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For the 2004 Hong Kong film, see Dumplings .

Dumplings are cooked balls of dough. They are based on flour, potatoes, bread or matzoh meal, and may include meat, fish, or sweets. They may be cooked by boiling, steaming, simmering, frying, or baking. Ingredients may be as a part of a filling, or mixed throughout the dumpling. Dumplings may be sweet, spicy or savoury. They may be eaten alone, in soup, with gravy, or in many other presentations.

European cuisine

British and Irish cuisine

Savoury dumplings made from balls of dough are part of traditional British and Irish cuisine. The simplest dumplings are made from twice the weight of self raising flour to suet, bound together by cold water to form a dough and seasoned with salt and pepper. Balls of this dough are dropped into a bubbling pot of stew or soup, or into a casserole. They sit, partly submerged in the stew, and expand as they are half-boiled half-steamed for ten minutes or so. The cooked dumplings are airy on the inside and moist on the outside. The dough may be flavoured with herbs, or the dough balls surround a filling such as cheese pressed into their centre.

The Norfolk dumpling is not made with fat, but from flour and raising agent. Cotswold dumplings call for the addition of breadcrumbs and cheese, and the balls of dough may be rolled in breadcrumbs and fried, rather than cooked in a soup or stew.

These sour-dough dumplings, when sweetened and made with dried fruit and spices, can be boiled in water to make a dessert. In Scotlandmarker, this is called a clootie dumpling, after the cloth. In Dorset, dumplings are often called doughboys, perhaps in reference to the buoys that are used to mark lobster pots around the coast locally.

Italian cuisine

Ravioli and tortellini fit the basic definition of dumpling: these are pockets of pasta enclosing various fillings (cheese, mushrooms, spinach, seafood, or meat). Gnocchi ( , ) is a different kind of Italian dumpling. The word gnocchi literally means "lumps", and they are rolled and shaped from a mixture of egg with potato, semolina, flour, or ricotta cheese (with or without spinach). The lumps are boiled in water and served with melted butter, grated cheese, or other pasta sauces.

Scandinavian cuisine

In Norway, dumplings have a vast variety of names, as the dialects differ substantially. Names include potetball, klubb, kløbb, raspeball, komle, kumle, kompe, kumpe, kodla, kudle, klot, kams, ball, baill, komperdøse, kumperdøse, kompadøs, ruter, ruta, raskekako, risk, klotremat, krumme and kromme. It is usually made from potatoes and various types of flour and boiled. Occasionally they contain pork meat like bacon in the middle. In some areas it is common to use syrup along with the dumplings.

In Sweden, potato dumplings mainly have two names. In the northern parts they are usually called Palt, or Pitepalt, filled with salted pork and eaten with melted butter and lingonberry jam. In southern Sweden, and Öland, the potato dumpling is called Kroppkaka, and is usually filled with smoked pork, raw onions and coarsely ground pepper, usually served with cream and lingonberry jam. On Öland, the south-eastern coast and in the north the dumplings are made mainly from raw potatoes, whereas in the southern mainland boiled potatoes are mainly in use. Flour dumplings for use in soup are called Klimp.


Central European cuisine

Germany, Hungary Austria, Poland, Czech Republicmarker and Slovakiamarker boast a large variety of dumplings, both sweet and savoury. A dumpling is called Kloß in Northern Germany, Spätzle, Knöpfle or Knödel in Southern Germany and Austria. These are flour dumplings, the most common dumplings, thin or thick, made with eggs and semolina flour, boiled in water. Meat dumplings (called Klopse or Klöpse in North-Eastern Germany, Knöpfe and Nocken in Southern Germany) contain meat or liver. Liver dumplings are frequent additions to soup. Thüringer Klöße are made from raw or boiled potatoes, or a mixture of both, and are often filled with croutons. Bread dumplings are made with white bread and are sometimes shaped like a loaf of bread, and boiled in a napkin, in which case they are known as napkin dumplings (Serviettenknödel).

In Hungary dumplings are called galuska or nokedli – small lumps cut from a thick flour and egg batter and dropped into boiling water, similar to the German Spätzle, Knöpfle, or Knödel. Sweet dumplings are made with flour and potato dough, which is wrapped around whole plums or apricots, and then boiled and rolled in hot buttered bread crumbs. Shlishkes or “Krumplinudli” are small boiled potato dumplings made from the same potato dough as the sweet plum dumplings, also rolled in hot buttered bread crumbs.

In Czech cuisine dumplings are called knedlíky and in Slovakia they are called knedličky. They are enjoyed along with a related stuffed version called pirohy, usually filled with bryndza (bryndzove pirohy), quark cheese, potatoes, onions, cabbage, mushrooms, or meat. Bryndzove halusky, the Slovak national dish, are small potato dumplings without a filling, served with salty sheep's cheese on top.

The only potato dumpling museum in the world—the Thüringer Klößmuseum—is located in Germany, in the municipality of Heichelheimmarker near Weimarmarker.

Eastern European cuisine

Pierogi of Poland and vareniki or pelmeni of Russia and Ukraine are ravioli-like crescent-shaped dumplings filled with savoury or sweet filling. They are usually boiled, and then sometimes fried before serving. They are often served with plenty of sour cream. Kluski are a different variety of Polish dumplings

"Little ears", variously called uszka in Poland, ushki (ушки) in Russia, vushka (вушка) in Ukraine, and vushki (вушкі) in Belarus, are folded ring-shaped dumplings similar in shape to Italian tortellini or Jewish kreplach. They are stuffed with meat or mushrooms and traditionally served in borshch or clear soup. In Romania, "little ears" ( ) are also served in dumpling soup (supă de găluşte)

Lithuanian dough dumplings are called koldūnai and virtiniai. There are also popular potato dumplings called cepelinai or didžkukuliai.

In Russian cuisine, the most common type of dumplings is pelmeni, which are usually filled with meat, traditionally with a combination of pork, beef and mutton (or game meat). Fish pelmeni are also known.

In Siberiamarker, especially popular with the Buryat peoples are dumplings called pozi (buuz in Mongolian, from ). They are usually made with an unleavened dough, but are often encountered leavened. The traditional filling is meat, but the kind of meat and how it is processed varies. In Mongolia, mutton is favored, and is chopped rather than ground; pork and beef mixes are more popular in Russia. Unlike most other European dumplings, a poza is cooked over steam, not boiled.

Samsa (related to the Indian samosa), cheburiki, and belyashi are all popular imported dumplings.

Caucasian cuisine

Meat-filled manti in Armenia are typically served with yogurt or sour cream, accompanied by clear soup. Mantapour is an Armenian beef soup with manti. Dushbara is an Azeri soup with tiny lamb-filled dumplings. Khinkali ( ) are Georgian manti usually filled with spiced meat.

Boraki ( ) are a kind of Armenian fried pelmeni. The main difference between boraki and traditional pelmeni is that the minced meat is pre-fried, the boraki are formed as small cylinders with an open top, the cylinders are lightly boiled in broth and then fried. Boraki are served garnished with yoghurt and chopped garlic.

Turkish cuisine

See Manti

Cuisine of the United States

Several types of dumplings are popular in the United States. The baked dumpling is popular in American cuisine. These sweet dumplings are made by wrapping fruit, frequently a whole tart apple, in pastry, then baking until the pastry is browned and the filling is tender. As an alternative to simply baking them, these dumplings are surrounded by a sweet sauce in the baking dish, and may be basted during cooking. Popular flavours for apple dumplings include brown sugar, caramel, or cinnamon sauces.

Boiled dumplings are made from flour to form a dough. A pot of boiling chicken or turkey broth is used to cook this dough. The thickness and the size of the dumplings is at the cook's discretion. The size does not affect the taste but the thickness does. It is optional to serve with the meat in the dish or on the side.

Dumplings can be made with eggs, milk, baking powder or even yeast, or just from flour and water. Rolled dumplings are rolled thin and cut into small pieces for cooking, while dropped dumplings are formed into small balls.

Having gained popularity over the last few years is the concept of making boiled dumplings from sliced or torn pieces of flour tortilla. These slices of tortilla are then added to the boiling pot of stock to make dumplings. Popular varieties of Southern dumplings include chicken dumplings, turkey dumplings, strawberry dumplings, apple dumplings, ham dumplings, and even butter-bean dumplings.

Bite-sized, hand-torn pieces of dough are dumped into boiling chicken broth along with a variety of vegetables. It is locally dubbed "chicken-and-dumplins." In common with other Southern savory dumplings, Kentuckian dumplins are not stuffed with anything. They are merely pieces of dough. Some of the flour detaches from the dumpling surface and works as a thickening agent, which makes the signature stew texture of "chicken-and-dumplins" without using another thickener such as corn starch. This is often used as part of locally popular Burgoo (stew).

In the Alleghany Mountains of central Pennsylvania, "Pot Pie" is rolled dough made from flour and broth [usually ham], cut into squares, and boiled with the meat in the broth, usually with potatoes.

Central and South American cuisine

Caribbean cuisine

The Jamaicans created the first Caribbean dumplings, which were English-influenced. A simple recipe including self-raising flour, water and salt was made into a thick dough before frying on a pan until golden brown. These are usually rounded or rolled into balls and are served with Ackee and Saltfish or Chicken as a side dish. Like English dumplings, they have a soft and fluffy texture. Eventually the recipe spread across the Caribbean as it reached the Lesser Antilles such as Barbadosmarker, Trinidadmarker, Grenadamarker and also the eastern section of the Dominican Republicmarker, where the dish is known as "domplin"; it was introduced to the island by immigrants from the British Lesser Antilles who came to work in the sugar industry. There is also a type of dumpling that is put into chicken stews and soups. It is a mix of flour and water and boiled in the water with the meat. In Haiti there is a similar dumpling dish that is rolled into a ball or log shaped, which is then boiled in various soups, some which are known as bouillon.

Jamaican cuisine

Dumplings or, as Jamaicans say, dumplin, come in two forms in Jamaica. These are fry dumplin (fried) and bwoil dumplin (boiled). Both dumplins are made with flour, white or wheat, and the white-floured dumplins are often mixed with a bit of cornmeal. These foods are often served with a variety of dishes like Ackee and saltfish, kidneys, liver salt mackerel etc. and often taste better when refried. A refried dumpling is usually prepared a day after the boiled dumpling is first made. The boiled dumpling is thinly sliced and then fried, which gives it a slightly crispy outer layer and a tender middle. A purely fried white flour dumplin is golden brown and looks a lot like a roll, often substituting the bwoil dumplin, but it is mostly consumed as part of breakfast.

Venezuelan cuisine

In Venezuela there are a number of dishes that may be classified as dumplings. "Papas Rellenas" or stuffed potatoes consist of a handful of mashed potatoes (without the milk and butter) flattened in the palm of the hand and stuffed with a savoury combination of ingredients. The stuffing usually consists of sautéed meat (could be beef, pork or chicken), onions and garlic. They are all seasoned with cumin, South American chillies called aji, raisins, peanuts, olives and sliced or chopped hard boiled eggs. After stuffing a ball is formed, rolled over flour and deep fried in hot oil. The stuffed potatoes are usually accompanied by onion sauce consisting of sliced onions, lime juice, olive oil, salt, pepper and slices of fresh chilli peppers. The same dish may also be made with seafood. In some countries, yuca purée is used as the starch component of these Latin American dumplings.

Asian cuisine

Chinese cuisine

The jiaozi 饺子 is a common Chinese dumpling which generally consists of minced meat and chopped vegetables wrapped into a piece of dough. Popular meat fillings include ground pork, ground beef, ground chicken, shrimp, and even fish. Popular mixtures include pork with Chinese cabbage, pork with celery, lamb with spring onion, leeks with eggs, etc. Jiaozi are usually boiled or steamed. Jiaozi is a traditional dish eaten during Chinese New Year's Eve and some other festivals. Family members gather together to make dumplings. It is also eaten for farewell to family members or friends.

Another type of Chinese dumpling is made with glutinous rice. Usually, the glutinous rice dumplings 粽子[zongzi] are triangle or cone shaped, also filled with some red beans, Chinese dates or a little meat. Glutinous rice dumplings are traditionally eaten during the Duanwu Festival.

If dumplings are fried in a small amount of oil, they are called guotie 锅贴 or potstickers. Compared to wonton 云吞s (dumplings served boiled in a soup), jiaozi have a thicker skin and are bigger. Wontons are wrapped in rectangular dough while jiaozi are wrapped in round dough.

Chinese cuisine includes sweet dumplings. Tangyuan a special type of rice dumpling. Tangyuan are smaller dumplings made with glutinous rice flour and filled with sweet sesame, peanut, red bean paste. Tangyuan may also be served without a filling. There are also other kinds of dumplings such as har kao, siew mai, small cage-steamed bun (xiaolongbao), pork bun and crystal dumpling.

See also: dim sum 点心 for descriptions of several other kinds of dumplings such as gau and taro root dumplings.

Himalayan cuisine

In Nepalmarker, Tibet, and Sikkimmarker, steamed dumplings known as momo (or momo-cha) are a popular snack. They are similar to the Chinese jiaozi or the Central Asian manti. The dish itself is native to Tibet and was probably brought along with the influx of Tibetan refugees into Nepal during the 1950s. Many different fillings, both meat-based and vegetarian, are common.

Indian cuisine

Subcontinental cuisine features several dishes which could be characterised as dumplings:
  • "Karanji" (Marathi) or "Kajjikayi" (Kannada, Telugu) are fried sweet dumplings made of wheat flour and stuffed with dry or moist coconut delicacies. They are a popular dish among the Maharastriansmarker and the South Indians.
  • Another dumpling popular in Western India and South India is the "Modak"(Marathi) or "Modhaka"(Kannada) or "Modagam" (Tamil), where the filling is made of fresh coconut and jaggery or sugar while the covering is steamed rice dough. It is eaten hot with ghee.
  • "Kozhukottai" (Tamil) or "Kadabu" (Kannada), is another South Indian dish that can be sweet, salty or spicy. The outer shell is always steamed sticky rice dough. In the sweet version, a form of sweet filling made with coconuts, boiled lentils and jaggery is used, whereas in the salty version, a mixture of steamed cracked lentils, chillies and some mild spices is used.

Japanese cuisine

Fried Japanese dumplings made from egg and eaten with dashi are known as akashi no tamagoyaki. Similarly shaped dumplings, but with octopus (or sometimes konnyaku) and flavoured with pickled ginger, negi (welsh onion) and other ingredients, are a Kansaimarker dish known as takoyaki.

The gyōza is the Japanese version of the Chinese jiaozi 饺子. Dango is a Japanese dumpling made from rice flour that is often served with green tea.

Kazakh cuisine

Manti (also manty or mantu) is a steamed dumpling in Kazakh cuisine. It contains a mixture of ground lamb (or beef) spiced with black pepper, enclosed in a dough wrapper. Manti are cooked in a multi-level steamer and served topped with butter, yogurt, sour cream, or onion sauce. These dumplings are popular throughout Central Asia, including Kyrgyzstanmarker, Tajikistanmarker, and Uzbekistanmarker.

Korean cuisine

Korean dumplings are called "mandu" (만두). They are typically filled with a mixture of ingredients, including ground pork, kimchi, vegetables, cellophane noodles, but there are very many variations. Mandu can be steamed, fried, or boiled. The dumplings can also be used to make a soup called mandu guk (soup).

Mongolian cuisine

See Buuz, khuushuur, Bansh

Middle-Eastern cuisine

Jewish cuisine

See matzah ball and kreplach


  1. Dushbara in Azerbaijani cuisine. Retrieved on 5 April 2009
  2. Boraki

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