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Durham Castle is a Norman castle in the city of Durhammarker, Englandmarker, which has been wholly occupied since 1840 by University College, Durhammarker. The castle stands on top of a hill above the River Wearmarker on Durham's peninsula, opposite Durham Cathedralmarker ( ).

History

The castle was originally built in the 11th century as a projection of the Norman king's power in the north of Englandmarker, as the population of England in the north remained "wild and fickle" following the disruption of the Norman Conquest in 1066. It is an excellent example of the early motte and bailey castles favoured by the Normans. The holder of the office of the Bishop of Durham was appointed by the King to exercise royal authority on his behalf: the Castle was his seat.
Entrance to Bishop Bek's Great Hall
It remained the Bishop's palace for the Bishops of Durham until the Bishops made Bishop Aucklandmarker their primary residence and the castle was converted into a collegemarker.

The castle has a vast Great Hall, created by Bishop Antony Bek in the early 14th century. It was the largest Great Hall in Britainmarker until Bishop Richard Foxe shortened it at the end of the 15th century. However, it is still 14 m high and over 30 m long.

Students sit on the Keep Terrace


University College

In 1837, the castle was donated to the newly-formed University of Durhammarker by Bishop Edward Maltby as accommodation for students. It was named University Collegemarker. Architect Anthony Salvin rebuilt the dilapidated keep from the original plans. Opened in 1840, the castle still houses over 100 students, the majority of which are in the keep.

Students and staff of the college eat their meals in Bishop Bek's Great Hall. The Great Hall's Undercroft, meanwhile, serves as the Junior Common Room, including its bar - i.e. as the principal common room for the college's undergraduate members. The two chapels are still used, both for services and other purposes such as theatrical performances. Other facilities contained within the castle include the college's library, the college offices, and the college's IT suite. During university vacations, the college offers rooms in the castle for (usually academic) conferences and as hotel accommodation. Access to the castle for the public is restricted to guided tours. Outside of these, only members of the college or vacation guests may visit the castle.

Durham Castle, entrance
Durham Castle, view of the keep


Chapels

The college makes extensive use of the castle's two chapels: the Norman Chapel, built around 1078, and Tunstall's Chapel, built in 1540.

The Norman Chapel is the oldest accessible part of the castle. Its architecture is Anglian in nature, possibly due to forced Anglian labour being used to build it. In the 15th century, its three windows were all but blocked up because of the expanded keep. It thus fell into disuse until 1841 when it was used as a corridor through which to access the keep. During the Second World War, it was used as a command and observation post for the Royal Air Force when its original use was recognised. It was re-consecrated shortly after the war and is still used for weekly services by the college.

Tunstall's Chapel is the more heavily-used of the chapels, being somewhat larger. Bishop Cosin and Bishop Crewe extended it in the late 17th century. At the back of the chapel, some of the seats are 16th-century misericords (literally, mercy seats). These were designed such that a person standing for long periods of time could rest on a ledge of the upturned seat.

World Heritage Site

Durham Castle is jointly designated a UNESCOmarker World Heritage Site with Durham Cathedral, a short distance across Palace Greenmarker. The following quotation is taken from the British government's nomination for the World Heritage List:
Few buildings in England can boast a longer history of continuous occupation than Durham Castle. Founded soon after the Norman Conquest, the Castle has been rebuilt, extended and adapted to changing circumstances and uses over a period of 900 years.


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