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Dummer's War (c. 1721-1725), (also known as Lovewell's War, Father Rale's War, Greylock's War, Three Years War or the 4th Indian War) was a series of battles between the Britishmarker and Frenchmarker. The war had little organized leadership, and was mostly a series of skirmishes. Exactly which of these should be considered part of the war remains a matter of dispute. The root cause of the conflict was tension over the ownership of American territories in northern New Englandmarker. At that time, territorial control was split between the French and English. The French had been the first to explore the Kennebec River in Mainemarker, with Samuel Champlain reaching it in 1604.

However, the English began to claim areas along the Kennebec through homesteading. This unsettled the French, who allied with the Abenaki Indians to launch raids against the settlers. To defend against these attacks, the English built Fort Dummermarker in 1724. The fort was named after Massachusettsmarker Lieutenant Governor William Dummer, who was acting governor at the time. The fort was the first permanent European settlement in Vermontmarker. It was located near present-day Brattleboromarker. The French were based at Norridgewockmarker, an Abenaki village on the Kennebec. A Jesuit missionary named Sébastien Rale (Rasles) led that settlement, while an Abenaki named Gray Lock led the raids.

The war began when on August 23, 1724, in response to an Abenaki attack, Captain Jeremiah Moultan led eighty men of the Massachusetts Baymarker militia and some Mohawk Indians on a raid against Norridgewock. They killed seven Abenaki chiefs, along with Sebastien Rasle. The attack ended with the capture of the French settlement. The English had casualties of two militiamen and one Mohawk.

Colonial authorities during Dummer's War offered £100 per Indian scalp, which adjusted for inflation is about US $20,000 (£10,000). Seeking this generous reward, explorer John Lovewell led an expedition to the Winnipiscogee lakemarker region on December 19, 1724. He succeeded in killing and scalping an Indian, and took one child prisoner. Later, at Tamworth, New Hampshiremarker, he and 40 others ambushed and scalped 10 more. During his last Indian expedition, Lovewell died in a fight against the Pequawket tribe at Fryeburg, Mainemarker, on May 8, 1725.

On April 18, 1725, a Captain Wells and his company of rangers made what was then only the third ascent of Mount Washingtonmarker, then known as Agiocochook, while on patrol in northern New Hampshiremarker.


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