East Timor: Map

  
  
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



East Timor, also known as Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timor Lorosae; officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste) is a country in Southeast Asia. It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timormarker, the nearby islands of Atauromarker and Jacomarker, and Oecussi-Ambenomarker, an exclave on the northwestern side of the island, within Indonesianmarker West Timor. The small country of 15,410 km² (5,400 sq mi) is located about 640 km (400 mi) northwest of Darwin, Australiamarker.

East Timor was colonized by Portugalmarker in the 16th century, and was known as Portuguese Timormarker until Portugal's decolonization of the country. In late 1975, East Timor declared its independence, but later that year was invaded and occupied by Indonesia and was declared Indonesia's 27th province the following year. In 1999, following the United Nations-sponsored act of self-determination, Indonesia relinquished control of the territory and East Timor became the first new sovereign state of the 21st century on May 20, 2002. East Timor is one of only two predominantly Roman Catholic countries in Asia, the other being the Philippinesmarker.

East Timor is a lower-middle-income economy. It continues to suffer the aftereffects of a decades-long independence struggle against Indonesiamarker, which damaged infrastructure and displaced thousands of civilians. It is placed 158th by Human Development Index (HDI) among the world's states, the second lowest in Asia.

Etymology and naming issues

"Timor" derives from timur, the word for "east" in Indonesian and Malay (hence the Indonesian Timor Timur) which became Timor in Portuguese and entered English as Portuguese Timor. Lorosa'e is also the word for "east" in Tetum, literally "rising sun".

The official names under the Constitution are República Democrática de Timor-Leste in Portuguese ( ), which is almost universally used within the country, and in Tetum, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór Lorosa'e, which is infrequently used and is not standard across the many Tetum dialects . Following independence, the government requested the official name in all languages be Timor-Leste , but this has not been commonly adopted within English-speaking countries worldwide, where "East Timor" is the common usage. The Indonesian name Timor Timur, abbreviated as Timtim, is now less widely used, with the Indonesian government and media now using Timor Leste.

The official short form names of countries worldwide are set by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The ISO 3166-1 official short name in English and all other languages is Timor-Leste. The ISO definition is adopted by the United Nations, the national standards organisations of France (AFNOR), the United States of America (ANSI), Britain (BSI), Germany (DIN) and Sweden (SIS) and is universally used by international NGOs. Timor–Leste is used as a matter of protocol by the departments of foreign affairs of almost all countries for example, the USA Department of State and the European Union, notable exceptions being Australia, which uses "East Timor".

The ISO name gives rise to the standard three letter country code TLS and two letter country code TL as in the country’s internet domain name. The old two letter country code, TP, is gradually being phased out.

History

Early history

The island of Timor was originally populated as part of the human migrations that have shaped Australasia more generally. It is believed that descendants from at least three waves of migration still live in the country. The first were related to the principal indigenous groups of New Guineamarker and Australia, and arrived before 40,000 years ago. Around 3000 BC, Austronesians migrated to Timor, and are possibly associated with the development of agriculture there. Thirdly, proto-Malay arrived from south Chinamarker and north Indochina. The mountainous terrain kept these groups separated, and this is why there is so much linguistic diversity in East Timor today.

Timor was incorporated into Chinese and Indian trading networks of the 14th century as an exporter of aromatic sandalwood, slave, honey and wax. The earliest historical record about Timormarker island is 14th century Nagarakretagama, Canto 14, that identify Timur as an island within Majapahit's realm. Early European explorers report that the island had a number of small chiefdoms or princedoms in the early 16th century. One of the most significant is the Wehali (Wehale) kingdom in central Timor, with its capital at Laran, West Timor, to which the Tetum, Bunaq and Kemak ethnic groups were aligned.

Portuguese colonization

The Portuguese were the first Europeans to colonize the Maritime Southeast Asia when they arrived in the sixteenth century. They established outposts in the (now Indonesian) Maluku Islandsmarker and Timor and surrounding islands. During the House of Habsburg's rule over Portugal (1580-1640), all surrounding outposts were lost and eventually came under Dutchmarker control by the mid-seventeenth century. Effective European occupation of a small part of the territory only began after 1769, when the city of Dilimarker, the capital of so-called Portuguese Timormarker, was founded. In the nineteenth century, the Netherlands gained a foothold on the western half of the island West Timor, and formally received it in 1859 through the Treaty of Lisbon. The definitive border was established by the Hague Treaty of 1916, and it remains the international boundary between the successor states East Timor and Indonesiamarker.

For the Portuguese, East Timor remained little more than a neglected trading post until the late nineteenth century. Investment in infrastructure, health, and education was minimal. Sandalwood remained the main export crop with coffee exports becoming significant in the mid-nineteenth century. In places where Portuguese rule was asserted, it tended to be brutal and exploitative. At the beginning of the twentieth century, a faltering home economy prompted the Portuguese to extract greater wealth from its colonies which met Timorese resistance.

In late 1941, Portuguese Timor was briefly occupied by Dutch and Australian troops in an attempt to preempt a Japanesemarker invasion of the island. The Portuguese Governor protested the occupation, and Dutch forces returned to the Dutch side of the island. The Japanese landed and drove the small Australian force out of Dili, and the mountainous interior became the scene of a guerrilla campaign, known as the Battle of Timor. Waged by Allied forces and Timorese volunteers against the Japanese, the struggle resulted in the deaths of between 40,000 and 70,000 Timorese. Following the end of the war, Portuguese control was reinstated.

The process of decolonization in Portuguese Timormarker began in 1974, following the change of government in Portugal in the wake of the Carnation Revolution. Owing to political instability and more pressing concerns over the decolonisation of Angolamarker and Mozambiquemarker, Portugal effectively abandoned East Timor and it unilaterally declared itself independent on November 28, 1975. Nine days later, it was invaded and occupied by Indonesian forces before the declaration could be internationally recognized.

Indonesian occupation

As political parties began to form and emerge inside the country, the Indonesian military headed an operation that backed Apodeti, a pro-Indonesian party that encouraged divisions between the pro-independence parties of East Timor. A brief civil war occurred in 1975. Indonesiamarker alleged that the East Timorese FRETILIN party, which received some vocal support from the People's Republic of Chinamarker, was communist. Fearing a Communist domino effect in Southeast Asia—and in the wake of its South Vietnam campaign—the United Statesmarker, along with its ally Australia, supported the pro-Western Indonesian government's actions. The UN Security Council had a unanimous vote for Indonesia to stop its invasion and to withdraw immediately from East Timor’s borders, and was blocked by the United States from imposing any economic sanctions or other means of enforcing this mandate.

The territory was declared the 27th province of Indonesia in July 1976. Its nominal status in the UN remained that of a "non-self-governing territory under Portuguese administration."

Demonstration for independence from Indonesia.
Indonesian rule in East Timor was often marked by extreme violence and brutality; estimates of the number of East Timorese who died during the occupation vary from 60,000 to 200,000, A detailed statistical report prepared for the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor cited a minimum bound of 102,800 conflict-related deaths in the period 1974–1999, namely, approximately 18,600 killings and 84,200 'excess' deaths from hunger and illness.

The East Timorese guerrilla force, Falintil, fought a campaign against the Indonesian forces from 1975–1999, some members being trained in Portugal by Portuguese special forces. The Dili Massacre proved a turning point for the East Timorese cause internationally, and a burgeoning East Timor solidarity movement grew in Portugal, Australia, and the United States.

Independence

Following a UN-sponsored agreement between Indonesia, Portugal and the United States and a surprise decision by the Indonesian President B. J. Habibie, a UN-supervised popular referendum was held on August 30, 1999, to choose between Special Autonomy within Indonesia and independence. 78.5% of voters chose independence, but violent clashes, instigated primarily by elements within the Indonesian military and aided by Timorese pro-Indonesia militias led by Eurico Guterres, broke out soon afterwards. A peacekeeping force (INTERFET led by Australia) intervened to restore order. The militias fled across the border into Indonesian West Timor, from which sporadic armed raids were attempted. As these raids were repelled and international moral opinion forced Indonesia to withdraw tacit support, the militias dispersed. INTERFET was replaced by a UN force of International Police, the mission became known as UNTAET, and the UNTAET Crime Scene Detachment was formed to investigate alleged atrocities. UNTAET was headed by the late Sérgio Vieira de Mello as UN Transitional Administrator from December 1999 to May 2002. On December 2, 1999, De Mello established the National Consultative Council (NCC), a political body consisting of 11 East Timorese and four UNTAET members charged with overseeing the decision-making process during the transition period leading to independence. However, UNTAET experienced difficulties initially in establishing its credibility amongst the Timorese leadership, leading to street violence. An important workshop on March 1, 2000, brought the Timorese and UN leadership group together to tease out a revised strategy, and identify institutional needs. The workshop was organised by Francis Martin O'Donnell[706803], and the Timorese delegation was led by José Ramos-Horta, and included Mari Alkatiri. The outcome was an agreed blueprint for a joint administration with executive powers, including leaders of the National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction (CNRT), led by future president Xanana Gusmão. Further details were worked out in a conference in May 2000. De Mello presented the new blueprint to a donor conference in Lisbon, on June 22, 2000, and to the UN Security Council on June 27, 2000. On July 12, 2000, the NCC adopted a regulation establishing a Transitional Cabinet of four East Timorese and four UNTAET representatives. The revamped joint administration successfully laid the institutional foundations for independence, and on September 27, 2002, East Timor joined the United Nations.

Post independence

In April 2006, riots broke out in Dili following rivalry within the military and police; 40 people were killed and over 20,000 fled their homes. Fighting between pro-government troops and disaffected Falintil troops broke out in May 2006. Upon the invitation of the Prime Minister, Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, and Portugal sent troops to Timor, attempting to quell the violence. On 26 June, Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri resigned as Prime Minister, following an ultimatum from President Xanana Gusmão that he would resign if Alkatiri did not. José Ramos-Horta was appointed as Alkatiri's successor on July 8, 2006. In April 2007, Gusmão declined another presidential term. In the build-up to the April 2007 presidential elections there were renewed outbreaks of violence in February and March 2007. José Ramos-Horta was inaugurated as President on May 20, 2007, following his election win in the second round. Gusmão was sworn in as Prime Minister on August 8, 2007. President Ramos-Horta was critically injured in an assassination attempt on February 11, 2008, in a failed coup apparently perpetrated by Alfredo Reinado, a renegade soldier who died in the attack. Prime Minister Gusmão also faced gunfire separately but escaped unharmed. The Australian government immediately sent reinforcements to East Timor to keep order.

Politics

Government Palace in Dili.


The head of state of East Timor is the President of East Timor, who is elected by popular vote for a five-year term. Although the role is largely symbolic, the president does have veto power over certain types of legislation. Following elections, the president appoints the leader of the majority party or majority coalition as the Prime Minister of East Timor. As head of government, the prime minister presides over the Council of State or cabinet.

The unicameral Timorese parliament is the National Parliament or Parlamento Nacional, whose members are elected by popular vote to a five-year term. The number of seats can vary from a minimum of fifty-two to a maximum of sixty-five, though it exceptionally has eighty-eight members at present, due to this being its first term of office. The East Timorese constitution was modelled on that of Portugal. The country is still in the process of building its administration and governmental institutions.

Government departments



Districts, subdistricts, and sucos

Map of the districts of East Timor.


East Timor is divided into thirteen administrative districts:

1. Lautémmarker2. Baucaumarker3. Viquequemarker4. Manatutomarker5. Dilimarker6. Aileumarker7. Manufahimarker8. Liquiçámarker9. Ermeramarker10. Ainaromarker11. Bobonaromarker12. Cova Limamarker13. Oecussi-Ambenomarker

The districts are subdivided into 65 subdistricts, 443 sucos and 2,336 towns, villages and hamlets.

Geography

Map of East Timor shows cities and main roads.


Located in southeast Asia, the island of Timormarker is part of the Malay archipelago, and is the largest and easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islandsmarker. To the north of the mountainous island are the Ombai Straitmarker, Wetar Strait and the greater Banda Seamarker, to the south the Timor Seamarker separates the island from Australia, while to the west lies the Indonesian Province of East Nusa Tenggara. The highest point of East Timor is Mount Ramelaumarker (also known as Mount Tatamailaumarker) at 2,963 meters (9,721 ft).

The local climate is tropical and generally hot and humid, characterised by distinct rainy and dry seasons. The capital, largest city and main port is Dili, and the second-largest city is the eastern town of Baucaumarker.

The easternmost area of Timor-Leste consists of the Paitchau Range and Iralalaro area. This area has been proposed as the first conservation area in Timor-Leste as it contains the last remaining tropical dry forested area within the country. It hosts a number of unique plant and animal species and is sparsely populated. The northern coast is characterized by a number of important coral reef systems that have been determined to be at risk.

Economy

Prior to and during colonization, Timor was best known for its sandalwood.

In late 1999, about 70% of the economic infrastructure of East Timor was destroyed by Indonesian troops and anti-independence militias, and 260,000 people fled westward. From 2002 to 2005, an international program led by the United Nations, manned by civilian advisers, 5,000 peacekeepers (8,000 at peak) and 1,300 police officers, substantially reconstructed the infrastructure. By mid-2002, all but about 50,000 of the refugees had returned.

One promising long-term project is the joint development with Australia of petroleum and natural gas resources in the waters southeast of Timor. The Portuguese colonial administration granted concessions to Oceanic Exploration Corporation to develop the deposits. However, this was curtailed by the Indonesian invasion in 1976. The resources were divided between Indonesia and Australia with the Timor Gap Treaty in 1989. The treaty established guidelines for joint exploitation of seabed resources in the area of the "gap" left by then-Portuguese Timor in the maritime boundary agreed between the two countries in 1972. Revenues from the "joint" area were to be divided 50%-50%. Woodside Petroleum and ConocoPhillips began development of some resources in the Timor Gap on behalf of the two governments in 1992.

East Timor inherited no permanent maritime boundaries when it attained independence, repudiating the Timor Gap Treaty as illegal. A provisional agreement (the Timor Sea Treaty, signed when East Timor became independent on 20 May 2002) defined a Joint Petroleum Development Area (JPDA), and awarded 90% of revenues from existing projects in that area to East Timor and 10% to Australia. The first significant new development in the JPDA since Timorese independence is the largest petroleum resource in the Timor Sea, the Greater Sunrise gas field. Its exploitation was the subject of separate agreements in 2003 and 2005. Only 20% of the field lies within the JPDA and the rest in waters not subject to the treaty (though claimed by both countries). The initial, temporary agreement gave 82% of revenues to Australia and only 18% to East Timor.

The Government of East Timor has sought to negotiate a definite boundary with Australia at the halfway line between the countries, in accordance with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The Government of Australia preferred to establish the boundary at the end of the wide Australian continental shelf, as agreed with Indonesia in 1972 and 1991. Normally a dispute such as this would be referred to the International Court of Justicemarker or the International Tribunal for the Law of the Seamarker for an impartial decision, but the Australian government had withdrawn itself from these international jurisdictions (solely on matters relating to maritime boundaries) shortly before Timorese independence. Nevertheless, under public and diplomatic pressure, the Australian government offered instead a last-minute concession on Greater Sunrise gas field royalties alone. On July 7, 2005, an agreement was signed under which both countries would set aside the dispute over the maritime boundary, and East Timor would receive 50% of the revenues (estimated at A$26 billion or about US$20 billion over the lifetime of the project) from the Greater Sunrise development. Other developments within waters claimed by East Timor but outside the JPDA (Laminaria-Corallina and Buffalo) continue to be exploited unilaterally by Australia, however.

Subdistricts suffering from hunger in November 2007
In 2007 a bad harvest led to deaths in several parts of Timor-Leste. In November 2007, eleven subdistricts still needed food supplied by international aid.

East Timor also has a large and potentially lucrative coffee industry, which sells organic coffee to numerous Fair Trade retailers and on the open market.

Currently three foreign banks have a branch in Dili: Australia's ANZ, Portugal's Banco Nacional Ultramarino, and Indonesia's Bank Mandiri.

There are no patent laws in East Timor.

Demographics

Indigenous Timorese in traditional dress.


The population of East Timor is about one million. It has grown considerably recently, because of a high birth rate, but also because of the return of refugees. The population is especially concentrated in the area around Dili.

The Timorese are called Maubere collectively by some of their political organizations, an originally derogatory name turned into a name of pride by Fretilin. They consist of a number of distinct ethnic groups, most of whom are of mixed Malayo-Polynesian and Melanesian/Papuan descent. The largest Malayo-Polynesian ethnic groups are the Tetum (or Tetun) (100,000), primarily in the north coast and around Dili; the Mambae (80,000), in the central mountains; the Tukudede (63,170), in the area around Maubaramarker and Liquiçámarker; the Galoli (50,000), between the tribes of Mambae and Makasaemarker; the Kemak (50,000) in north-central Timor island; and the Baikeno (20,000), in the area around Pante Macassarmarker. The main tribes of predominantly Papuan origin include the Bunak (50,000), in the central interior of Timor island; the Fataluku (30,000), at the eastern tip of the island near Lospalosmarker; and the Makasaemarker, toward the eastern end of the island. In addition, like other former Portuguese colonies where interracial marriage was common, there is a smaller population of people of mixed Timorese and Portuguese origin, known in Portuguese as mestiços. The East Timorese mestiço best-known internationally is José Ramos-Horta, the spokesman for the resistance movement in exile, and now President of East Timor. Mário Viegas Carrascalão, Indonesia's appointed governor between 1987 and 1992, is also a mestiço. East Timor also has a small Chinese minority, most of whom are Hakka. Most left after the Indonesian invasion, with most moving to Australia although many Sino-Timorese have returned, including Pedro Lay, the Minister for Infrastructure.

Religion

Upon independence, East Timor became one of only two predominantly Roman Catholic countries in Asia (along with the Philippinesmarker), although nearby parts of Indonesia also have Catholic majorities, including West Timor and Floresmarker. The population predominantly identifies as Roman Catholic (97%), though local animist traditions have a persistent and strong influence on the culture. Religious minorities include Muslims (1%) (including former Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri) and Protestants (1%) (including Taur Matan Ruak, Commander of the Falintil-FDTL). Smaller Hindu (0.5%), Buddhist (0.1%) and traditional animist minorities make up the remainder. Church membership grew considerably under Indonesian rule, as Indonesia's state ideology Pancasila does not recognize traditional beliefs and requires all citizens to believe in God. Although the struggle was not about religion, as a deep-rooted local institution the Church not only symbolized East Timor's distinction from predominantly Muslim Indonesia, but also played a significant role in the resistance movement, as personified by Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo, the 1996 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. The constitution acknowledges the Church's role among the East Timorese people although it also stipulates a secular state that guarantees freedom of religion to everyone.

Languages

East Timor's two official languages are Portuguese and Tetum, which belongs to the Austronesian family of languages spoken throughout Southeast Asia. The predominant form of Tetum, known as Tetun-Dili, grew out of the dialect favored by the colonizers at Dilimarker, and thus has considerable Portuguese influence, but other dialects of Tetum are also widely used in the country, including Tetun-Terik which is spoken along the southwestern coast. Indonesian and English are defined as working languages under the Constitution in the Final and Transitional Provisions, without setting a final date. Another fifteen indigenous languages are spoken: Bekais, Bunak, Dawan, Fataluku, Galoli, Habun, Idalaka, Kawaimina, Kemak, Lovaia, Makaleromarker, Makasai, Mambai, Tokodede, and Wetarese.

Under Indonesian rule, the use of Portuguese was banned, but it was used by the clandestine resistance, especially in communicating with the outside world. The language, along with Tetum, gained importance as a symbol of resistance and freedom and was adopted as one of the two official languages for this reason, and as a link to nations in other parts of the world. It is now being taught and promoted widely with the help of Brazilmarker, Portugalmarker, and the Latin Unionmarker, although its prominence in official and public spheres has been met with some hostility from younger Indonesian-educated Timorese.

According to the 2006 UN Development Report (using data from official census), under 5% of the Timorese population is proficient in Portuguese. However, the validity of this report has been questioned by members of the Timorese National Institute of Linguistics, which maintains that Portuguese is spoken by up to 25% of Timorese, with the number of speakers more than doubling in the last five years. Along with other local languages, Tetum remains the most common means of communication between ordinary Timorese, while Indonesian is still widely used in the media and school from high school to university. A large proportion of words in Tetum are derived from Portuguese, but it also shares many Malay-derived words with Indonesian. Many Indonesian words are still in common use in Tetum and other Timorese languages, particularly numbers.

East Timor is a member of the Community of Portuguese Language Countriesmarker (CPLP), also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth, and a member of the Latin Union. It is the only independent state in Asia with Portuguese as an official language, although this is also one of the official languages of China'smarker Special Administrative Region of Macaumarker.

Culture

The culture of East Timor reflects numerous influences, including Portuguese, Roman Catholic, and Malaysia, on the indigenous Austronesian and Melanesian cultures of Timor. Legend has it that a giant crocodile was transformed into the island of Timor, or Crocodile Island, as it is often called. East Timorese culture is heavily influenced by Austronesian legends, although the Catholic influence is also strong.There is a strong tradition of poetry. Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão, for example, is a distinguished poet. As for architecture, some Portuguese-style buildings can be found, along with the traditional totem houses of the eastern region. These are known as uma lulik (sacred houses) in Tetum, and lee teinu (houses with legs) in Fataluku. Craftsmanship is also widespread, as is the weaving of traditional scarves or tais.

Education

About half the adult population are illiterate. Illiteracy is higher among women.
Illiteracy was at 90 % at the end of Portuguese rule  . In 2006, 10-30 % of primary-school age children did not attend school.


The country has the National University of East Timor. Indonesian plays a considerable role within education .

Health

Life expectancy at birth was at 60.7 in 2007. The Fertility rate is at six births per woman. Healthy life expectancy at birth was at 55 years in 2007. Government expenditure on health was at US$ 150 (PPP) per person in 2006. Many people in East Timor lack safe drinking water.

Sports

East Timor has joined many international sport associations, including the International Olympic Committeemarker (IOC). The IOC board has granted full recognition to the East Timorese Olympic Committee (COTL). The IOC had allowed a mainly symbolic four-member team to take part in the 2000 Sydney Games under the Olympic flag as "Independent Olympic Athletes." The Federação de Timor-Leste de Atletismo has joined the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). The Federação de Badminton de Timor-Leste joined the International Badminton Federation (IBF) in April 2003. The East Timor Cycling Federation has joined the Union Cycliste Internationale. The Confederação do Desporto de Timor Leste has joined the International Weightlifting Federation. East Timor is also a full member of the International Table-Tennis Federation (ITTF). In September 2005, East Timor's national football team joined FIFAmarker.

East Timor has taken part in several sporting events. Although the athletes came back with no medals, East Timorese athletes had the opportunity to compete with other Southeast Asian athletes in the 2003 Southeast Asian Games held in Vietnammarker in 2003. In the 2003 ASEAN Paralympics Games, also held in Vietnam, East Timor won a bronze medal. In the Athens 2004 Olympic Games, six athletes participated in three sports: athletics, weightlifting and boxing). East Timor won three medals in Arnis at the 2005 Southeast Asian Games. East Timor was also one of the competing nations in the first Lusophony Games, winning a bronze medal in the women's volleyball competition (finishing third out of three teams), despite the fact the team had lost all its three games. On October 30, 2008, East Timor earned their first international points in a FIFAmarker match with a 2-2 draw against Cambodia.

Public holidays

East Timor now has public holidays that commemorate historic events in the liberation struggle, as well as those associated with Catholicism and Islam. They are defined in .

Date Name Notes January 1 New Year's Day date varies Eid al-Adha March-April Good Friday May 1 Labour Day May 20 Independence Restoration Day Anniversary of transfer of sovereignty from the United Nations transitional government, 2002 May-June Corpus Christi August 30 Popular Consultation Day Anniversary of the Popular Consultation, 1999 November 1 All Saints' Day November 2 All Souls' Day November 12 National Youth Day Anniversary of the Santa Cruz massacre, 1991 November 28 Proclamation of Independence Day 1975 date varies Idul Fitri December 7 National Heroes' Day Anniversary of Indonesian invasion of East Timor, 1975 December 8 Immaculate Conception December 25 Christmas Day


In addition, the law defines "official commemorative dates" which are not considered holidays but could be subject to time off from work:

Date Name February-March Ash Wednesday March-April Holy Thursday May-June Ascension Day June 1 International Children's Day August 20 Day of the Armed Forces for the National Liberation of Timor-Leste (FALINTIL) November 3 National Women's Day December 10 International Human Rights Day


See also

Lists



Notes and references

  1. mne.gov.tl
  2. World Bank Country Groups, 2007
  3. United Nations Member States
  4. USA Department of State: Timor Leste Country Page
  5. European Union deploys Election Observation Mission to Timor Leste
  6. ;
  7. CIA - The World Factbook - Timor-Leste
  8. http://www.lusotopie.sciencespobordeaux.fr/carneiroSousa.rtf
  9. http://www.awm.gov.au/cms_images/histories/20/chapters/21.pdf
  10. Two days before the invasion of Dili, U.S. President Gerald Ford and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger met President Suharto in Jakarta where Ford said "We will understand and will not press you on the issue. We understand the problem and the intentions you have." Kissinger added: "It is important that whatever you do succeeds quickly [because] the use of US-made arms could create problems." (William Burr and Michael L. Evans (eds.), "East Timor Revisited", National Security Archive, December 6, 2001) Jimmy Carter, during his first year in office, authorized 112 million dollars worth of military arms to Indonesia.(Shelton)
  11. Fernandes, Clinton (2004) Reluctant Saviour: Australia, Indonesia and East Timor
  12. ; Amnesty International estimated deaths at 200,000 ( ); Ben Kiernan has written in War, Genocide, and Resistance in East Timor, 1975–99: Comparative Reflections on Cambodia that "the crimes committed... in East Timor, with a toll of 150,000 in a population of 650,000, clearly meet a range of sociological definitions of genocide used by most scholars of the phenomenon, who see both political and ethnic groups as possible victims of genocide." From the beginning of the invasion in 1975, the widespread amount of killing that occurred was staggering, with hundreds being executed on docks in Dili and being thrown into the sea (Charny,Israel W. Encyclopedia of Genocide Volume I. Denver: Abc Clio), as many as 60,000 being slaughtered within the first few months of the invasion. From 1975 until 1993, attacks on civilian populations were only nominally reported in the Western press. Since each data source used under-reports actual deaths, this is considered a minimum.
  13. Dili, 21 June 2000
  14. [27 Jun 2000] SC/6882 : SECURITY COUNCIL BRIEFED BY SERGIO VIEIRA DE MELLO, SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE FOR EAST TIMOR
  15. http://www.unmit.org/UNMISETWebSite.nsf/TimeLineofUNMISET.htm?OpenPage
  16. BBC News
  17. www.iol.co.za; RTE News; The Sydney Morning Herald, RTE News
  18. Herald Sun
  19. ABC News Online
  20. guardian.co.uk
  21. BBC News
  22. http://web.archive.org/web/20070604232701/http://www.unmiset.org/legal/RDTL-Law/RDTL-Minist-Orders/Decree-Order-2003-6.pdf
  23. United Nations
  24. Norwegian energy and Water Resources Directorate (NVE) (2004), Iralalaro Hydropower Project Environmental Assessment
  25. ReefGIS - Reefs At Risk - Global 1998
  26. atns.net.au
  27. aph.gov.au
  28. transparency.gov.tl
  29. etan.org East Timor and Indonesia Action Network
  30. austlii.edu.au; http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/convention_declarations.htm#Australia%20after%20ratification United Nations]
  31. canb.auug.org.au
  32. pm.gov.tp
  33. Voice of America, 24.06.07, East Timor Facing Food Crisis and Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Timor-Leste
  34. Gazetteer - Patents
  35. Timor-Leste (03/08)
  36. CIA - The World Factbook - Timor-Leste
  37. Timor-Leste
  38. See also Liquiçá Church Massacre.
  39. Dr. Geoffrey Hull's reply to the article "The article by Alfred Deakin and the reply from Geoffrey Hull deserve comment", by Sean Foley
  40. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_TMP.html
  41. http://content.undp.org/go/newsroom/march-2006/timor-leste-hdr20060309.en?g11n.enc=ISO-8859-1
  42. http://content.undp.org/go/newsroom/march-2006/timor-leste-hdr20060309.en?g11n.enc=ISO-8859-1
  43. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_TMP.html
  44. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_TMP.html
  45. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_TMP.html
  46. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_TMP.html
  47. http://content.undp.org/go/newsroom/march-2006/timor-leste-hdr20060309.en?g11n.enc=ISO-8859-1
  48. [1]


Bibliography

  • Cashmore, Ellis (1988). Dictionary of Race and Ethnic Relations. New York: Routledge.
  • Charny, Israel W. Encyclopedia of Genocide Volume I. Denver: Abc Clio.
  • Dunn, James (1996). East Timor: A People Betrayed. Sydney: ABC Books.
  • Levinson, David. Ethnic Relations. Denver: Abc Clio.
  • Rudolph, Joseph R. Encyclopedia of Modern Ethnic Conflicts. Westport: Greenwood P, 2003. 101-106.
  • Shelton, Dinah. Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity. Thompson Gale.
  • Taylor, John G. (1999). East Timor: The Price of Freedom. Australia: Pluto Press. ISBN 1856498409.


External links

Government
General information



Embed code:






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message