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The Duchy of Carniola (Vojvodina Kranjska, Herzogtum Krain) was an administrative unit of the Holy Roman Empire and the Habsburg Monarchy from 1364 to 1918. Its capital was Ljubljanamarker. The duchy had an area of 3,857 square miles (9,990 km²) and population of 510,000.


After Duke Henry of Gorizia-Tyrol had died in 1335 without a male heir, his daughter Margarete only was able to keep the County of Tyrol, while Emperor Louis IV passed the Duchy of Carinthia together with Carniola to the Austrian Dukemarker Albert II von Habsburg. His son Rudolf IV awarded himself the title of a Duke of Carniola in 1364. After his death as a result of the quarrels between his younger brothers Albert III and Leopold, Carniola by the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg became part of Inner Austria ruled from Grazmarker by Leopold, ancestor of the Habsburg Leopoldian line.
Napoleon subsequent to the 1809 Treaty of Schönbrunn formed the short-lived Illyrian Provinces from the annexed territories in Carniola, Carinthia, Croatia, Gorizia and Gradisca, and Triestemarker. The Final Act of the 1815 Congress of Vienna restored the Illyrian Provinces to the Austrian Empiremarker. Carniola then formed the central part of the territory of the Habsburg Kingdom of Illyria whose capital was also Ljubljana. It was bounded on the north by the Duchy of Carinthia, on the north-east by the Duchy of Styria, on the south-east and south by Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia, and on the west by the County of Gorizia and Gradisca and Istriamarker.

After the disestablishment of the Illyrian Kingdom in 1849, the Duchy of Carniola was constituted by rescript of 20 December 1860, and by imperial patent of 26 February 1861, modified by legislation of 21 December 1867, granting power to the home parliament to enact all laws not reserved to the imperial diet, at which it was represented by eleven delegates, of whom two elected by the landowners, three by the cities, towns, commercial and industrial boards, five by the village communes, and one by a fifth curia by secret ballot, every duly registered male twenty-four years of age has the right to vote. The home legislature consisted of a single chamber of thirty-seven members, among whom the prince-bishop sits ex-officio. The emperor convened the legislature, and it is presided over by the governor. The landed interests elected ten members, the cities and towns eight, the commercial and industrial boards two, the village communes sixteen. The business of the chamber was restricted to legislating on agriculture, public and charitable institutions, administration of communes, church and school affairs, the transportation and housing of soldiers in war and during manoeuvres, and other local matters. The land budget of 1901 amounted to 3,573,280 crowns ($714,656).

In 1918, the duchy ceased to exist and its territory became part of the newly formed State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbsmarker and subsequently part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenesmarker (from 1929 called Kingdom of Yugoslaviamarker). The western part of the duchy, with the towns of Postojnamarker, Ilirska Bistricamarker, Idrijamarker, Vipavamarker and Šturjemarker was annexed to Italy in 1920, but was subsequently also included into Yugoslavia in 1945.

Administrative divisions

Carniola was traditionally divided into three sub-regions: Upper Carniola (Slovenian name: Gorenjska, German: Oberkrain), Lower Carniola (Slovenian: Dolenjska, German: Unterkrain), and Inner Carniola (Slovenian: Notranjska, German: Innerkrain). Until 1860, these sub-regions coincided with the districts (Kreise) of Ljubljanamarker, Novo mestomarker and Postojnamarker. They were later divided into smaller units, called political (or administrative) districts. Between 1861 and 1918, Carniola was divided into eleven districts consisting of 359 municipalities, with the provincial capital serving as the residence of the imperial governor (Landeshauptmann). The districts were: Kamnikmarker, Kranjmarker, Radovljicamarker, the neighbourhood of Ljubljana, Logatecmarker, Postojnamarker, Litijamarker, Krškomarker, Novo mestomarker, Črnomeljmarker, and Kočevjemarker. The political districts were in turn divided into 31 judicial circuits.

Dukes of Carniola

Heir of all Habsburg lines. See List of rulers of Austria

See also

External links

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