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This article is about the Iranian province; for similar uses, see Azerbaijan .


East Azerbaijan or East Azarbaijan ( ; Azeri: شرقی آذربایجان) is one of the 30 province of Iranmarker. It is in the northwest of the country, bordering Armeniamarker and the Republic of Azerbaijanmarker, and the provinces of Ardabilmarker, West Azerbaijanmarker, and Zanjanmarker. Its capital is Tabrizmarker.

Geography

The province covers an area of approximately 47,830 km², it has a population of around four million people. According to the latest divisions of the country in 1996, the counties of this province are:Aharmarker, Ajabshirmarker, Bostan Abadmarker, Bonabmarker, Tabrizmarker, Jolfamarker, Sarabmarker, Shabestarmarker, Kaleybarmarker, Maraghamarker, Marandmarker, Malekan, Miyana, Heris, and Hashtrood. The historical city of Tabrizmarker is the most important city of this province, culturally, politically, and commercially. The province has common borders with the current Republics of Azerbaijan, Armenia and Nakhchivan. A fine network of roads and railways connect East Azerbaijan to other parts of Iranmarker and also to neighboring countries.

The highest peak of East Azerbaijan is Sahand Mountain at 3,722 m of elevation, lying south of Tabrizmarker, whereas the lower lying areas are around Garmadooz (Ahar). The heights of the province may be classified into three sectors, namely: the Qara Daq Mountains, the Sahand and Bozqoosh Mountains, and the Qaflan Kooh Mountains.

Generally speaking, East Azerbaijan enjoys a cool, dry climate, being in the main a mountainous region. But the gentle breezes off the Caspian Seamarker have some influence on the climate of the low-lying areas. Temperatures run up to 8.9 °C in Tabriz, and 20 °C in Maraqeh, in the winter dropping to -10-15 °C at least (depending on how cold the overall year is) . The ideal seasons to visit this province are in the spring and summer months.

Image:arg.jpg| Arg-e TabrizmarkerFile:Tabriz_City_Hall.jpg| Tabriz MunicipalitymarkerImage:Blue Mosque06.jpg| Blue Mosque, insideImage:Bazaar of Tabriz01.jpg| A timcheh in bazaar of TabrizmarkerImage:Shohada Mosque.jpg| Shohada MosquemarkerImage:Catholic church of tabriz.jpg|Catholic church of tabrizImage:Saheb ol Amr01 .jpg|Saheb ol Amr MosquemarkerImage:Blue Mosque03.jpg| Blue MosqueImage:Arasbaran1.jpg| Arasbaran Forests, a UNESCOmarker reserved biosphere.Image:East Azerbaijan Moghan plain.jpg|Moghan PlainImage:Zonouzakh02.jpg | ZonouzakhImage:St-Stepanous-12.jpg| St. Stepanous Cathedral, JolfamarkerImage:Village troglodyte kandovan iran.jpg| kandovanmarkerImage:Zonouz10.jpg| Red bridge(Qizil kopru) in ZonouzmarkerImage:Zonouz17.jpg | ZonouzmarkerImage:Zonouz05.jpg | Zonouzmarker


History



East Azerbaijan is one of the most archaic territories in Iranmarker.During the reign of Alexander of Macedon in Iran (331 BCE), a warrior known as Attorpat led a revolt in this area, then a territory of the Medes, and thereafter it was called Attorpatkan. Since then this vicinity has been known as Azarabadegan, Azarbadgan and Azarbayjan.

Islamic researchers proclaim that the birth of the prophet Zoroaster was in this area, in the vicinity of Lake Orumieh (Chichesht), Konzak City. Needless to say, this province was subject to numerous political and economical upheavals, attracting the interest of foreigners. The Russians in particular have tried to exert a lasting influence in the region over the past 300 years, occupying the area on numerous occasions. The constitutionalist movement of Iran began here in the late 1800s.

Ethnic tensions in Azerbaijan can visibly trace their origins back to the colonialist policies of the Soviet Unionmarker and Imperial Russiamarker. In a cable sent on July 6 1945 by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unionmarker, the local Soviet commander in Russian (northern) held Azerbaijan was instructed as such:

"Begin preparatory work to form a national autonomous Azerbaijan district with broad powers 'within the Iranian state and simultaneously develop separatist movements in the provinces of Gilanmarker, Mazandaranmarker, Gorganmarker, and Khorasan".


Administrative divisions

Map Abbreviation in map County (Shahrestan)
A Ahar County
B Bonab Countymarker
BA Bostanabad County
H Heris County
HR Hashtrud County
K Kalibar Countymarker
Md Marand County
Mn Mianeh County
Mq Maragheh County
S Sarab County
Sh Shabestar County
T Tabriz County


Culture



The most outstanding features from a cultural point of view are the language, Azari, and folklore of this region. According to Dehkhoda Dictionary, the language of Azerbaijan is originally "a branch of the Iranian languages known as Azari" (see Ancient Azari language). Apart from this, the province also boasts numerous learned scholars, gnostics, several national poets such as Mowlana Baba Mazeed, Khajeh Abdol Raheem Aj Abadi, Sheikh Hassan Bolqari, and Abdolqader Nakhjavani, to name a few, and the contemporary poet Ostad Mohammad Hossein Shahriyar. The current leader of Iran, Ali Khamenei, also originally comes from this region.

Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization has registered 936 sites of historical significance in the province. Some are contemporary, and some are from the antiquity of ancient Persia. "Zahak Citadel", for example, is the name of an ancient ruin in East Azerbaijan, which according to various experts, was inhabited from the second millennium BC until the Timurid era. First excavated in the 1800s by British archeologists, Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization has been studying the structure in 6 phases.[59307]

East Azerbaijan hails from a rich compendium of Azeri traditions. Many local dances and folk songs continue to survive among the various peoples of the province. As a longstanding province of Iranmarker, Azerbaijan is mentioned favorably on many occasions in Persian literature by Iran's greatest authors and poets:

گزیده هر چه در ایران بزرگان

زآذربایگان و ری و گرگان

All the nobles and greats of Iran,

Choose from Azerbaijan, Raymarker, and Gorganmarker.

--Vis o Ramin

از آنجا بتدبیر آزادگان

بیامد سوی آذرآبادگان

From there the wise and the free,

set off to Azerbaijan

--Nizami

بیک ماه در آذرآبادگان

ببودند شاهان و آزادگان

For a month's time, The Kings and The Free,

Would choose in Azerbaijan to be

--Ferdowsi

Image:Maqbaratoshoara02.jpg| MaqbaratoshoaramarkerImage:Maqbaratoshoara03.jpg| MaqbaratoshoaramarkerImage:Maqbaratoshoara09.jpg| Maqbaratoshoaramarker, insideImage:Maqbaratoshoara10.jpg| Shahryar tomb, Maqbaratoshoaramarker, inside


Notables of East Azerbaijan





East Azerbaijan today



East Azerbaijan province is an industrial centre of Iranmarker. East Azerbaijan province has over 5000 manufacturing units, of which at least 800 are industrial (6% percent of national total). The value of product from these units in 1997 totalled US$374 million (373 billion rials = 4.07% of the national total). Total investments were valued at US$2.7 billion (2.4513 trillion rials) in 1997.[1]

Some of the major industries include Azerr glass industries, Maraqeh paper manufacturing, Ahar Sungun copper and nepheline syenite, the Tabriz Oil Refinery and Petrochemical Complex, Tabriz Tractor Manufacturing Co., Azerbaijan steel, foundry and auto-part manufacturing, food industries, leather and shoe industries, and the Tabriz Machine Manufacturing Co.

Tabriz also has an excellent position in the handicraft industry of Iranmarker, having a large share in the exports of the province. Tabriz carpets are widely known around the world and in international markets for their vibrant designs and colors. Without exaggeration, Iranian rugs owe their fame to the creative minds of the designers and the deft hands of the carpet weavers of East Azerbaijan.

At present there are about 66,000 carpet production units in the province, employing some 200,000 people. The annual production of these carpets is roughly 792,000 m², which comprises more than 70% of Iranmarker's carpet exports. 35% of all Iranian carpets are produced in East Azerbaijan.

East Azerbaijan province is also one of the richest regions of Iranmarker in natural minerals, with 180 mines in 1997, of which 121 units are currently in operation, and the rest are being planned.

UNESCOmarker has two Biosphere reserves in East Azerbaijan province. One in Lake Urmiamarker and the other at Arasbaran.

Image:Modern tabriz03.jpg| Saman Bank corp., TabrizmarkerImage:Modern tabriz05.jpg| Roshdiyeh monument, TabrizmarkerImage:Modern tabriz04.jpg| Shahriyar metro station, TabrizmarkerImage:Modern tabriz06.jpg| Bank Sepah, Tabrizmarker


Colleges and universities

Daneshsara (faculty of education)


East Azerbaijan also has some of Iran's best technical universities. The full list of major institutions are:

  1. Sahand University of Technologymarker (WebSite)
  2. Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
  3. University of Tabrizmarker ( website)
  4. Azerbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tabriz
  5. Tabriz Islamic Arts University
  6. University of Maragheh
  7. Engineering and Technical College of Bonabmarker[59308]
  8. Faculty of Engineering and Technology,Mianeh
  9. Faculty of Engineering and Technology,Marand
  10. Payameh noor University of Tabriz
  11. Payameh noor University of Maragheh
  12. Payameh noor University of Bonab
  13. Payameh noor University of Marand
  14. Payameh noor University of Mianeh
  15. Payameh noor University of Shabestar
  16. Payameh noor University of Azarshahr
  17. Payameh noor University of Oskou
  18. Payameh noor University of Ahar
  19. Payameh noor University of hashtrood
  20. Payameh noor University of Malekan
  21. Islamic Azad University of Bonab
  22. Islamic Azad University of Tabriz
  23. Islamic Azad University of Shabestar
  24. Islamic Azad University of Maragheh
  25. Islamic Azad University of Miyaneh
  26. Islamic Azad University of Ahar
  27. Islamic Azad University of Malekan
  28. Islamic Azad University of Hashtrood
  29. Islamic Azad University of Azarshahr
  30. Islamic Azad University of Marand
  31. University College of Seraj, Tabriz
  32. University College of Rabe Rashidi, Tabriz
  33. University College of Nabi Akram , Tabriz


See also



References

External links



Sources

[1]: According to the information released by the office of the provincial governor, linked above.


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