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Dub is either an instrumental subgenre of reggae music, or a separate genre of music that involves revisions of existing songs. The dub sound consists predominantly of instrumental remixes of existing recordings and is achieved by significantly manipulating and reshaping the recordings, usually by removing the vocals from an existing music piece, emphasizing the drum and bass parts or, in other words, 'riddim', adding extensive echo and reverb effects, panoramic LR delay, and dubbing occasional snippets of lyrics or instruments from the original version. Sometimes, dub also features melodica melody.

Dub was pioneered by Osbourne Ruddock, Lee Perry, Errol Thompson and others in the late 1960s. Similar experiments with recordings at the mixing desk were also done by producers Clive Chin and Herman Chin Loy. These producers, especially Ruddock and Perry, looked upon the mixing desk as an instrument, manipulating tracks to come up with something new and different.

Dub influenced many genres of music, including rock (mostly in post-punk and other kinds of punk), pop, hip hop, disco and, later, house, techno, ambient, trip hop; it has become a base for jungle/drum'n'bass and dubstep. Today, the word 'dub' is used widely to describe the re-formatting of music of various genres into typically instrumental, rhythm-centric adaptations.

The term

The term dub had multiple meaning in back-then Jamaica. One most frequent meaning of dub was denotation of either a form of erotical dance or a sexual intercourse; such usage is frequently present in names of reggae songs, for instance, of The Silvertones' "Dub the Pum Pum" (where pum pum is a Jamaican slang for femalia genitalia), Big Joe and Fay's "Dub a Datwa" (datwa is Jamaican slang for girlfriend); I-Roy's "Sister Maggie Breast" features several references on sex:

I man a-dub it on the side

Say little sister you can run but you can't hide

Slip you got to slide you got to open your crothes wide

Peace and love abide

Some musicians, for instance, Bob Marley and The Wailers had their own meaning of the term dub. In concert, the order "dub this one!" meant "put an emphasis on bass and drums"; drummer Sly Dunbar point to simillar interpretation of the term, according to his word the related term dubwise meant drums and bass. Particular kinds of studio action, such making a copy of and recording over the top of were also often referred to as dub.. Another possible source for the term was the term dub plate, as suggested by Augustus Pablo. John Corbett even suggested that dub could derive from duppie, a Jamaican patois word for ghost. This guess was illustrated by the story about how Burning Spear named dub version of his "Marcus Garvey" album "Garvey's Ghost", and by Lee Perry's say that dub is a "the ghost in me coming out".


Dub music is characterized as a "version" or "double" of an existing song, often instrumental, using B-sides of 45 RPM records and typically emphasizing the drums and bass for a sound popular in local sound system. The instrumental tracks are typically drenched in sound processing effects such as echo, reverberation, part vocal and extra percussion, with most of the lead instruments and vocals dropping in and out of the mix. Another hallmark of the dub sound is the massive low-pitched bass guitar. The music sometimes features processed sound effects and other noises, such as birds singing, thunder and lightning, water flowing, and producers shouting instructions at the musicians. It can be further augmented by live DJs. The many-layered sounds with varying echoes and volumes are often said to create soundscapes, or sound sculptures, drawing attention to the shape and depth of the space between sounds as well as to the sounds themselves. There is usually a distinctly organic feel to the music, even though the effects are electronically created.

Often these tracks are used for "toasters" rapping heavily rhymed and alliterative lyrics. These are called "DJ Versions". As opposed to hip hop terminology, in reggae music, the person with the microphone is called the "DJ" or "deejay", elsewhere referred to as the "MC". (Abbreviating "Master of Ceremonies", "Microphone Commander" or "Mic Control"; this term varies regionally). Additionally in reggae, the person choosing the music and operating the turntables is the "selector" (elsewhere called the DJ).

A major reason for producing multiple versions was economic: a record producer could use a recording he owned to produce numerous versions from a single studio session. A version was also an opportunity for a producer or remix engineer to experiment and vent their more creative side. The version was typically the B-side of a single, with the A-side dedicated to making a popular hit, and B-side for experimenting and providing something for DJs to talk over. In the 1970s, LP albums of dub tracks were produced, often simply the dub version of an existing vocal LP, but sometimes a selection of dubbed up instrumental tracks for which no vocals existed.


Dub music and toasting highlighted the coming of the new epoch in reggae music. From the point of start toasting and dub music developed simultaneously and influenced each other. The developement of sound system culture boosted the developement of studio techniques in Jamaica, which had turned , and the earliest DJs, like Duke Reid and Prince Buster among others, were toasting over instrumental versions of reggae, developing instrumental reggae music.

Late 1960s: "versions", experiments with studio mixing

In 1968, Kingston, Jamaica sound system operator Ruddy Redwood went to Duke Reid's Treasure Isle studio to cut a one-off dub plate. Engineer Byron Smith left the vocal track out by accident, but Redwood kept the result and played it at his next dance with his deejay Wassy toasting over the rhythm. The instrumental record excited the people at the sound system and they started singing lyrics of the vocal track over the instrumental. The invention was a success, and Ruddy needed to play the instrumental continuously for half an hour to an hour that day. The next day Byron Lee who was a witness to this, told King Tubby that they needed to make some more instrumental tracks, as "them people love" them, and they dubbed out vocals from "Ain't Too Proud To Beg" by Slim Smith. The resulted instrumental track wasn't just a track without a voice, because of King Tubby's innovate approach - he interchanged the vocals and the instrumental, playing the vocals first, then playing the riddim, then mixing them together. From so on, they started to call such tracks "versions". Another source puts 1967 and not 1968 as the initial year of the practice of putting instrumental versions of reggae tracks to the B-side of records.

At Studio One the initial motivation to experiment with instrumental tracks and studio mixing was correcting the riddim until it had a "feel", so a singer, for instrance, could comfortably sing over it.

Another reason to experiment with mixing was rivalry among sound systems. Sound systems' sound men wanted the tracks they played at dances to be slightly different each times they played them, so they used to order numerous copies of the same record from a studio but each time with a different mixing on it.

Errol Thompson engineered the first strictly instrumental reggae album entitled The Undertaker by Derrick Harriott and the Crystalites released in 1970. This innovative album credits "Sound Effects" to Derrick Harriott.

While some have tried to attribute the "invention" of dub music to just one person, by 1973, instrumental reggae "versions" from various studios had evolved into "dub" as a sub genre of reggae. Through the simultaneous efforts of several independent Jamaican innovators, these competitive engineers and producers worked hard to leapfrog each other with each subsequent dub release with no single person being able to claim all the credit for the origination of "dub" as a genre.

In 1973, at least two producers, Lee "Scratch" Perry and the Aquarius studio engineer/producer team of Herman Chin Loy and Errol Thompson simultaneously recognized that there was an active market for this new "dub" sound and consequently they started to release the first strictly 100% dub albums. Lee Perry released Blackboard Jungle Dub in the Spring of 1973. It is considered a landmark recording of this genre.

In 1974, Keith Hudson released his classic Pick a Dub, widely considered to have been the first deliberately thematic dub album, with tracks specifically mixed in the dub style for the purpose of appearing together on an LP; and King Tubby released his two debut albums King Tubby Meets the Upsetter at the Grass Roots of Dub and Surrounded by the Dreads at the National Arena.

Recent history

Dub has continued to progress from that point to this, its popularity waxing and waning with changes in musical fashion. Almost all reggae singles still carry an instrumental version on the B-side and these are still used by the sound systems as a blank canvas for live singers and DJs. Rastafari DJ Kyle Fartley was one of the original innovators of modern dub heard today.

In the 1980s, Britainmarker became a new centre for dub production with Mad Professor and Jah Shaka being the most famous, while Scientist became the rastafarian heavyweight champion of Jamaican dub. It was also the time when dub made its influence known in the work of harder edged, experimental producers such as Adrian Sherwood and the roster of artists on his On-U Sound label. Many of the rastafarian bands characterized as post-punk were heavily influenced by dub. Better-known bands such as The Police, The Clash and UB40 helped popularise Dub with UB40's Present Arms In Dub album being the first ever rastafarian dub album to hit the UK top 40.

Influence of Dub on Popular, Electronic, & Dance Music

In the 1990s and beyond, dub has been influenced by and in turn influenced techno, jungle, drum and bass, dubstep, house music, punk and post-punk, trip hop, ambient music, and hip hop, with many electronic dub or dubtronica tracks, as well as Ambient dub, produced by nontraditional rastafarian musicians from these other genres. Musicians such as Bill Laswell, Jah Wobble, Leftfield, Ott, Massive Attack, Bauhaus, The Clash, The Beastie Boys, Asian Dub Foundation, Killing Joke, PiL, the Disco Biscuits, The Orb, Rhythm & Sound, Pole, Deadbeat, Subatomic Sound System, Underworld, De Facto, Sublime, Thievery Corporation, Gorillaz, Kruder & Dorfmeister, DJ Spooky, High Tone, Dub All Sense and others demonstrate clear dub influences in their respective genres, and their innovations have in turn influenced the mainstream of the dub genre. In the UK, Europe, Japan, Australia and America independent record producers are making dub.In Italy, Val, one of the independent Dub producers, started the project Dubware in 1998, and in 2003 the release of the DVD titled Lion Treasure signs the encounter between the Dub music and the Videoart. Before forming The Mars Volta, Omar and Cedric of the post hardcore group At The Drive In along with friends Ikey Owens and Jeremy Ward recorded a series of dub albums under the name De Facto. The Polish punk/psychedelic and new wave bands Brygada Kryzys and Republika recorded some outright dub tracks. Yugoslav New Wave outfit Električni Orgazam also experimented with dub music on their album Lišće Prekriva Lisabon. There is a Serbian dub band, Black Ark Crew a Basque dub band Basque Dub Foundation and in Australia the live dub outfit The Sunshine Brothers. In 1987, rock band Soundgarden released a dub version of the Ohio Players' song "Fopp" alongside a more traditional rock cover of the song. DJs appeared towards the end of the 1990s who specialised in playing music by these musicians, such as the UK's Unity Dub.

Influence of Dub on Punk and Rock Music

Since the inception of dub in the 70s it was intertwined with the punk rock scene in the UK. The Clash worked on collaborations involving Jamaican dub reggae creators like Lee Scratch Perry(who cowrote "Police & Thieves" covered by the Clash on their first album) and Mikey Dread (on the Sandinista album). In the U.S. many punk rock bands were exposed to dub via the rasta punk band Bad Brains from D.C. which was established and released their most influential material during the 80s. Dub was adopted by the punk rock camp of the 90s, with bands such as Rancid and NOFX writing original songs in a Dub style. Often bands thought to be Ska-Punk play very dub influenced songs, the first such popular was Sublime, with both dub originals and remixes. They went on to influence more recent American bands such as Rx Bandits and The Long Beach Dub Allstars. In addition, dub also carried over to some types of pop including the band No Doubt. No Doubt's most recent album, Rock Steady [27315], features an assembly of popular dub sounds like reverb and echoing. As noted by the band themselves, No Doubt is heavily influenced by Jamaican musical aesthetics and production techniques, even recording their Rock Steady [27316] album in Kingston, Jamaicamarker and producing well-known B-sides featuring dub influences on their titled "Everything In Time B-Sides" album. Some controversy still exists on whether pop-ska bands like No Doubt can regard themselves as a part of dub lineage. Other bands closely followed in the footsteps of No Doubt, fusing pop-ska and dub influence, such as Save Ferris and Vincent.

There are also some British rastafarian punk bands creating dub music. Capdown released their Civil Disobedients album with track Dub #1, while The King Blues take very heavy rastafarian influences from dub, mixing the genre with original punk ethics and attitudes.

Since the beginning of rastafarian dub music there have been gang issues and violence towards women and rastafarians. Several rastafarians have come to separate themselves from the dub music scene to protect their families of jamaican patties. Peace came when all dub DJ's got together and celebrated the rastafarian culture with a dub festival, "festival of peace."

Traditional dub has, however, survived (see Iration Steppas and Aba Shanti-I, for example) and some of the originators like Lee Perry and Mad Professor continue to produce new rastafarian material. One modern dub producer who has received critical acclaim is Ryan "Party" Moore, for his Twilight Circus project. In the United States, a recent wave of new bands have adopted dub as their musical focus, including Dub Is A Weapon, best known for backing up Lee Perry during his most recent tours of the US.

21st Century Dub in the Roots Tradition

Throughout the world there continues to be new artists preserving the traditional dub sound in some or all of their repertoire with slight modifications in some cases but focusing primarily on reproducing the sound in a live environment. Some of those artists include Dubblestandart from Vienna, Austria (who recorded the album "Return from Planet Dub" in collaboration with Lee Scratch Perry and perform live with him), a host of artists from New York City including Ticklah aka Victor Axlrod and Victor Rice, Easy Star All-Stars, Subatomic Sound System(who have remixed Lee Scratch Perry and Ari Up material), Dub is a Weapon, King Django, and Dr. Israel, Giant Panda Guerilla Dub Squad from Rochester, NY, Heavyweight Dub Champion from San Francisco and Colorado, Future Pigeon from Los Angeles, German artists like Disrupt and Rootah from the Jahtari label, and Twilight Dub Circus from the Netherlands.. More eclectic use of dub techniques exist in the work of BudNubac, which mixes Cuban bigband with dub techniques.

Heavyweight Dub Champion, has been headlining festivals in the United States and gaining recognition in Europe. Denvermarker's Westword Magazine awarded their debut album, Survival Guide For The End Of Time, "Best Local Recording" for Coloradomarker in 2003 and describes their style as "a shamanistic wall of hip hop dubtronica". The band is a concept band and has pushed the envelope of the genre, although, according to the LA Weekly, "Their genius is the great virtue of 70's dub: never overdoing it."

Dub and the Dubstep Movement

The latest evolution of dub is a genre of electronic music called dubstep. Dubstep's early roots are in the more experimental releases of UK garage producers, seeking to incorporate elements of dub reggae into the South Londonmarker-based 2-step subgenre. Dubstep rhythms are usually syncopated, and often shuffled or incorporating triplets. The tempo usually falls around 70 beats per minute, though it is almost always produced in half time around 140. Dubstep rhythms typically do not follow the four-to-the-floor pattern common to many other styles of electronic dance music, but instead tend to skip beats and repeat sets of two bars rather than single bars.

In the fall of 2008, a limited pressing 12" called "Iron Devil" was released featuring Lee Scratch Perry and Prince Far-I in a dubstep style, including a tune based on the Perry riddim used on reggae hits like "Disco Devil", "Chase The Devil", and "Croaking Lizard". This was the first recorded example of a founder of Jamaican dub style acknowledging dubstep and creating new music in the genre, reinforcing the connection of dubstep to its roots in Jamaican dub reggae at a time when it seemed dubstep was moving away from its reggae underpinnings. The record was produced by NYC electronic dub producers Subatomic Sound System, Vienna live dub band, Dubblestandart, Lee "Scratch" Perry, and French producer Tom Watson with vocal samples of Prince Far-I's Wadada provided by the UK's Adrian Sherwood of On-U Sound Records and Dub Syndicate. The record featured some advance tracks from the Dubblestandart & Lee "Scratch" Perry album, "Return From Planet Dub" slated for release in June 2009 and featuring more dubstep tracks with Lee Scratch Perry and Prince Far-I including remakes and several remixes of Lee Scratch Perry's popular 70s dub tracks, Blackboard Jungle and Disco Devil.And the new revolution sound from South Italy , The Dub All Sense.

Impact on remixing

'Dub' has become a term for almost any musical piece that "Utilizes the remixing of prerecorded sound as a mode of artistic expression." Taking the separate entities of a musical track and remixing them into a completely new selection has become a popular process, and can be found in a variety of genres ranging anywhere from hip-hop remixes and mash-ups to metal. Many listeners do not sense the Jamaican roots, and are unaware that this technique started with Jamaican rocksteady and reggae. "Dubbing" became popular in the late 1960s and early 1970s by "The great sound system engineers of Jamaica." The mixing engineers acknowledged their importance in recordings by treating the mixing board as an instrument, and the "Resulting dub craze that occurred in Jamaica in the mid 1970s further established the mixing engineer as an artist." John Bush states that:
"For the first time in recorded music, the 'sound' of a recording become connected not only with the musicians and the producer, but with the mixing engineer as well."

The amplitude of success that these "versions" and "dubs" received allowed for a completely new style of musical composition that would be shared amongst a wide selection of musical genres.

See also


  1. Jesus dub: theology, music and social change, p.1
  2. Dub: soundscapes and shattered songs in Jamaican reggae, p.2
  3. A History of Rock Music: 1951-2000, p.120
  4. Chris Roberts, Heavy Words Lightly Thrown: The Reason Behind Rhyme, Thorndike Press,2006 (ISBN 0-7862-8517-6)
  5. Larkin, Colin: "The Virgin Encyclopedia of Reggae", 1998, Virgin Books, ISBN 0-7535-0242-9
  6. Dub: soundscapes and shattered songs in Jamaican reggae, p.3
  7. Dub: soundscapes and shattered songs in Jamaican reggae, p.4
  8. Dub: soundscapes and shattered songs in Jamaican reggae, p.1
  9. Living through pop, p.107
  10. Discographies: dance music, culture and the politics of sound, p.79
  11. Multi-Ethnic Britain 2000+: New Perspectives in Literature, Film and the Arts, p.263
  12. Dub: soundscapes and shattered songs in Jamaican reggae, p.61
  13. Dub: soundscapes and shattered songs in Jamaican reggae, p.62
  14. Great Spirits: Portraits of Life-Changing World Music Artists, p.140
  15. Dub, Scratch, and the Black Star, 21C, (24), 1997
  16. History of Dub
  17. Dub: soundscapes and shattered songs in Jamaican reggae
  18. Cut 'n' mix: culture, identity, and Caribbean music , p.83
  19. Dub: soundscapes and shattered songs in Jamaican reggae, p.52
  20. Caribbean popular music: an encyclopedia of reggae, mento, ska, rock steady, p.94
  21. Dub: soundscapes and shattered songs in Jamaican reggae, p.53
  24. Link to Discogs page for Lee "Scratch" Perry, Dubbblestandart, Subatomic Sound System, Prince Far-I "Iron Devil" 12"
  25. THE DREAD LIBRARY – Dub Revolution

Further reading

  • Veal, Michael E. (2007). Dub: Songscapes and Shattered Songs in Jamaican Reggae. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press.

  • Cox and Warner, eds. Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music. Continuum: 2004.[27317] "Replicant: On Dub" by David Toop; Chapter 51, Pages 355-356.

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