, so I don't see too much of a connection between the games in the series. I guess it could be said that the imagination of players has brought the titles together in a certain fashion."

In Dragon Warrior IV, Zenithia can be accessed by climbing the Tower near Gottside (Azimuth in the DQ4DS release), which goes as far up to the sky. It is directly above the entrance to the world of darkness. In Dragon Quest V, Zenithia has fallen into a lake south of Elheaven. This happened when the Golden Orb, half of a set of magical orbs that supported the castle in the sky, fell from its place. Once recovered and returned to Master Dragon, Zenithia will rise again. This time, the castle can move freely around the sky. In Dragon Quest VI, Zenith Castle is sealed away by Demon Lord Durran, and a giant hole is left behind in its place in the Dream World. After the Dream World returns to its natural state, Zenith Castle is the only part of it that can still be seen floating above the real world. A castle in the Dragon Warrior III remakes for Super Famicom/GBC is also called Zenith, though the layout differs from the castle from the Tenku series.

Square Enix has released the Celestial Sword (the Zenithian Sword) and Sword of Ramias as part of their Dragon Quest Legend Items series - miniature collectible toy replicas of artifacts from the Dragon Quest universe.

Development

History

In 1982, Enix sponsored a national video game programming contest, which brought much of the Dragon Quest team together, including Yūji Horii. The prize of the competition was a trip to the United States, and a visit to AppleFest '83 in San Francisco, where Horii discovered Wizardry. Koichi Nakamura and Yukinobu Chida, two other winners of the contest, along with Horii, released The Portopia Serial Murder Case for the Famicom for Enix. Sugiyama, already famous for jingles and pop songs, impressed with the group's work, sent a postcard to Enix, commenting on the software. In response, Enix asked him to write music for some of its games. The group then decided to make a CPRG, using a combination of Wizardry and Ultima. Dragon Ball creator Akira Toriyama, who knew Horii through the manga magazine Weekly Shonen Jump, was commissioned to illustrate the characters and monsters to separate the game from other RPGs of the time and the Dragon Quest "team" was born.

Dragon Quest was created by Yūji Horii, who has been the scenario director since. The series monster and character designs, as well as box art, are done by famed Dragon Ball manga artist, Akira Toriyama. All of the music for the Dragon Quest series has been composed by Kōichi Sugiyama. Dragon Quest games have been developed by Chunsoft, Heartbeat, Artepiazza, and starting with Dragon Quest VIII, Level-5. Horii's own company, Armor Project, is in charge of the Dragon Quest games, which were published by Enix and now Square Enix. While Toriyama is the series' character designer, the primary designs are first conceived by Horii, before being handed to Toriyama to re-draw under Horii's supervision. When Horii first created Dragon Quest, most people doubted that a fantasy series with swords and dungeons instead of science fiction would become popular in Japan; but the series has become a phenomenon there.

Dragon Quest is not nearly as successful outside Japan, having been eclipsed by Final Fantasy and other RPG series. Because of Enix America Corporation's closure in the mid 1990's, Dragon Quest V and Dragon Quest VI were never officially released in North America. In Europe, none of the games have seen release prior to the spin-off Dragon Warrior Monsters. With the merger of Square with Enix in 2003, the number of places that Dragon Quest games are released has greatly increased. In May 2008, Square Enix announced localizations of the Nintendo DS remakes of Dragon Quest IV, V, and VI, known collectively as the Zenithia trilogy, for North America and the PAL region. With this announcement, all the main games in the Dragon Quest series will now have seen release outside Japan at least once.

The ninth installment was released in Japan for Nintendo DS on July 11, 2009. North American and European and other PAL region releases are suspected to follow.The tenth installment of the main series is currently in development for the Wii.

Creation and design

Yūji Horii originally used the full-screen map of Ultima and the battle and stats oriented Wizardry screen to create the gameplay of Dragon Quest. The first six Dragon Quest games' stories are divided into two trilogies. The first three games of the series tell the story of the legendary hero known as Roto (also known as Erdrick or Loto in the American NES and GBC versions, respectively). Dragon Quest IV-VI are based around a castle in the sky called Zenithia, and are referred to as the Tenku in Japan, meaning Heaven. The main series from Dragon Quest VII on are independent of each other and stand alone.

The typical Dragon Quest plot involves a certain villain to be defeated at the end of the game, usually one who threatens the world in some way. However, the plotline often consists of smaller stories involving different NPC's the player meets as the adventure goes on. The games themselves feature a number of religious overtones—saving the game (in later games) and reviving characters who have died is performed by clergy in churches. Bishops are often seen wandering around the overworld of Dragon Warrior Monsters and have the ability to heal. The final enemy in some of the Dragon Quest games is known as the Demon Lord. For instance, in Dragon Warrior VII, the Demon Lord, known as Orgodemir in that particular game, is the final boss, and there is also a sidequest to battle God himself. The first four Dragon Warrior titles suffered from substantial censorship in their North American localizations, largely in keeping with Nintendo of America's content guidelines at the time, which placed severe restrictions on religious iconography and mature content. When these games were remade for the GBC, many of these censorships were taken out. Since Dragon Warrior VII, the games have been kept similar to their original versions when going through localization.

Music

Several albums of Dragon Quest music has been released since the original game was made, the first coming out in 1986, based on Dragon Quest's music. Each of the Dragon Quest soundtracks have been composed and arranged by Kōichi Sugiyama, who has also composed the music for the games. Since then, an album with the game's title and "Symphonic Suite" has been released for each game in the main series. Aside from the main series of soundtracks, other compilations of Dragon Quest music have been made, such as Dragon Quest Game Music Super Collection Vol. 1. Many of the soundtracks songs are performed by the London Philharmonic, such as Symphonic Suite Dragon Quest Complete CD-Box. With a few of the soundtracks, a second disc with the original game music is included, like with the original Dragon Quest VI soundtrack.

In 2003, SME Visual Works released Symphonic Suite Dragon Quest Complete CD-Box, a box set featuring music from the first seven Dragon Quest games. Each of the seven discs is broken up by where the music is played in the games. Disc one, for example, has the opening overture song from each of the Dragon Quest games, whereas disc six features all the battle songs.

Dragon Quest is such a cultural phenomenon in Japan that there are live-action ballets (being the first video game to inspire a ballet), musical concerts, and audio CD based on the Dragon Quest universe. It was the first video game series to have its music performed live by an orchestra. Since 1987, music from Dragon Quest has been performed annually in Japan in concert halls.

Manga and anime

Dragon Quest has been adapted into various manga and anime adaptations. Every series from Dragon Quest III through Dragon Quest VII has had an anime based on it, with Dragon Quest III having two, one of which the latter was partially translated into English under the title Dragon Warrior: Legend of the Hero Abel. In addition, an original work titled Dragon Quest: Dai no Daibōken was also created.

The spinoff titles of the series have also been adapted as well. Dragon Quest Monsters has had one series based on it, Dragon Quest Monsters +. Dragon Quest's mascot, Slime, has had two children's manga released for it.

Other related works include the 1989 manga published by Enix titled Dragon Quest Monster Story which featured short stories about various Dragon Quest monsters. Additionally, is a manga based on the creators of Dragon Quest published by Enix. The one volume manga was produced by Ishimori Productions, a company famous for creating manga based on famous people and businesses. Released in 1990, the manga stars Yujii Hori, Koichi Nakamura (main programmer), Kōichi Sugiyama, Akira Toriyama, and Yukinobu Chida (producer) and involves the creation of the series.

Reception

Dragon Quest is one of the most popular video game series in Japan. All of the games in the main series as well as many spin-off games have sold over a million copies, some even selling over four million, and sell very quickly. For instance, the remake of Dragon Quest V sold 1.3 million copies in Japan in its first two days, which is a very high number for a remake. In 2006, Japanese gaming magazine Famitsu readers voted on the hundred best video games of all time. Dragon Quest III came in third, Dragon Quest VIII came in fourth, Dragon Quest VII came in ninth, Dragon Quest V came in eleventh, Dragon Quest IV came in fourteenth, Dragon Quest II came in seventeenth, Dragon Quest came in thirtieth, and Dragon Quest VI came in thirty-fourth.

The original Dragon Quest game is often claimed to be the birth of the console RPG, despite the fact that it borrows heavily from the Wizardry, The Black Onyx, and Ultima series, and many others consider Final Fantasy "more important." Dragon Warrior was listed on GameSpot's list of the 15 most influential games of all time, calling it the "most influential role-playing game of all time" and stated that nearly all Japanese RPGs today have roots in its gameplay. Dragon Quest V is cited has having monster recruiting and training mechanics similar to those seen later in Pokémon. The Dragon Quest series was recognized by Guinness World Records with six world records in the Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition. These records include, "Best Selling Role Playing Game on the Super Famicom", "Fastest Selling Game in Japan", and "First Video Game Series to Inspire a Ballet".

Although the series is a phenomenon in Japan, , the games have not garnered as much attention in North America. Although the first four games to come to America generally received good reviews, and as of February 2008 they were among the most sought after titles for the NES, especially Dragon Warrior III and IV, it was not until Dragon Warrior VII was released did Dragon Quest become critically acclaimed there. One of the main aspects of the series that critics point out, either positively or negatively, is that the series "never strays from its classic roots". Unlike other modern, complex RPGs, Dragon Quest retains the simple gameplay from the first game, which many critics find refreshing and nostalgic.

Other points of contention are its battle system, comparatively simplistic storylines, lack of character development, simplistic, and for older title primitive-looking, graphics and the overall difficulty of the game. However, these arguments are countered by noting its strength in episodic storytelling with the various non-player characters the party meets. The stories stay away from melodrama and their more simplistic characters do not have any like Final Fantasy's Squall Leonhart or Tidus who have been sources for contention. The battle system, while notably simplistic, has been noted that it does speed the process of fighting up. As for the difficulty, Yuji Horii has been noted as a gambling addict and the lack of save points and general difficulty of the battles adds a sense of tension often lacking in games. Because of this added difficulty, the punishment for the party's death was toned down compared to other games by simply going back where you last saved with half of your gold on hand.

Notes



  1. The Japanese release of Dragon Quest VIII still has the traditional text menus. However the Japanese release of Dragon Quest IX uses the menus based on the English release of Dragon Quest VIII.
  2. Editors of Nintendo Power: Nintendo Power July - August, 1989; issue 7 (in English). Nintendo of America, Tokuma Shoten Publishing, 39-50.
  3. (1989) Nintendo, Enix Corporation Dragon Warrior Instruction Manual (in English).
  4. Editors of Nintendo Power: Nintendo Power July - August, 1989; issue 7 (in English). Nintendo of America, Tokuma Shoten Publishing, 40.
  5. Enix Corporation Unveiled Secrets of Dragon Warrior II (in English) Enix America Corporation.
  6. Editors of Nintendo Power: Nintendo Power September/October, 1990; issue 16 (in English). Nintendo of America, Tokuma Shoten Publishing, 67.
  7. Editors of Nintendo Power: Nintendo Power July, 2008; issue 7 (in English). Future US Inc, 50-57. Retrieved June 1, 2008.


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