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The Dutch people (Dutch: ) are the dominant ethnic group of the Netherlandsmarker. Characterized by sharing a common culture, speaking the Dutch language and being of Dutch descent.

Dutch people, or descendants of Dutch people, are also found in migrant communities world wide, notably in Canadamarker, Australia, South Africa, New Zealandmarker and the United Statesmarker.

The traditional art and culture of the Dutch encompasses various forms of traditional music, dances, architectural styles and clothing, some of which are globally recognizable. Internationally, Dutch painters such as Rembrandt, Vermeer and van Gogh are held in high regard.

Historically, the Dutch were among the most religious peoples of Europe, forming an important driving force behind the spread of the reformation Today, the dominant religion of the Dutch is still Christianity (both Catholic and Protestant), although in modern times the majority is no longer openly religious. Significant percentages of the Dutch are adherents of humanism, agnosticism, atheism or individual spirituality.

Though always being relatively autonomous within the system of European feudalism, it was only in the 16th century that a Dutch state, the Dutch Republic, became de facto independent. The high degree of urbanization characteristic of Dutch society was attained at a relatively early age. During the Republic the first series of large scale Dutch migrations outside of Europe took place.

The absence of most natural riches in the region traditionally inhabited by the Dutch, led to a trade oriented, and dependant, society. Positioned among some of the most important rivers of Western Europe and near the sea, Dutch cities dominated European and even world trade for several centuries; lending the Dutch themselves a reputation for being excellent merchants, and, at times, even being synonomous with the word itself.



As with all ethnic groups the ethnogenesis of the Dutch (and their predecessors) has been a lengthy and complex process. Though the majority of the defining characteristics (such as language, religion, architecture or cuisine) of the Dutch ethnic group have accumulated over the ages, it is difficult (if not impossible) to clearly pinpoint the exact emergence of the Dutch people; the interpretation of which is often highly personal. To provide some structure, this article distinguishes between three concepts; "ethnic categories", "ethnic networks" and "ethnic communities", these will be explained in each section.

The text below hence focuses on the history of the Dutch ethnic group; for Dutch national history, please see the history-articles of the Netherlands and Belgium respectively. For Dutch colonial history, see the article on the Dutch Empire.


The first stage of Dutch ethnogenesis falls within the frame of an ethnic category. This essentially means that though certain characteristics of the Dutch ethnic group start to appear; the people displaying these traits did not have any, or a very limited, awareness of belonging to this specific group.

Following the end of the migration period in the West around 500 CE, with large federations (such as the Franks, Vandals, Alamanni and Saxons) settling the decaying Roman Empire, great changes occur among the Germanic peoples; who inhabited much of Northwestern Europe at the time.

Prior to this, the Germanic tribes formed tribal societies with no apparent form of autocracy (chiefs only being elected in times of war), beliefs based Germanic paganism and speaking a dialect still closely resembling Common Germanic. Yet following their incursions into (and eventual overthrow of) the Roman Empire, a series of monumental changes took place within these Germanic societies. Among the most important of these are their conversion from Germanic paganism to Christianity, the new emerging of a political system; centered on kings and, continuing process of emerging unintelligibility of their various dialects.


As the general situation described above is applicable to most if not all modern European ethnic groups with origins among the Germanic tribes; such as the Frisians, Germans, English and the North-Germanic peoples; this paragraph will detail the specific process for the Dutch.

In the Low Countries, this phase began when the Franks, themselves were a union of multiple smaller tribes (many of them, such as the Batavi, Chauci, Chamavi and Chattuarii, already living in the Low Countries prior to the forming of the Frankish confederation) began to incur the northwestern provinces of the Roman Empire. Eventually, in 358 CE, the Salian Franks, one of the three main subdivisions among the Frankish alliance settled the area's Southern lands as a foederati; Roman allies in charge of border defense.

As mentioned before, at this time no Dutch identity existed, but its first outlines emerged. Linguistically the Frankish language gradually evolved into Old Dutch, which was first attested in the 6th century, whereas religiously the Franks (beginning with the upper class) converted to Christianity from around 500 to 700 CE. On a political level, the Frankish warlords abandoned tribalism (thus beginning the process of de-identification as 'Frank' among the Franks) and founded a number of kingdoms, eventually culminating in the Frankish Empire of Charlemagne.

It should however be noted that the population make up of the Frankish Empire, or even early Frankish Kingdoms such as Neustria and Austrasia, was not dominated by Franks. Though the Frankish leaders indeed controlled most of Western Europe, the Franks themselves were confined to the Northwestern part (i.e the Low Countries and Northern Francemarker) of the Empire. Eventually, the Franks in Northern France were assimilated by the general Gallo-Roman population, and took over their dialects (which became French), whereas the Franks in the Low Countries retained their language, which would evolve into Dutch. The current Dutch-French language border has (with the exception of the Nord-Pas-de-Calaismarker in France) remain virtually identical ever since, and could be seen as marking the furthest pale of gallicization among the Franks.


During the second stage; an ethnic network starts to appear; signaling growing ties between the people exhibiting the traits described in the first stage; among the Dutch this mainly focuses on the political and cultural preeminence of the emerging burghers in the Dutch medieval cities and the consolidation of the Dutch fiefs underthe Dukes of Burgundy.

These cities, who experienced major growth during the 11th and 12th century were instrumental in breaking down (the already relatively loose form of) feudalism in the Low Countries. As they became increasingly powerful, they used their economical strength to influence the politics of their nobility. During the early 14th century, beginning in and inspired by the County of Flanders, the cities in the Low Countries gain huge autonomy and generally dominate or greatly influence the various political affairs of the fief, including marriage succession.

While the cities were of great political importance, they also formed catalysts for medieval Dutch culture. Trade flourished, population numbers increased dramatically, and (advanced) education wasno longer limited to the clergy and Dutch epic literature such as Elegast (1150 CE), the Roelantslied and Van den vos Reynaerde (1200 CE) were widely enjoyed. The various city guilds as well as the necessity of water boards (in charge of dikes, canals, etc.) in the Dutch delta and coastal regions resulted in an exceptionally high degree of communal organization. It is also around this time, that ethnonyms such asDiets and Nederlands emerge.

In the second half of the 14th century, the dukes of Burgundy gained a foothold in the Low Countries through the marriage in 1369 of Philip the Bold of Burgundy to the heiress of the count of Flanders. This was followed by a series of marriages, wars, and such tricks of fate as inheritances among the other Dutch fiefs and around 1430 the most important fiefs are under Burgundian rule, while complete control is achieved in 1503; thereby unifying the Dutch fiefs under one ruler. This process marks a new episode in the development of the Dutch ethnic group, as now political unity starts to emerge, consolidating the strengthened cultural and linguistic unity.


During the final phase an ethnic community, in which the members themselves have clear conceptions of being a named human population with, common ancestry, shared historical memories, common elements of culture, solidarity and an association with a homeland,has emerged. Among the Dutch, the last underdeveloped factor was that of solidarity. Despite the linguistic, cultural unity, and (in the case of Flanders, Brabant and Holland) economical similarities; there was still little sense of political unity among the Dutch.

However, the centralist policies of Burgundy in the 14th century, at first violently opposed by the Dutch cities, had a profound impact and changed this. During Charles the Bold's many wars, which were a major economic burden for the Burgundian Netherlands, tensions slowly increased. In 1477, the year of Charles' sudden death at Nancy, the Dutch lands rebel against their new liege, Mary of Burgundy and present her with a set of demands.

The subsequently issued great privilege met a lot of these demands (which included that Dutch, not French, should be the administrative language and that the states general had the right to hold meetings without the monarch's permission or presence) and despite the fact that the overall tenure of the document (which was declared void by her son, and successor, Philip IV) aimed for more autonomy for the Dutch counties and duchies, the fact that all Dutch fiefs present their demands together, rather than separately, are evidence that by this time a sense of political unity had clearly emerged.

Following Mary's marriage to Maximilian of Habsburg, the Netherlands were now part of the Habsburg lands. Further centralized policies by the Habsburgs (like their Burgundian predecessors) again met with resistance, but, peaking with the forming the collateral councils of 1531 and the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549, were still implemented. The rule of Philip II of Spain sought even further centralist reforms, which, accompanied by religious dictates, excessive taxation resulted in the Dutch Revolt. The Dutch provinces, though fighting alone now, for the first time in their history, found themselves fighting a common enemy. This, together with the growing number of Dutch intelligentsia and the Dutch Golden Age in which Dutch culture, as a whole, would get unprecedented international prestige consolidated the Dutch as an ethnic group.


Ethnic identity

Among the Dutch their ethnic identity becomes salient only in a limited number of situations. It should be noted, however, that the (re)definition of Dutch cultural identity has become a subject of public debate in recent years following the increasing influence of the European Union and the influx of non-Western immigrants in the post-World War II period. In this debate 'typically Dutch traditions' have been put to the foreground.

In sociological studies and governmental reports, ethnicity is often referred to with the terms autochtoon and allochtoon. These legal concepts refer to place of birth and citizenship rather than cultural background and do not coincide with the more fluid concepts of ethnicity used by cultural anthropologists.

Ethnic nationalism

As did many European ethnicities during the 19th century, the Dutch also saw the emerging of various Greater Netherlands- and Pan-Movement seeking to unite the Dutch across the continent. During the first half of the 20th century there was a prolific surge in writings concerning the subject. One of its most active proponents was the acclaimed historian Pieter Geyl, who wrote 'De Geschiedenis van de Nederlandsche stam' (Dutch: The History of the Dutch tribe/people) as well as numerous essays on the subject.

During World War II, when both Belgium and the Netherlands fell to German occupation, fascist elements (such as the NSB and Verdinaso) tried to convince the Nazis into combining the Netherlands and Flanders. The Germans however refused to do so, as this would conflict with their ultimate goal of a 'Germanic Europe'. During the entire Nazi occupation the Germans denied any assistance to Dutch ethnic nationalism, and, by decree of Hitler himself, actively opposed it.

The 1970s mark the beginning of a cultural and linguistic cooperation between Belgium (Flanders) and the Netherlands which continues to this day. The issue of reuniting regularly emerges, most recently after the long Belgian political crisis of 2007/2008. Aside from individual supporters (Grootneerlandisme) there exist a number of political party's/social movements such as the Dutch Peoples-Union, Die Roepstem, Voorpost. Most of these organizations, however, (especially the Dutch Peoples-Union) belong to the extreme right fringe of Dutch and Belgian politics.

National identity

By the middle of the 16th century an overarching, 'national' (rather than 'ethnic') identity seemed in development in the Habsburg Netherlands, when inhabitants began to refer to it as their 'fatherland' and were beginning to be seen as a collective entity abroad; however, the persistence of language barriers, traditional strife between towns, and provincial particularism continued to form an impediment to more thorough unification. Following excessive taxation together with attempts at diminishing the autonomy of the Dutch, followed by the religious oppression after being transferred to Habsburg Spain, the Dutch revolted, in what would become the Eighty Years' War. For the first time in their history, the Dutch established their independence from foreign rule. However, during the war it became apparent that the goal of the revolts leaders (the liberation of all Dutch Low Countries, as agreed upon in the Union of Utrecht) was unreachable. The Northern provinces were free, but during the 1580s the South was recaptured by Spain, and, despite various attempts, the Dutch Republican Army was unable to expel them. In 1648, the Peace of Münster, ending the Eighty Years' War, acknowledged the independence of the Dutch Republic, but maintained Spanish control of the Southern Netherlands. Apart from a brief reunification from 1815 till 1830, within the United Kingdom of the Netherlands (which included the Francophones/Walloons) the Dutch ethnic group has been separated to this day. This effectively means that the (ethnic) Dutch today belong to two different nations, the Dutch (i.e Netherlandsmarker), and the Belgian/Flemish nation.

The Netherlands

The Belgian Revolt was a traumatizing experience. The Dutch King William I would abdicate in 1840 after a decade desperately trying to reunite his kingdom both militarily and diplomatically, dying disillusioned 4 years later. The Netherlands then became heavily pillarized (a process also found in Belgium) which lasting well into the 1960s, and continued its policy of diplomatic isolation.

The ideologies associated with Nationalism of the 19th century and 20th century never really caught on in the Netherlands, and this, together with being a practically mono-ethnic society up until the late 1950s, has lead to a relatively obscure use of the terms nation and ethnicity as both were identical in practice. Today, despite other ethnicities making up 19,6% of the Netherlands' population, this obscurity continues in colloquial use, in which Nederlander sometimes refers to the ethnic Dutch, sometimes to anyone possessing Dutch citizenship.


In Belgium, the process of creating a nation was much slower than in the Netherlands. This was caused by the fact that rather than being a mono-ethnic independent state, like the Dutch Republic, the territories which would become Belgium remained part of large multi-ethnic, empires until the Napoleonic Wars drew to a close. Hence there was little connection to the state among its populace. In 1815, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands was founded, largely corresponding to the modern Benelux in territory, which once again united the Dutch within one state; though be it along with Walloons and Southern Francized Dutch elite.

This short lived kingdom soon collapsed under religious and linguistic strife. The Catholic Church did not like the Protestant domination of the north and of the monarchy, and wanted to create a homogeneous Roman Catholic State. While at the same time, as was the case in the Dutch Republic, the new state used Dutch in both political and social life, and wanted to impose this language on the southern provinces. Yet the southern half present day Belgium, as well as its Dutch upper classes were Francophone, and strongly resisted this policy. In 1830 Belgiummarker was established.

Immediately following after the Belgian revolt however, came the oppression of the Dutch language and culture by the largely Francophone government. Dissatisfied with the political direction that the Belgian state had taken, a popular movement (later called the Flemish Movement) arose which sought to protect the Dutch language and demanded equal rights for its speakers; with the recognition of Dutch being achieved with 1898, sixty eight years after Belgian proclamation of independence.

It has been these (and subsequent, often language-related, conflicts) that have estranged many Dutch speaking Belgians (Flemings) from the Belgian state, and have led them to, following its federalization in 1970, see the Flemish Regionmarker as the state institution housing their nation.


The total number of Dutch can be defined in roughly two ways. By taking the total of all people with full Dutch ancestry, according to the current CBS definition, resulting in an estimated 16.000.000 Dutch people, or by the sum of all people with both full and partial Dutch ancestry, which would result in a number around 25.000.000.

Dutch-speakers in Europe.
People of Dutch ancestry outside the Netherlands and Belgium.



280 px

Dutch is the language spoken by most Dutch people. It is a West Germanic language spoken by around 22 million people. The language was first attested around 500 AD, in a Frankish legal text, the Lex Salica, and has a written record of more than 1500 years, although the material before ca. 1200 is fragmentary and discontinuous.

As a West Germanic language, Dutch is related to other languages in that group such as Frisian, English and German. Many West Germanic dialects experienced a series of sound shifts. The Anglo-Frisian nasal spirant law and Anglo-Frisian brightening resulted in certain early Germanic languages evolving into what are now English and Frisian, while the Second Germanic sound shift resulted in what would become German. Dutch experienced none of these sound changes and can thus be said to occupy a central position within the West Germanic languages.

Standard Dutch has a sound inventory of 13 vowels, 6 diphthongs and 23 consonants, of which the voiceless velar fricative (hard ch) is considered a well known sound, perceived as typical for the language. Other relatively well known features of the Dutch language and use are the frequent use digraphs like Oo, Ee, Uu and Aa, the ability to form long compounds and the use of diseases as profanity.

General consensus among linguists is that the Dutch language has 28 main dialects. These dialects are usually grouped into 6 main categories; Hollandic, West-Flemish/Zealandic, East Flemish, Brabantic, Limburgish and Dutch Saxon. Of these dialects, Brabantic, Limburgish and East Flemish are spoken exclusively by the Southern Dutch, whereas Hollandic and Dutch Saxon are solely spoken by Northerners. West-Flemish/Zealandic is a cross border dialect in this respect. Lastly, the dialectal situation is characterised by the major distinction between 'Hard G' and 'Soft G' speaking areas (see also Dutch phonology).

Dutch immigrants also exported the Dutch language. Dutch was spoken in United Statesmarker as a native language from the arrival of the first permanent Dutch settlers in 1615, surviving in isolated ethnic pockets until ~1900, when it ceased to be spoken with the exception of 1st generation Dutch immigrants. The Dutch language nevertheless had a significant impact on the region around New Yorkmarker. For example, the first language of American president Martin Van Buren was Dutch. Most of the Dutch immigrants of the 20th century quickly began to speak the language of their new country. For example, of the inhabitants of New Zealand, 0.7% say their home language is Dutch, despite the percentage of Dutch heritage being considerably higher.

Dutch is currently an official language of the Netherlands, Belgium, Surinamemarker, Arubamarker, the Netherlands Antillesmarker, the European Union and the Union of South American Nations (due to Suriname being a member). In South Africa, Afrikaans is spoken, a descendant of Dutch, which itself was an official language of South Africa until 1925. The Dutch, Flemish and Surinamese governments coordinate their language activities in the Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union), an institution also responsible for governing the Dutch Standard language, for example in matters of orthography.

Etymology of autonym and exonym

The origins of the word Dutch go back to Proto-Germanic, the ancestor of all Germanic languages, *theudo (meaning "national/popular"); akin to Old Dutch dietsc, Old High German diutsch, Old English þeodisc and Gothic þiuda all meaning "(of) the common (Germanic) people". As the tribes among the Germanic peoples began to differentiate its meaning began to change. The Anglo-Saxons of Englandmarker for example gradually stopped referring to themselves as þeodisc and instead started to use Englisc, after their tribe. On the continent *theudo evolved into two meanings: Diets (meaning "Dutch (people)" (archaic)) and Deutsch (German, meaning "German (people)"). At first the English language used (the contemporary form of) Dutch to refer to any or all of the Germanic speakers on the European mainland (e.g. the Dutch, the Frisians and the -various- Germans). Gradually its meaning shifted to the Germanic people they had most contact with, both because of their geographical proximity, but also because of the rivalry in trade and overseas territories: the people from the Republic of the Netherlands, the Dutch.

In the Dutch language, the Dutch refer to themselves as Nederlanders. Nederlanders derives from the Dutch word "Neder", a cognate of English "Nether" both meaning "low", and "near the sea" (same meaning in both English and Dutch), a reference to the geographical texture of the Dutch homeland; the western portion of the Northern European plain. Although not as old as Diets, the term Nederlands has been in continuous use since 1250.


Dutch surnames (and surnames of Dutch origin) are generally easily recognizable.There are several main types of surnames in Dutch:
  • Patronymic surnames; the name is based on the personal name of the father of the bearer. Historically this has been by far the most dominant form. These type of names fluctuated in form as the surname was not constant. If a man called Willem Janssen (William, John's son) had a son named Jacob, he would be known as Jacob Willemsen (Jacob, Williams' son). Following civil registry, the form at time of registry became permanent. Hence today many Dutch people are named after ancestors living in the early 1800s when civil registry was introduced to the Low Countries. These names rarely feature tussenvoegsels.
  • Surnames relating to geographical origin; the name is based on the location on which the bearer lives or lived. In Dutch this form of surname nearly always includes one or several tussenvoegsels, mainly van, van de and variants. Many immigrants removed the spacing, leading to derived names for well known people like Cornelius Vanderbilt. While "van" denotes "of", Dutch surnames are sometimes associated with the upper class of society or aristocracy (cf. William of Orange). However, in Dutch van often reflects the original place of origin (Van Der Bilt - He who comes from Biltmarker); rather than denote any aristocratic status.
  • Surnames relating to Occupation; the name is based on the occupation of the bearer. Well known examples include Molenaar, Visser and Smit. This practice is similar to English surnames (the example names translate perfectly to Miller, Fisher and Smith).
  • Surnames relating to physical appearance/other feature; the name is based on the appearance or character of the bearer (at least at the time of registration). For example "De Lange" (the tall one), "De Groot" (the big one), "De Dappere" (the brave one).
  • Other surnames may relate to animals. For example; De Leeuw (The Lion), Vogels (Birds), Koekkoek (Cuckoo) and Devalck (The Falcon); to a desired social status; e.g., Prins (Prince), De Koninck (King), De Keyzer (Emperor). There is also a set of made up or descriptive names; e.g. Naaktgeboren (born naked).

Dutch names can differ greatly in spelling. The surname Baks, for example is also recorded as Backs, Bacxs, Bakx, Baxs, Bacx Backx, Bakxs and Baxcs. Though written differently, pronunciation remains identical. Dialectal variety also commonly occurs, with De Smet and De Smit both meaning Smith for example. Surnames of Dutch migrants in foreign environments (mainly the Anglosphere and Francophonie) are often adapted, not only in pronunciation but also in spelling.



Prior to the arrival of Christianity, the ancestors of the Dutch adhered to a form of Germanic paganism augmented with various Celtic elements. At the start of the 6th century the first (Hiberno-Scottish) missionaries arrived. They were later replaced by Anglo-Saxon missionaries, who eventually succeeded in converting most of the inhabitants by the 8th century. Since then Christianity has been the dominant religion in the region. In the early 16th century the Protestant Reformation began to form and soon spread in the Westhoek and the County of Flanders, where secret open-air sermons were held, called hagenpreken ("hedgerow orations") in Dutch. The ruler of the Dutch regions, Philip II of Spain, felt it was his duty to fight Protestantism, and, after the wave of iconoclasm, sent troops to crush the rebellion and make the Low Countries a Catholic region once more. The Protestants in the Southern Low Countries fled North en masse. Most of the Dutch Protestants were now concentrated in the free Dutch provinces North of the river Rhinemarker, while the Catholic Dutch were situated in the Spanish occupied or dominated South. After the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, Protestantism did not spread South, resulting in a difference in religious situations that lasts to this day.

[[Image:Dutch religion map.png|225px|thumb|right|Traditional religion within the Netherlands and Flanders:

Contemporary Dutch are generally nominally Christians. People of Dutch ancestry in the United States are generally more religious than their European counterparts; for example the numerous Dutch communities of western Michigan remain strongholds of the Reformed Church in America, and the Christian Reformed Church, both descendants of the Dutch Reformed Church.

Cultural divergences

Although the actual differences are often exaggerated, internal divergences play a part in the daily life within the Dutch-speaking region and are factors in personal identification among its inhabitants. One division is that between the Protestant North and the Catholic South, which encompasses various cultural differences between the Northern Dutch on one side and the Southern Dutch on the other. This subject has historically received attention from historians, notably Pieter Geyl (1887-1966) and Carel Gerretson (1884-1958). The historical pluriformity of the Dutch cultural landscape has given rise to several theories aimed at both identifying and explaining cultural divergences between different regions. One theory, proposed by A.J. Wichers in 1965, sees differences in mentality between the southeastern, or 'higher', and northwestern, or 'lower' regions within the Netherlands, and seeks to explain these by referring to the different degrees to which these areas were feudalised during the Middle Ages. Another, more recent cultural divide is that between the Randstad, the urban agglomeration in the West of the country, and the other provinces.

In Dutch, the cultural division between North and South is also referred to by the colloquialism "below/above the great rivers" as the rivers Rhinemarker and Meusemarker roughly form a natural boundary between the Northern Dutch (those Dutch living North of these rivers), and the Southern Dutch (those living South of them). The cultural boundary between the Dutch hence lies in the Netherlands, not, as is sometimes assumed, between the Netherlands and Flanders. The division is partially caused by (traditional) religious differences, with the North predominantly Protestant and the South having a majority of Catholics. Linguistic (dialectal) differences (positioned along the Rhinemarker/Meuse riversmarker [sic].) and to a lesser extent, historical economic development of both regions are also important elements in any dissimilarity. Even though the modern economic model of both Northern Belgium and the Netherlands is rather similar (focusing on the major, agglomerating, ports of Rotterdam and Antwerp and with their respective GDP per capita being fairly close.)

On a smaller scale cultural pluriformity can also be found; be it in local architecture or (perceived) character. For example; though the Southern Dutch as a whole are often ascribed such features as being jovial, laid-back and bon vivants, within the region itself the people or certain areas; such as West-Flemmingsmarker, are generally perceived as rustic, whereas Limburgers are seen as slow. This wide array of regional identities positioned within such a relatively small area; has often been attributed to the fact that many of the current Dutch and Belgian provinces were de-facto independant states for much of their history; as well as the importance of local Dutch dialects (which often largely correspond with the provinces themselves) to the people who speak them.

Northern Dutch culture

Northern Dutch cultural area.
Northern Dutch culture is marked by Protestantism. Though today many do not adhere to Protestantism anymore, or are only nominally part of a congregation, Protestant (influenced) values and custom are present. Generally, it can be said the Northern Dutch are more pragmatic, favor a direct approach and display a less exuberant lifestyle when compared to Southerners. On a global scale, the Northern Dutch have formed the dominant vanguard of the Dutch language and culture since the fall of Antwerp, exemplified by the use of 'Dutch' itself as the demonym for the country in which they form a majority; the Netherlandsmarker. Linguistically, Northerners speak any of the Hollandic, Zealandic and Dutch Low Saxon dialects natively, or are influenced by them when they speak the Standard form of Dutch. Economically and culturally the traditional center of the region have been the provinces of North and South Hollandmarker, or today; the Randstadmarker, although for a brief period during the 1200s/1300s it lay in east, when various eastern towns and cities aligned themselves with the emerging Hanseatic League. The entire Northern Dutch cultural area is located in the Netherlandsmarker, its ethnically Dutch population is estimated to be just under 10,000,000.

Southern Dutch culture

Southern Dutch cultural area.
The Southern Dutch sphere generally consists of the areas in which the population was traditionally Catholic. During the early Middle Ages up until the Dutch Revolt, the Southern regions were more powerful, as well as more culturally and economically developed. At the end of the Dutch Revolt, it became clear the Habsburgs were unable to reconquer the North, while the North's military was too weak to conquer the South, which, under the influence of the Counter-Reformation, had started to develop a political and cultural identity of its own. The Southern Dutch, including Dutch Brabant and Limburg, remained Catholic or returned to Catholicism. The Dutch dialects spoken by this group are Brabantic, Limburgish and East and West Flemish. Unlike the Northern Dutch, Southerners are spread out between three countries; Belgiummarker (where they are known as Flemings), the Netherlandsmarker and a small minority living in France. In the Netherlands, an oft-used adage used for indicating this cultural boundary is the phrase boven/onder de rivieren (Dutch: above/below the rivers), in which 'the rivers' refer to the river Rhinemarker and Meusemarker. The total population of the Southern Dutch cultural sphere is estimated to be at 9,500,000.

With the revolt of 1830 resulting in the creation of the country, Belgium, there now existed a strained interplay between the two countries. In the Netherlands the revolt was a traumatic experience and resulted in a reticent and contentious relationship with the newly formed Belgium and a largely indifferent attitude towards its Dutch-speaking inhabitants. In Belgium the bliss of the revolt soon shifted as the Dutch language and culture were oppressed by the new Francophone government. The following social struggle between Dutch-speakers of Belgium, or Flemings as they began calling themselves (reminiscent of the County of Flanders, a rich and powerful medieval fief known for its struggles with France) and French-speakers would eventually transform Belgium from a unitary to a federal state.

It is a subject of debate to what extent the Dutch and the Dutch-speaking Belgians/Flemings together form a single cultural community. This can be explained to some degree, by taking into account the popular stereotypes that exists in both the Netherlands and Flanders; which are mostly based on the 'cultural extremes' of both Northern and Southern culture, and tend to ignore the transitional area formed by the Southern provinces of the Netherlands and most Northern reaches of Belgium.

Regardless, untill 1980 the current Flemish Community was in fact called the Dutch Cultural Community. Since the end of World War II and the establishment of the European Union, there has been a growing interest in the preservation of what is often called 'Dutch(ophone) Culture' among the various governments of Flanders/Belgium and the Netherlands. Resulting in various "Cultural treaties" between the Flemish and Dutch governments, as well as an international Dutch-language broadcasting channel (BVN) and linguistic cooperation (Taalunie) among others.

Dutch diaspora

Since World War II, Dutch Emigrants mainly went to the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and (until the 1970s) to South Africa. Today Dutch immigrants can be found in most developed countries. In several former Dutch colonies and trading settlements, there are isolated ethnic groups of full or partial Dutch ancestry.

Eastern Europe

During the German eastward expansion (mainly taking place between the 10th and 13th century AD) a number of Dutchmen also moved east of their traditional homelands. Mainly settling east of the Elbe and Saalemarker rivers, regions largely inhabited by Polabian Slavs After the capture of territory along the Elbe and Havel Rivers in the 1160s, Dutch settlers from flooded regions in Hollandmarker used their expertise to build dikes in Brandenburgmarker, but also settled in and around major German cities such as Bremen and Hamburg and German regions of Mecklenburg and Brandenburgmarker. From the 13th to the 15th centuries, Prussia invited several waves of Dutch and Frisians to settle throughout the country (mainly along the Baltic Seamarker coast)

In the early-to-mid 1500s, Mennonites began to move from the Low Countries (especially Friesland and Flanders) to the Vistula delta region in Royal Prussia, seeking religious freedom and exemption from military service. When the Prussian government eliminated exemption from military service on religious grounds, the Mennonites emigrated to Russiamarker. They were offered land along the Volga River. Some settlers left for Siberiamarker in search for fertile land. The Russian capital itself, Moscowmarker, also had a number of Dutch immigrants, mostly working as craftsmen. Arguably the most famous of which was Anna Mons, the mistress of Peter the Great.

Historically Dutch also lived directly East of the German border, most have since been assimilated (apart from ~40,000 recent border migrants), especially since the establishment of Germany itself in 1872. Cultural marks can still be found though. In some villages and towns a Dutch Reformed church is present, and a number of border districts (such as Clevesmarker, Borkenmarker and Viersenmarker) have towns and village with an etymologically Dutch origin. In the area around Clevesmarker (Ger.Kleve, Du. Kleef) traditional dialect is Dutch, rather than surrounding (High/Low) German. More to the South, cities historically housing many Dutch traders have retained Dutch exonyms for example Aachenmarker (Aken) and Cologne/Köln (Keulen) to this day.

Southern Africa

In South Africa, the Dutch settled the Cape in 1652. Initially the settlement was meant as a re-supply point and way station for Dutch East India Company vessels on their way back and forth between the Netherlands and the East Indies.

The support station gradually became a settler community. However, the rural inhabitants of the colony soon began to dislike the power held by the Dutch India Company (it stopped the colony's policy of open immigration, monopolized trade, combined the administrative, legislative and judicial powers into one body, told the farmers what crops to grow, demanded a large percentage of every farmer's harvest, and harassed them.)

Slowly these farmers moved away from the Cape, eventually becoming known as 'trekboers', and settled deeper into South Africa and eventually Namibiamarker. Today the Boers and Cape Dutch are known collectively as the Afrikaners, while the descendants of Cape Dutch and local black women are known as the Basters.

Their main language is Afrikaans, a form of creolized Dutch, which was considered a Dutch dialect until the late 19th century. Afrikaans and Dutch are mutually intelligible, though this relation can in some fields (such as lexicon, spelling and grammar) be asymmetric, as it is easier for Dutch-speakers to understand Afrikaans than it is for Afrikaans-speakers to understand Dutch.

Southeast Asia

Since the 16th century, there has been a Dutch presence in South East Asia, Taiwan and Japanmarker. In many cases the Dutch were the first Europeans the natives would encounter. Between 1602 and 1796, the VOC sent almost a million Europeans to work in the Asia. The majority died of disease or made their way back to Europe, but some of them made the Indies their new home. Interaction between the Dutch and native population mainly took place in Sri Lankamarker and the modern Indonesian Islands. Most of the time Dutch soldiers intermarried with local women and settled down in the colonies. Through the centuries there developed a relatively large Dutch-speaking population of mixed Dutch and Indonesian descent, known as Indos or Dutch-Indonesians. The expulsion of Dutchmen following the Indonesian Revolt, means that currently the majority of this group lives in the Netherlands.

Australia and New Zealand

:Main articles: Dutch New Zealanders, Australians of Dutch descent

Perhaps the most successful integration of Dutch people took place in Australia and New Zealand. After World War II, thousands of Dutch people emigrated to Australia, peaking in the late 1950s and early 1960s. There are 24 Dutch language programs around Australia and weekly and monthly Dutch news papers plus many social, community and religious clubs. Despite these figures, in both Australia and New Zealand Dutch people are highly integrated. Apart from the typical Dutch surnames many descendants bear, they are largely indistinguishable from the largest ethnic groups, the Anglo-Celtic Australians (85%) in Australia and other New Zealand Europeans in New Zealand. One major exception exists though, and this concerns senior citizens of Dutch decent, many of whom (because of old age or dementia) have lost the ability to speak English and fall back on their mother tongue; Dutch. A major social problem as they largely lack a way to communicate. Their children generally do not speak Dutch natively or sufficiently.

North America

The Dutch had settled in America long before the establishment of the United States of America. For a long time the Dutch lived in Dutch colonies, owned and regulated by the Dutch Republic, which later became part of the Thirteen Colonies.

Nevertheless, many Dutch communities remained virtually isolated towards the rest of America up until the American Civil War, in which the Dutch fought for the North and adopted many American ways.

Most future waves of Dutch immigrants were quickly assimilated. There have been three American presidents of Dutch descent: Martin Van Buren (8th, first president who was not of British descent, first language was Dutch), Franklin D. Roosevelt (32nd, elected to four terms in office, he served from 1933 to 1945, the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms) and Theodore Roosevelt (26th).

In Canada 923,310 Canadians claim full or partial Dutch ancestry. The first Dutch people to come to Canada were Dutch Americans among the United Empire Loyalists. The largest wave was in the late 19th and early 20th century, when large numbers of Dutch helped settle the Canadian west. During this period significant numbers also settled in major cities like Torontomarker.

While interrupted by World War I, this migration returned in the 1920s, but again halted during the Great Depression and World War II. After the war a large number of Dutch immigrants moved to Canada, including a number of war brides of the Canadian soldiers who liberated the Low Countries.

Related ethno-linguistic groups


Frisians, specifically West Frisians, are an ethnic group; present in the North of the Netherlands; mainly concentrating in the Province of Friesland. Culturally, modern Frisians and the (Northern) Dutch are rather similar; the main and generally most important difference being that Frisians speak West Frisian, one of the three subbranches of the Frisian language, alongside Dutch.

Historically the area that was known as 'Frisia', was much larger than it is now. At its peak around the 720s it stretched from Western Flandersmarker to southern Denmarkmarker. It should be noted that a clear Frisian identity did not exist at this time, as during the 8th century, both the people inhabiting the region as well as most of the Germanic dialects they spoke (Old Saxon, Old Dutch and Old Frisian) were still quite similar to each other. After a long period of strife Charlemagne defeated the Frisians and consolidated the Frisian lands into the Frankish Empire. Soon after his death, these territories fell apart again, and, during the Middle Ages, the Frisian territories were autonomous, under the leadership of frequently changing tribal chiefs. After a series of wars with the Dutch, specifically the Counts of Holland, starting in 1272 and ending in 1524, Frisia lost its independence, became part of the Seventeen Provinces in 1579, joined the Dutch revolt against Spainmarker in 1568, and have remained a part of the Netherlands ever since.

Today there exists a tripartite of the original Frisians; namely the North Frisians, East Frisians and West Frisian, caused by the Frisia's constant loss of territory in the Middle Ages, but the West Frisians in the general do not feel or see themselves as part of a larger group of Frisians, and, according to a 1970 inquiry, identify themselves more with the Dutch than with East or North Frisians.

Because of centuries of cohabitation and active participation in Dutch society, as well as being bilingual, the Frisians are not treated as a separate group in Dutch official statistics.

See also



  1. 2001 Australian statistics (English)
  2. Based on figures given by Professor JA Heese in his book Die Herkoms van die Afrikaner (The Origins of Afrikaners), who claims the modern Afrikaners (who total around 4.5 million) have 35% Dutch heritage. How 'Pure' was the Average Afrikaner?
  3. According to
  4. Historian J. Huizinga, speaking on the 13th/14th century onwards; "The power of the Holy Roman Emperor had become almost imaginary [...]. (J.Huizinga 1936:1-2)
  5. The actual independence was accepted by in the 1648 treaty of Munster, in practice the Dutch Republic had been independent since the last decade of the 16th century)
  6. D.J. Noordam, "Demografische ontwikkelingen in West-Europa van de vijftiende tot het einde van de achttiende eeuw", in H.A. Diederiks e.a., Van agrarische samenleving naar verzorgingsstaat (Leiden 1993), 35-64, esp. 40
  7. The European Mind; the Critical Years; 1680-1715 by P. Hazard; Fordham University Press 1990. ISBN:0823212742]
  8. Smith Anthony D. (1999) Myths and memories of the Nation Oxford University Press. p.12 (English)
  9. Delanty,Gerard & Krishan Kumar (2006) The SAGE Handbook of Nations and Nationalism. SAGE. ISBN 1412901014 p. 171
  10. It should be stressed that this article uses the term 'Germanic' not in a genetic, but in an exclusively cultural and linguistic sense. Modern-day and contemporary (i.e Roman) sources reject the notion of the Germanic tribes in any way forming a genetically exclusive group.
  11. Britannica: "They were divided into three groups: the Salians, the Ripuarians, and the Chatti, or Hessians."( Link)
  12. Encyclopædia Britannica Online; entry 'History of the Low Countries'. 10 May. 2009;The Franks, who had settled in Toxandria, in Brabant, were given the job of defending the border areas, which they did until the mid-5th century
  13. 'Clovis' conversion to Christianity, regardless of his motives, is a turning point in Dutch history as the elite now changed their beliefs. Their choice would way down its way on the common folk, of whom many (especially in the Frankish heartland of Brabant and Flanders) were less enthousiastic than the ruling class. Taken from Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse stam, part I: till 1648. Page 203, 'A new religion', by Pieter Geyl. Wereldbibliotheek Amsterdam/Antwerp 1959.
  14. Encyclopædia Britannica Online; entry 'Dutch language' 10 May. 2009; "It derives from Low Franconian, the speech of the Western Franks, which was restructured through contact with speakers of North Sea Germanic along the coast."
  15. Encyclopædia Britannica Online; entry 'West Germanic languages'. 10 May. 2009;restructured Frankish—i.e., Dutch;
  16. W. Pijnenburg, A. Quak, T. Schoonheim & D. Wortel, Oudnederlands Woordenboek.
  17. Encyclopædia Britannica Online; entry 'History of the Low Countries'. 10 May. 2009;The administrative organization of the Low Countries (...) was basically the same as that of the rest of the Frankish empire.
  18. Encyclopædia Britannica Online; entry 'History of the Low Countries'. 10 May. 2009;During the 6th century, Salian Franks had settled in the region between the Loire River in present-day France and the Coal Forest in the south of present-day Belgium. From the late 6th century, Ripuarian Franks pushed from the Rhineland westward to the Schelde. Their immigration strengthened the Germanic faction in that region, which had been almost completely evacuated by the Gallo-Romans.
  19. Encyclopædia Britannica Online; entry 'Fleming and Walloon'. 12 May. 2009;The northern Franks retained their Germanic language (which became modern Dutch), whereas the Franks moving south rapidly adopted the language of the culturally dominant Romanized Gauls, the language that would become French. The language frontier between northern Flemings and southern Walloons has remained virtually unchanged ever since.
  20. Delanty,Gerard & Krishan Kumar (2006) The SAGE Handbook of Nations and Nationalism. SAGE. ISBN 1412901014 p. 171
  21. Encyclopædia Britannica Online; entry 'History of the Low Countries'. 10 May. 2009;Thus, the town in the Low Countries became a communitas (sometimes called corporatio or universitas)—a community that was legally a corporate body, could enter into alliances and ratify them with its own seal, could sometimes even make commercial or military contracts with other towns, and could negotiate directly with the prince.
  22. Encyclopædia Britannica Online; entry 'History of the Low Countries'. 10 May. 2009;The development of a town’s autonomy sometimes advanced somewhat spasmodically as a result of violent conflicts with the prince. The citizens then united, forming conjurationes (sometimes called communes)—fighting groups bound together by an oath—as happened during a Flemish crisis in 1127–28 in Ghent and Brugge and in Utrecht in 1159.
  23. Encyclopædia Britannica Online; entry 'History of the Low Countries'. 10 May. 2009;All the towns formed a new, non-feudal element in the existing social structure, and from the beginning merchants played an important role. The merchants often formed guilds, organizations that grew out of merchant groups and banded together for mutual protection while traveling during this violent period, when attacks on merchant caravans were common.
  24. Encyclopædia Britannica Online; entry 'History of the Low Countries'. 10 May. 2009;The achievements of the Flemish partisans inspired their colleagues in Brabant and Liège to revolt and raise similar demands; Flemish military incursions provoked the same reaction in Dordrecht and Utrecht
  25. Etymologisch Woordenboek van het Nederlands entry "Diets". (Dutch)
  26. Smith Anthony D. (1999) Myths and memories of the Nation Oxford University Press. p.13 (English)
  27. J. Huizinga (1960: 62)
  28. Also note that the document itself clearly distinguishes between the Dutch and French parts of the Seventeen provinces. ( Link to 1477 document)
  29. M.O. Heisler, "Ethnicity and Ethnic Relations in the Modern West", in J.V. Montville (ed.), Conflict and Peacemaking in Multiethnic Societies (New York 1991), 21-52.
  30. Shetter (2002), 201
  31. J. Knipscheer and R. Kleber, Psychologie en de multiculturele samenleving (Amsterdam 2005), 76 ff.
  32. cf. Pan-Germanism, Pan-Slavism and many other Greater state movements of the day.
  33. Het nationaal-socialistische beeld van de geschiedenis der Nederlanden, ISBN 90 6194 032, by I. Schöffer. Amsterdam University Press. 2006. Page 92.
  34. For example explicit orders not to create of a voluntary Dutch Waffen SS division comprising of soldiers from the Netherlands and Flanders. ( Link to documents)
  35. Cf. G. Parker, The Dutch Revolt (1985), 33-36, and Knippenberg & De Pater, De eenwording van Nederland (1988), 17 ff.
  36. Source, the aforementioned 3rd chapter (p3), together with the initial paragraphs of chapter 4, on the establishment of the Dutch Republic.
  37. United Nations Research Institute For Social Development Project on; 'Ethnic Structure, Inequality and Governance of the Public Sector'. (2004) by K. Deschouwer. Page 3 ff; introduction.
  38. In the 1950s (the peak of traditional emigration) about 350,000 people left the Netherlands, mainly to Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the United States and South Africa. About one-fifth returned. The maximum Dutch-born emigrant stock for the 1950s is about 300,000 (some have died since). The maximum emigrant stock (Dutch-born) for the period after 1960 is 1.6 million. Discounting pre-1950 emigrants (who would be about 85 or older), at most around 2 million people born in the Netherlands are now living outside the country. Combined with the 13,1 million ethnically Dutch inhabitants of the Netherlands, there are about 16 million people who are Dutch, in a minimally accepted sense. Autochtone population at 1 January 2006, Central Statistics Bureau, Integratiekaart 2006, external link) (Dutch)
  39. "Maltho thi afrio lito" is the oldest attested (Old) Dutch sentence, found in the Salic Law, a legal text written around 500 AD.(Source; the Old Dutch dictionary) (Dutch)
  40. Taaluniversum website on the Dutch dialects and main groupings. (Dutch)
  41. No, America's never been a multicultural society
  42. 2006 New Zealand Census.
  43. As many as 100,000 New Zealanders are estimated to have Dutch blood in their veins (some 2.1% of the current population of New Zealand).
  44. Until World War II, Nederlander was used synonym with Diets. However the similarity to Deutsch resulted in its disuse when the German occupiers and Dutch fascists extensively used that name to stress the Dutch as an ancient Germanic people. (Source; Etymologisch Woordenboek) (Dutch)
  45. (English) and Etymologisch Woordenboek van het Nederlands (Dutch) entries "Dutch" and "Diets".
  46. See J. Verdam, Middelnederlandsch handwoordenboek (The Hague 1932 (reprinted 1994)): "Nederlant, znw. o. I) Laag of aan zee gelegen land. 2) het land aan den Nederrijn; Nedersaksen, -duitschland." (Dutch)
  47. Author M. Vanhalme on the use of 'Low Countries'. (De Nederlanden) (Dutch)
  48. neder- corresponds with the English nether-, which means "low" or "down". See Online etymological dictionary. Entry: Nether. (English)
  49. See the history section of the Vanderbilt family article, or visit this link.
  50. "It is a common mistake of Americans, or anglophones in general, to think that the 'van' in front of a Dutch name signifies nobility." ( Source.); "Von may be observed in German names denoting nobility while the van, van der, van de and van den (whether written separately or joined, capitalized or not) stamp the bearer as Dutch and merely mean 'at', 'at the', 'of', 'from' and 'from the' ( Source:, ( Institute for Dutch surnames, in Dutch)
  51. Most common names of occupational origin. Source 1947 Dutch census. (Dutch)
  52. The Anglo-Saxon Church - Catholic Encyclopedia article
  53. The Dutch Republic Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall 1477-1806, ISBN 0-19-820734-4
  54. A 2004 study conducted by Statistics Netherlands shows that 50% of the population claim to belong to a Christian denomination, 9% to other denominations and 42% to none. In the same study 19% of the people claim go to church at least once a month, another 9% less than once a month, 72% hardly ever or never. Statistical Yearbook of the Netherlands 2006, page 43
  55. Religion in the Netherlands, by Statistics Netherlands. (Dutch)
  56. Nederlandse en Vlaamse identiteit, Betekenis, onderlinge relatie en perspectief. Civis Mundi, 2006. (Dutch)
  57. 'Though in everyday speech people like to speak of 'Hollandic' (the entirety of the Netherlands, red.) and 'Flemish' spheres as main cultural antagonists, the true cultural boundary is situated in North-Brabant and Dutch Limburg'. As quoted from Ons Erfdeel based on Nederlandse cultuur in internationaal verband, Prometheus, Amsterdam, 1995. (Dutch)
  58. A.M. van der Woude, Nederland over de schouder gekeken (Utrecht 1986), 11-12. (Dutch)
  59. Which, other than a political divide is no boundary of a linguistic, religious or clearly cultural nature.
  60. See the (referenced) list here.
  61. Dutch Culture in a European Perspective; by D. Fokkema, 2004, Assen.
  62. Voor wie Nederland en Vlaanderen wil leren kennen. By J. Wilmots
  63. Estimate based on the population of the Netherlands, without the Southern Provinces and non-Ethnic Dutch.
  64. Cf. Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt: "Gradually a consistent attitude emerged, a sort of 'collective identity' which was distinct and able to resist the inroads, intellectual as well as military, of both the Northern Dutch (especially during the crisis of 1632) and the French. This embryonic 'national identity' was an impressive monument to the government of the archdukes, and it survived almost forty years of grueling warfare (1621-59) and the invasions of Louis XIV until, in 1700, the Spanish Habsburgs died out." (Penguin edition 1985, p. 260). See also J. Israel, The Dutch Republic, 1477-1806, 461-463 (Dutch language version).
  65. Estimate based on the Southern Provinces of the Netherlands and Flanders, without non-Ethnic Dutch.
  66. Geschiedenis van de Nederlanden, by J.C.H Blom and E. Lamberts, ISBN 9 789055 744756; page 383. (Dutch)
  67. Nederlandse en Vlaamse identiteit, Civis Mundi 2006 by S.W Couwenberg. IBSN 90 5573 688 0. Page 62. Quote: "Er valt heel wat te lachen om de wederwaardigheden van Vlamingen in Nederland en Nederlanders in Vlaanderen. Ze relativeren de verschillen en beklemtonen ze tegelijkertijd. Die verschillen zijn er onmiskenbaar: in taal, klank, kleur, stijl, gedrag, in politiek, maatschappelijke organisatie, maar het zijn stuk voor stuk varianten binnen één taal-en cultuurgemeenschap." The opposite opinion is stated by L. Beheydt (2002): "Al bij al lijkt een grondiger analyse van de taalsituatie en de taalattitude in Nederland en Vlaanderen weinig aanwijzingen te bieden voor een gezamenlijke culturele identiteit. Dat er ook op andere gebieden weinig aanleiding is voor een gezamenlijke culturele identiteit is al door Geert Hofstede geconstateerd in zijn vermaarde boek Allemaal andersdenkenden (1991)." L. Beheydt, "Delen Vlaanderen en Nederland een culturele identiteit?", in P. Gillaerts, H. van Belle, L. Ravier (eds.), Vlaamse identiteit: mythe én werkelijkheid (Leuven 2002), 22-40, esp. 38. (Dutch)
  68. Dutch Culture in a European Perspective: Accounting for the past, 1650-2000; by D. Fokkema, 2004, Assen.
  69. Geschiedenis van de Nederlanden, by J.C.H Blom and E. Lamberts, ISBN 9 789055 744756; page 384/385. (Dutch)
  70. Taschenatlas Weltgeschichte, part 1, by H. Kinder and W. Hilgemann. ISBN 978-90-5574-565-4, page 171. (German)
  71. Boise State University thesis by E.L. Knox on the German Eastward Expansion ('Ostsiedlung') (English)
  72. Voortrekkers van Oud-Nederland; from Nederlands Geschiedenis buiten de grenzen" by J. Dekker (Dutch)
  73. Dutch and Flemish Colonization in Mediaeval Germany, by James Westfall Thompson (English)
  74. Article on Dutch settlers in Poland published by the Polish Genealogical Society of America and written by Z. Pentek (English)
  75. Article published by the Mercator Research center on Dutch settlers in Siberia (English)
  76. Oxford Journal on Mutual Comprehensibility of Written Afrikaans and Dutch
  77. Nomination VOC archives for Memory of the World Register (English)
  78. Easternization of the West: Children of the VOC (English)
  79. Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2003, "Population characteristics: Ancestry of Australia's population" (from Australian Social Trends, 2003). Retrieved September 1, 2006.
  80. The U.S. declared its independence in 1776; the first Dutch settlement was built in 1614: Fort Nassau, where presently Albany, New York is positioned.
  81. How the Dutch became Americans, American Civil War. (includes reference on fighting for the North) (English)
  82. On the history of the Frisian language.
  83. An article by the Academy of Dutch Studies in Vienna, on the history of the Frisian language/people (English, also available in German and Dutch)
  84. Frisia. 'Facts and fiction' (1970), by D. Tamminga. (Dutch)

Further reading

  • Die Niederlande. Geschichte und Sprache der Nördlichen und Südlichen Niederlande. J. A Kossmann-Putto and E.H. Kossmann, 1993.
  • Dutch South Africa: early settlers at the Cape, 1652 – 1708. By John Hunt, Heather-Ann Campbell. Troubador Publishing Ltd 2005, ISBN 1904744958.
  • Geschiedenis van de Nederlanden. By J.C.H. Blom et al.
  • Handgeschreven wereld. Nederlandse literatuur en cultuur in de middeleeuwen. By D. Hogenelst and Frits van Oostrom, 1995, Amsterdam.
  • The Dutch in America, 1609 – 1974. By Gerald Francis De Jong. Twayne Publishers 1975, ISBN 0805732144
  • The Dutch in Brazil, 1624-1654. By Charles R. Boxer. The Clarendon press, Oxford, 1957, ISBN 0208013385
  • The Persistence of Ethnicity: Dutch Calvinist pioneers. By Rob Kroes. University of Illinois Press 1992, ISBN 0252019318
  • The Undutchables}}. By White & Boucke, ISBN 1-888580-32-1.
  • The Xenophobe's Guide to the Dutch. By Rodney Bolt. Oval Projects Ltd 1999, ISBN 190282525X
  • Voor wie Nederland en Vlaanderen will leren kennen. By J. Wilmots and J. De Rooij, 1978, Hasselt/Diepenbeek.

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