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A dynasty is a succession of people belonging to the same family, who, through various means and forms maintain power, influence or authority over the course of generations. Most commonly the term is used specifically in reference to royal houses and imperial dynasties — their authority manifests itself as the sovereign of a state or territory. Usually in much of the world, such dynasties and noble houses are defined patrilineally, with inheritance and kinship being predominantly viewed and legally calculated through descent from a common ancestor in the male line. The female line is normally only considered once the male lineage has died out. Other forms of dynasties include political families in republics and also with the rise of mercantilism prominent business and financial dynasties. These do not carry the public prestige of a monarch but are influential.

Dynasts

A ruler in a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a dynast, but this term is also used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains succession rights to a throne. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a dynastic member of the House of Windsor.

A "dynastic marriage" is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, so that the descendants are eligible to inherit the throne and/or other royal privileges. For instance, the 2002 marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange to Máxima Zorreguieta was dynastic, and their eldest child is expected to eventually inherit the Dutchmarker crown. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support and parliamentary approval. Thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and his children have no dynastic rights.

In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, dynastic describes a family member who would have succession rights if the monarchy's rules were still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Max was bypassed for the Austrian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Max and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position.

The term "dynast" is sometimes used to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, and sometimes to those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, Viscount Linley, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her late sister, Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown, and in that sense is a British dynast. Yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor.

On the other hand, the German aristocrat Ernst August, Prince of Hanover (born 1954), although a male-line descendant of George III of the United Kingdom, is a remote descendant with no legal British titles and styles (although he is entitled to re-claim the once-royal dukedom of Cumberland). Yet he was born in the line of succession to the British crown and is bound by the Royal Marriages Act 1772. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained formal permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. But immediately upon marriage he forfeited his right to the British throne because the English Act of Settlement 1701 dictates that dynasts married to a Roman Catholic are considered dead for the purpose of succession. However, the couple's daughter, Princess Alexandra of Hanover (born 1999), remains a legal dynast of both the United Kingdom and Monaco , not to mention her father's claim to dynasticity as pretender to the former royal crown of Hanover.

Dynasties by region

Africa

Chadmarker



Egyptmarker



Ethiopiamarker



Guineamarker



Moroccomarker



Somaliamarker



Americas

Araucania and Patagonia



Brazilmarker



Haitimarker



Inca Empire



Mexicomarker



Pacificmarker

Hawaiimarker



New Zealand Māori



Tahitimarker



Tongamarker



Asia

Afghanistanmarker



Chinamarker



Ancient India (Central and South Pakistan, Indiamarker, Bangladeshmarker)



Afghanistan North West Pakistan Balochistan Turkistan Kharasan



Sri Lankamarker

North


South


Israelmarker



Japanmarker



Ryūkyūmarker


Koreamarker



Maldivesmarker



Malaysiamarker



Mongoliamarker



Myanmarmarker



Philippinesmarker

Royal Families

  • Malay Dyasties




  • Hindu Dyasties




  • Muslim Dynasties




Business Houses



Political Dynasties in the Republic

  • The Macapagal Family (1660-Present)
  • The Aquinomarker Revolutionary Dynasty (1874-Present)
  • The Lacson Family (1857-Present)


Saudi Arabiamarker



Tibet



Thailandmarker

  • Hari Pun Chai dynasty (663-1293)
  • Phra Roung dynasty (Sukhothai Empire) (1237-1438)
  • Mangrai dynasty (1261- 1578)
  • Eu Thong dynasty (1350-1370),(1388-1409)
  • Suphanabhumi dynasty (1370-1350),(1409-1569)
  • Phra Roung Dynasty (Ayuthaya Empire) (1569-1629)
  • Prasart Thong dynasty (1629-1688)
  • Bann Plu Luang dynasty (1688-1767)
  • Thonburi dynasty (1767-1782)
  • Chakri dynasty (1782-present)


Viet Nammarker



Champa
  • 1st dynasty (192 - 336)
  • 2nd dynasty (336 - 420)
  • 3rd dynasty (420 - 529)
  • 4th dynasty (529 - 758)
  • 5th dynasty (758 - 854)
  • 6th dynasty (854 - 989)
  • 7th dynasty (989 - 1044)
  • 8th dynasty (1044 - 1074)
  • 9th dynasty (1074 - 1139)
  • 10th dynasty (1139 - 1145)
  • 11th dynasty (1145 - 1190)
  • 12th dynasty (1190 - 1318)
  • 13th dynasty (1318 - 1390)
  • 14th dynasty (1390 - 1458)
  • 15th dynasty (1458 - 1471)
  • vacant (1471 - 1695)
  • Dynasty of Po Saktiraidaputih (1695 - 1822)


Europe

Austriamarker



Albaniamarker



Armeniamarker



Belgiummarker



Bulgariamarker



Barbarians

Bavarii


Franks


Lombards
See Early kings of the Lombards.


the Netherlandsmarker



Ostrogoths


Vandals


Visigoths


Byzantine Empire



Croatiamarker



Denmarkmarker



Francemarker



Georgiamarker



Germanymarker

Bavariamarker
Saxonymarker


Hungarymarker



Monacomarker



Montenegromarker



Iberiamarker

Aragonmarker


Asturiasmarker, Spainmarker


Barcelona


Castile


Leónmarker


Navarremarker


Portugalmarker


Spainmarker
Before the unification of Castile and Aragon


After the unification of Castile and Aragon


Irelandmarker



Italymarker



Norwaymarker



Turkeymarker



Polandmarker



Roman Empire



Romaniamarker



Russiamarker



Serbiamarker



Swedenmarker



Two Sicilies

Sicily


British Islesmarker (under English rule)

Englandmarker


Irelandmarker


Scotlandmarker


Kingdoms after the Union of the Crowns(1603-1707)
The crown of the Kingdom of England and Ireland merged with that of the Kingdom of Scotland to form a personal union between England-Ireland and Scotland (the former a personal union itself)
Personal Union between Great Britain and Ireland (1707-1801)
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801-1921)
Personal Union of the UK [of GB and NI] and several other Irish states (1921-1949)
UK [of GB and NI] (Without the personal union with Ireland) (1949-present)


Political families in Republics

Though in elected governments rule does not pass automatically by inheritance, political power often accrues to generations of related individuals even in Republics. Eminence, Influence, familiarity, tradition, genetics, and even nepotism may contribute to this phenomenon.

Family dictatorships are a slightly different concept, where political power passes within a family due to the overwhelming authority of the leader, rather than informal power accrued to the family.

Some political dynasties:

References




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