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Edinburgh ( , or ; ) is the capital city of Scotlandmarker. It is the second largest city in Scotland and the seventh-most populous in the United Kingdommarker. The City of Edinburgh Council is one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas.

Located in the south-east of Scotland, Edinburgh lies on the east coast of the Central Belt, along the Firth of Forthmarker, near the North Seamarker. Owing to its spectacular, rugged setting and vast collection of Medieval and Georgian architecture, including numerous stone tenements, it is often considered one of the most picturesque cities in Europe.

The city forms part of the City of Edinburgh council area; the city council area includes urban Edinburgh and a 30-square-mile (78 km2) rural area.

Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Parliamentmarker. The city was one of the major centres of the Enlightenment, led by the University of Edinburgh, earning it the nickname Athens of the North. The Old Townmarker and New Townmarker districts of Edinburgh were listed as a UNESCOmarker World Heritage Site in 1995. There are over 4,500 listed buildings within the city. In the 2008 mid year population estimates, Edinburgh had a total resident population of 471,650. Edinburgh is well-known for the annual Edinburgh Festival, a collection of official and independent festivals held annually over about four weeks from early August. The number of visitors attracted to Edinburgh for the Festival is roughly equal to the settled population of the city. The most famous of these events are the Edinburgh Fringe (the largest performing arts festival in the world), the Edinburgh International Festival, the Edinburgh Military Tattoo, and the Edinburgh International Book Festival.

Other notable events include the Hogmanay street party (31 December), Burns Night (25 January), St. Andrew's Day (30 November), and the Beltane Fire Festival (30 April).

The city attracts 1 million overseas visitors a year, making it the second most visited tourist destination in the United Kingdom, after London.

In a 2009 YouGov poll, Edinburgh was voted the "most desirable city in which to live in the UK".

History

Humans have settled the Edinburgh area from at least the Bronze Age, leaving traces of primitive stone settlements at Holyrood, Craiglockhart Hill and the Pentland Hillsmarker for example. Influenced through the Iron Age by Hallstattmarker and La Tenemarker Celtic cultures from central Europe, by the time the Romans arrived in Lothian at the beginning of the 1st millennium AD, they discovered a Celtic, Brythonic tribe whose name they recorded as Votadini, likely to be a Latin version of the name they called themselves.

The city's name is most likely Celtic (P-Celtic, Brythonic) in origin, possibly Cumbric or a variation of it. It is first mentioned in the late 6th century in the heroic poems of the Gododdin (a later Brythonic form of 'Votadini'), named as both Eidyn and Din Eidyn and also described as Eidyn ysgor or Eidyn gaer, i.e. the stronghold or fort of Eidyn. All these forms use 'Eidyn' as a proper name, and the same is true for later translations made by invading Bernicians and Scots, typified in a note from the 9th century's Life of St Monenna, 'Dunedene, which is in English, Edineburg'.

This Celtic root is contrary to the often-cited theory that the city was named after the Bernician King of Northumbria, Edwin, who was killed in AD 633. However it is extremely unlikely that Edwin had any connection with Edinburgh, despite the expansion of his kingdom during his reign. Although centuries later some, such as Symeon of Durham in the 12th century, referred to the city in terms such as Edwinesburch, this hypothesis has been largely discredited as 'folk-etymology', the invention of a connection where there is none, most likely for political reasons. Indeed rigorous etymological research supports the Celtic route theory.

Nevertheless there is no doubt that the Angles of Northumbria did have significant influence over south east Scotland, notably from AD 638 when it appears the Gododdin stronghold of Din Eidyn was sieged. Though far from exclusive (cf Picts and Scots), this influence continued over three centuries. It was not until c. AD 950 when, during the reign of Indulf, son of Constantine, the city, referred to at this time in the Pictish Chronicle as 'oppidum Eden', fell to the Scots and finally remained under their jurisdiction.

It is worth noting that during this period of Germanic influence in south east Scotland, when the city's name gained its Germanic suffix, 'burgh', the seeds for the language we know today as Scots were sown.

By the 12th century Edinburgh was well established, founded upon the famous castle rock, the volcanic crag and tail geological feature shaped by 2 million years of glacial activity. Flourishing alongside it to the east, another community developed around the Abbey of Holyroodmarker, known as Canongatemarker. In the 13th century these both became Royal Burghs and through the late medieval period Edinburgh grew quickly.

In 1492 King James IV of Scotland undertook to move the Royal Court from Stirlingmarker to Holyrood, making Edinburgh the national capital.

Edinburgh continued to flourish economically and culturally through the Renaissance period and was at the centre of the 16th century Scottish Reformation and the Wars of the Covenant a hundred years later.

In 1603 King James VI of Scotland succeeded to the English and Irish thrones, fulfilling his ambition to create a united kingdom under the Stewart Monarchy. Although he retained the Parliament of Scotland in Edinburgh, he marched to London to rule from his throne there. He ordered that every public building in the land should bear his family's emblem, the red lion rampant, and to this day the most common name for a public house in Britain is the Red Lion.

In 1639, disputes between the Presbyterian Covenanters and the Anglican Church led to the Bishops' Wars, a prelude to the English Civil War, and the brief occupation of Edinburgh by the Commonwealth forces of Oliver Cromwell.

In 17th-century Edinburgh, a defensive wall, built in the 16th century, largely as protection against English invasion following James IV's defeat at Flodden (hence it's moniker, the Flodden Wall) still defined the boundaries of the city . Due to the restricted land area available for development, the houses increased in height instead. Buildings of 11 stories were common, and there are records of buildings as high as 14 stories, an early version of the modern-day skyscraper. Many of the stone-built structures can still be seen today in the Old Town.

In 1707 the Act of Union was ratified by a narrow margin in the Scottish Parliamentmarker, however many Scots had opposed it and the people of Edinburgh rioted at the news. It would be almost 300 years before the Parliament was reinstated.

From early times, and certainly from the 14th century, Edinburgh (like other royal burghs of Scotland) used armorial devices in many ways, including on seals. However in 1732, the ‘achievement’ or ‘coat of arms’ was formally granted by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. These arms were used by Edinburgh Town Council until the reorganisation of local government in Scotland in May 1975, when it was succeeded by the City of Edinburgh District Council and a new coat of arms, based on the earlier one, was granted. In 1996, further local government reorganisation resulted in the formation of the City of Edinburgh Council, and again the coat of arms was updated.

During the Jacobite rising of 1745, Edinburgh was briefly occupied by Jacobite forces before their march into England.
An 1802 illustration of Edinburgh from the west.
However following their ultimate defeat at Culloden, there was a period of reprisals and pacification, largely directed at the Catholic Highlanders. In Edinburgh the Hanoverian monarch attempted to gain favour by supporting new developments to the north of the castle, naming streets in honour of the King and his family; George Street, Frederick Street, Hanover Street and Princes Streetmarker, named in honour of George IV's two sons.

Edinburgh is noted for its fine architecture, and the New Town for its Georgian architecture in particular.

Following the controversial Act of Union in 1707, Scotland was both galvanised by a desire to retain it's national identity and culture and quick to recognise the opportunities now presented by access to formerly guarded English international trading routes. These factors and others contributed to the blossoming of the Scottish Enlightenment during the second half of the 18th century, arguably Edinburgh's most successful period. The city was at the heart of it and renowned throughout Europe at this time, as a hotbed of talent and ideas and a beacon for progress. Celebrities from across the continent would be seen in the city streets, among them famous Scots such as David Hume, Walter Scott, Robert Adam, David Wilkie, Robert Burns, James Hutton and Adam Smith. Edinburgh became a major cultural centre, earning it the nickname Athens of the North because of the Greco-Roman style of the New Town's architecture, as well as the rise of the Scottish intellectual elite who were increasingly leading both Scottish and European intellectual thought.
Edinburgh today


In the 19th century, Edinburgh, like many cities, industrialised, but did not grow as fast as Scotland's second city, Glasgowmarker, which replaced it as the largest city in the country, benefitting greatly at the height of the British Empire.

Following two World Wars and the dismantling of the British Empire, the second half of the 20th century saw much civil unrest throughout Scotland and including in Edinburgh. However in 1992 Edinburgh hosted the European Union Treaty Summit and the city once again had a taste of being a bona fide national capital. In 1997 it was agreed the Scottish Parliament would sit again and in 1999 it did. With the election of an SNP Scottish Government in 2007 there is a sign that Scots are seriously considering the reinstatement of full sovereignty to their Parliament. However, independence or not, the Parliament alone has given new impetus to the city where it belongs.

Nicknames

The city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie (Scots for Old Smoky), because when buildings were heated by coal and wood fires, chimneys would spew thick columns of smoke into the air. The colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has also been used as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy

Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North. It is also known by several Latin names; Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, Edinensis, can be seen inscribed on many educational buildings.

Edinburgh has also been known as Dunedin, deriving from the Scottish Gaelic, Dùn Èideann. Dunedin, New Zealandmarker, was originally called "New Edinburgh" and is still nicknamed the "Edinburgh of the South". The Scots poets Robert Burns and Robert Fergusson sometimes used the city's Latin name, Edina. Ben Jonson described it as Britain's other eye, and Sir Walter Scott referred to the city as yon Empress of the North. Robert Louis Stevenson, also a son of the city, wrote, 'Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be.'
centre


Areas

Edinburgh, the capital of Scotlandmarker, is divided into areas that generally encompass a park (sometimes known as "links"), a main local street (i.e. street of local retail shops), a high street (the historic main street, not always the same as the main local street, such as in Corstorphine) and residential buildings. In Edinburgh many residences are tenements, although the more southern and western parts of the city have traditionally been more affluent and have a greater number of detached and semi-detached villas.

The historic centre of Edinburgh is divided into two by the broad green swath of Princes Street Gardensmarker. To the south the view is dominated by Edinburgh Castlemarker, perched atop the extinct volcanic crag, and the long sweep of the Old Townmarker trailing after it along the ridge. To the north lies Princes Streetmarker and the New Townmarker. The gardens were begun in 1816 on bogland which had once been the Nor Lochmarker.

To the immediate west of the castle lies the financial district, housing insurance and banking buildings. Probably the most noticeable building here is the circular sandstone building that is the Edinburgh International Conference Centremarker.

Old Town

looking up The Royal Mile
The Old Town has preserved its medieval plan and many Reformation-era buildings. One end is closed by the castle and the main artery, the Royal Mile, leads away from it; minor streets (called closes or wynds) lead downhill on either side of the main spine in a herringbone pattern. Large squares mark the location of markets or surround public buildings such as St. Giles' Cathedral and the Law Courts. Other notable places nearby include the Royal Museum of Scotlandmarker, Surgeons' Hall and McEwan Hall. The street layout is typical of the old quarters of many northern European cities, and where the castle perches on top of a rocky crag (the remnants of an extinct volcano) the Royal Mile runs down the crest of a ridge from it.Due to space restrictions imposed by the narrowness of the "tail", the Old Town became home to some of the earliest "high rise" residential buildings. Multi-storey dwellings known as lands were the norm from the 1500s onwards with ten and eleven stories being typical and one even reaching fourteen stories. Additionally, numerous vaults below street level were inhabited to accommodate the influx of (mainly Irish) immigrants during the Industrial Revolution. These continue to fuel legends of an underground city to this day. Today there are tours of Edinburgh which take you into the underground city, Edinburgh Vaultsmarker.

New Town

The New Town was an 18th century solution to the problem of an increasingly crowded Old Town.The city had remained incredibly compact, confined to the ridge running down from the castle.In 1766 a competition to design the New Town was won by James Craig, a 22-year-old architect. The plan that was built created a rigid, ordered grid, which fitted well with enlightenment ideas of rationality. The principal street was to be George Streetmarker, which follows the natural ridge to the north of the Old Town. Either side of it are the other main streets of Princes Streetmarker and Queen Street. Princes Street has since become the main shopping street in Edinburgh, and few Georgian buildings survive on it. Linking these streets were a series of perpendicular streets. At the east and west ends are St. Andrew Squaremarker and Charlotte Squaremarker respectively. The latter was designed by Robert Adam and is often considered one of the finest Georgian squares in the world. Bute Housemarker, the official residence of the First Minister of Scotland, is on the north side of Charlotte Square.Sitting in the glen between the Old and New Towns was the Nor' Loch, which had been both the city's water supply and place for dumping sewage. By the 1820s it was drained. Some plans show that a canal was intended , but Princes Street Gardensmarker were created instead. Excess soil from the construction of the buildings was dumped into the loch, creating what is now The Moundmarker. In the mid-19th century the National Gallery of Scotlandmarker and Royal Scottish Academy Buildingmarker were built on The Mound, and tunnels to Waverley Stationmarker driven through it.The New Town was so successful that it was extended greatly. The grid pattern was not maintained, but rather a more picturesque layout was created. Today the New Town is considered by many to be one of the finest examples of Georgian architecture and planning in the world.

South side

A popular residential part of the city is its south side, comprising a number of areas including St Leonards, Marchmontmarker, Newingtonmarker, Sciennesmarker, The Grangemarker, Edinburgh "South side" is broadly analogous to the area covered by the Burgh Muirmarker, and grew in popularity as a residential area following the opening of the South Bridgemarker. These areas are particularly popular with families (many well-regarded state and private schools are located here), students (the central University of Edinburgh campus is based around George Square just north of Marchmont and the Meadowsmarker, and Napier University has major campuses around Merchiston & Morningside), and with festival-goers.These areas are also the subject of fictional work: Ian Rankin's Inspector Rebus lives in Marchmont and worked in St Leonards; and Morningside is the home of Muriel Spark's Miss Jean Brodie.Today, the literary connection continues, with the area being home to the authors J. K. Rowling, Ian Rankin, and Alexander McCall Smith.

Leith

Leith is the port of Edinburgh. It still retains a separate identity from Edinburgh, and it was a matter of great resentment when, in 1920, the burgh of Leith was merged into the county of Edinburgh. Even today the parliamentary seat is known as 'Edinburgh North and Leith'. With the redevelopment of Leith, Edinburgh has gained the business of a number of cruise liner companies which now provide cruises to Norwaymarker, Swedenmarker, Denmarkmarker, Germany and the Netherlands. Leith also has the Royal Yacht Britanniamarker, berthed behind the Ocean Terminalmarker and Easter Roadmarker, the home ground of Hibernian.

Geography and climate

Bounded by the Firth of Forthmarker to the north and the Pentland Hillsmarker, which skirt the periphery of the city to the south, Edinburgh lies in the eastern portion of the Central Lowlandsmarker of Scotland. The city sprawls over a landscape which is the product of early volcanic activity and later periods of intensive glaciation. Igneous activity between 350 and 400 million years ago, coupled with faulting led to the dispersion of tough basalt volcanic plugs, which predominate over much of the area. One such example is Castle Rock which forced the advancing icepack to divide, sheltering the softer rock and forming a mile-long tail of material to the east, creating a distinctive crag and tail formation. Glacial erosion on the northern side of the crag gouged a large valley resulting in the now drained Nor Lochmarker. This structure, along with a ravine to the south, formed an ideal natural fortress which Edinburgh Castle was built upon. Similarly, Arthur's Seatmarker is the remains of a volcano system dating from the Carboniferous period, which was eroded by a glacier moving from west to east during the ice age. Erosive action such as plucking and abrasion exposed the rocky crags to the west before leaving a tail of deposited glacial material swept to the east. This process formed the distinctive Salisbury Crags, which formed a series of teschenite cliffs located between Arthur's Seat and the city centre. The residential areas of Marchmontmarker and Bruntsfieldmarker are built along a series of drumlin ridges located south of the city centre which were deposited as the glacier receded.

Other viewpoints in the city such as Calton Hillmarker and Corstorphine Hillmarker are similar products of glacial erosion. The Braid Hillsmarker and Blackford Hillmarker are a series of small summits to the south west of the city commanding expansive views over the urban area of Edinburgh and northwards to the Forth.

Edinburgh is drained by the Water of Leithmarker, which finds its source at the Harperrig Reservoirmarker in the Pentland Hills and runs for 29 km (18 miles) through the south and west of the city, emptying into the Firth of Forth at Leith. The nearest the river gets to the city centre is at Dean Villagemarker on the edge of the New Town, where a deep gorge is spanned by the Dean Bridge, designed by Thomas Telford and built in 1832 for the road to Queensferrymarker. The Water of Leith Walkwaymarker is a mixed use trail that follows the river for 19.6 km (12.2 miles) from Balernomarker to Leith.

Designated in 1957, Edinburgh is ringed by a green belt stretching from Dalmenymarker in the west to Prestongrange in the east. With an average width of 3.2 km (2 miles) the principal objective of the green belt was to contain the outward expansion of Edinburgh and to prevent the agglomeration of urban areas. Expansion within the green belt is strictly controlled but developments such as Edinburgh Airport and the Royal Highland Showground at Inglistonmarker are located within the zone. Similarly, urban villages such as Juniper Greenmarker and Balernomarker sit on green belt land. One feature of the green belt in Edinburgh is the inclusion of parcels of land within the city which are designated as green belt even though they do not adjoin the main peripheral ring. Examples of these independent wedges of green belt include Holyrood Parkmarker and Corstorphine Hill.

Like much of the rest of Scotland, Edinburgh has a temperate, maritime climate which is relatively mild despite its northerly latitude. Winters are especially mild, with daytime temperatures rarely falling below freezing, and compare favourably with places such as Moscowmarker, Labrador and Newfoundlandmarker which lie in similar latitudes. Summer temperatures are normally moderate, with daily upper maxima rarely exceeding 22 °C. The highest temperature ever recorded in the city was 31.4°C on 4 August 1975. The proximity of the city to the sea mitigates any large variations in temperature or extremes of climate. Given Edinburgh's position between the coast and hills, it is renowned as a windy city, with the prevailing wind direction coming from the south-west which is associated with warm, unstable air from the Gulf Stream that can give rise to rainfall - although considerably less than cities to the west, such as Glasgowmarker. Rainfall is distributed fairly evenly throughout the year. Winds from an easterly direction are usually drier but colder. Vigorous Atlantic depressions, known as European windstorms, can affect the city between October and May.

Demography

Edinburgh compared
UK Census 2001 Edinburgh Lothian Scotland
Total population 448,624 778,367 5,062,011
Population Growth 1991–2001 7.1% 7.2% 1.3%
White 95.9% 97.2% 98.0%
Asian 2.6% 1.6% 1.3%
Under 16 years old 16.3% 18.6% 19.2%
Over 65 years old 15.4% 14.8% 16.0%
Christian 54.8% 58.1% 65.1%
Muslim 1.5% 1.1% 0.8%


At the United Kingdom Census 2001, Edinburgh had a population of 448,624, a rise of 7.1% on 1991. Estimates in 2008 placed the total resident population at 471,650 split between 227,922 males and 243,728 females. This makes Edinburgh the second largest city in Scotland after Glasgowmarker. According to the European Statistical agency, Eurostat, Edinburgh sits at the heart of a Larger Urban Zone covering 665 square miles (1,724 km2) with a population of 778,000.
Edinburgh has a higher proportion of those aged between 16 and 24 than the Scottish average, but has a lower proportion of those classified as elderly or pre-school. Over 95% of Edinburgh respondents classed their ethnicity as White in 2001, with those identifying as being Indian and Chinese at 1.6% and 0.8% of the population respectively. In 2001, 22% of the population were born outside Scotland with the largest group of immigrants coming from Englandmarker at 12.1%. Since the 2004 enlargement of the European Union, a large number of migrants from the accession states such as Polandmarker, Lithuaniamarker and Latviamarker have settled in the city, with many working in the service industry.

There is evidence of human habitation on Castle Rock from as early as 3,000 years ago. A census conducted by the Edinburgh presbytery in 1592 estimated a population of 8,000 scattered equally north and south of the High Street which runs down the spine of the ridge leading from the Castle. In the 18th and 19th Centuries, the population began to expand rapidly, rising from 49,000 in 1751 to 136,000 in 1831 primarily due to rural out-migration. As the population swelled, overcrowding problems in the Old Town, particularly in the cramped tenements that lined the present day Royal Mile and Cowgatemarker, were exacerbated. Sanitary problems and disease were rife. The construction of James Craig's masterplanned New Town from 1766 onwards witnessed the migration of the professional classes from the Old Town to the lower density, higher quality surroundings taking shape on land to the north. Expansion southwards from the Royal Mile/Cowgate axis of the Old Town saw more tenements being built in the 19th Century, giving rise to present day areas such as Marchmontmarker, Newingtonmarker and Bruntsfieldmarker.

Early 20th Century population growth coincided with lower density suburban development in areas such as Gilmertonmarker, Libertonmarker and South Gylemarker. As the city expanded to the south and west, detached and semi detached villas with large gardens replaced tenements as the predominant building style. Nonetheless, the 2001 census revealed that over 55% of Edinburgh's population live in tenements or high rise flats compared to the Scottish average of 33.5%.

Throughout the early to mid 20th Century many new estates were built in areas such as Craigmillarmarker, Niddriemarker, Pilton, Muirhousemarker, Piershillmarker and Sighthillmarker, linked to slum clearances in the Old Town.

There is a green belt which separates Edinburgh from surroundings towns such as Bonnyriggmarker, Loanheadmarker and Dalkeithmarker to the south, Danderhallmarker and Musselburghmarker to the east and Broxburn and Livingston to the west.

Culture

Festivals

Culturally, Edinburgh is best known for the Edinburgh Festival, although this is in fact a series of separate events, which run from the end of July until early September each year. The longest established festival is the Edinburgh International Festival, which first ran in 1947. The International Festival centres on a programme of high-profile theatre productions and classical music performances, featuring international directors, conductors, theatre companies and orchestras.

The International Festival has since been taken over in both size and popularity by the Edinburgh Fringe. What began as a programme of marginal acts has become the largest arts festival in the world, with 1867 different shows being staged in 2006, in 261 venues. Comedy is now one of the mainstays of the Fringe, with numerous notable comedians getting their 'break' here, often through receipt of the Perrier Award.

In 2008 the largest comedy venues on the Edinburgh Fringe launched as a festival within a festival, labelled the Edinburgh Comedy Festival. Already at its inception it was the largest comedy festival in the world.Alongside these major festivals, there is also the Edinburgh Art Festival, Edinburgh International Film Festival (moved to June from 2008), the Edinburgh Jazz and Blues Festival, and the Edinburgh International Book Festival. The Edge Festival (formerly known as T on the Fringe), a popular music offshoot of the Fringe, began in 2000, replacing the smaller Flux and Planet Pop series of shows.

Running concurrently with the summer festivals, the Edinburgh Military Tattoo occupies the Castle Esplanade every night, with massed pipers and fireworks.

The Edinburgh International Science Festival is held annually in April and is one of the most popular science festivals in the world.

Celebrations

Equally famous is the annual Hogmanay celebration. Originally simply a street party held on Princes Streetmarker and the Royal Mile, the Hogmanay event has been officially organised since 1993. In 1996, over 300,000 people attended, leading to ticketing of the main street party in later years, with a limit of 100,000 tickets. Hogmanay now covers four days of processions, concerts and fireworks, with the actual street party commencing on New Year's Eve. During the street party Princes Street is accessible by ticket only, allowing access into Princes Street where there are live bands playing, food and drink stalls, and a clear view of the castle and fireworks. Alternative tickets are available for entrance into the Princes Street Gardens concert and Ceilidh, where well known artists perform and ticket holders are invited to participate in traditional Scottish Ceilidh dancing. The event attracts thousands of people from all over the world.On the night of 30 April, the Beltane Fire Festival takes place on Edinburgh's Calton Hillmarker. The festival involves a procession followed by the re-enactment of scenes inspired by pagan spring fertility celebrations.

Museums and libraries

Edinburgh is home to a large number of museums and libraries, many of which are national institutions. These include the Museum of Scotlandmarker, the Royal Museummarker, the National Library of Scotlandmarker, National War Museum of Scotland, the Museum of Edinburghmarker, Museum of Childhood and the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

Literature and philosophy

Edinburgh has a long literary tradition, going back to the Scottish Enlightenment. Edinburgh's Enlightenment produced philosopher David Hume and the pioneer of political economy, Adam Smith. Writers such as James Boswell, Robert Louis Stevenson, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, and Sir Walter Scott all lived and worked in Edinburgh. J K Rowling, author of the Harry Potter novels, is a resident of Edinburgh. Edinburgh has also become associated with the crime novels of Ian Rankin; and the work of Leithmarker native Irvine Welsh, whose novels are mostly set in the city and are often written in colloquial Scots. Edinburgh is also home to Alexander McCall Smith and a number of his book series. Edinburgh has also been declared the first UNESCO City of Literature.

Music, theatre and film

Outside festival season, Edinburgh continues to support a number of theatres and production companies. The Royal Lyceum Theatremarker has its own company, while the King's Theatre, Edinburgh Festival Theatremarker, and Edinburgh Playhousemarker stage large touring shows. The Traverse Theatremarker presents a more contemporary programme of plays. Amateur theatre companies productions are staged at the Bedlam Theatremarker, Church Hill Theatre, and the King's Theatremarker amongst others. Youth Music Theatre: UK has a regional office in the city.

The Usher Hallmarker is Edinburgh's premier venue for classical music, as well as the occasional prestige popular music gig. Other halls staging music and theatre include The Hubmarker, the Assembly Rooms and the Queen's Hall. The Scottish Chamber Orchestra is based in Edinburgh.

Edinburgh has two repertory cinemas, the Edinburgh Filmhouse, and the Cameomarker, and the independent Dominion Cinema, as well as the usual range of multiplex.

Edinburgh has a healthy popular music scene. Occasional large gigs are staged at Murrayfieldmarker and Meadowbankmarker, whilst venues such as the Corn Exchange, HMV Picture House and the Liquid Room cater for smaller events.

Edinburgh is also home to a flourishing group of contemporary composers such as Nigel Osborne, Peter Nelson, Lyell Cresswell, Haflidi Hallgrimsson, Edward Harper, Robert Crawford, Robert Dow, and John McLeod whose music is also heard regularly on BBC Radio 3 and throughout the UK.

Edinburgh is also home to several of Scotland's galleries and organisations dedicated to contemporary visual art. Significant strands of this infrastructure include: The Scottish Arts Council, Inverleith House, Edinburgh College of Art, Talbot Rice Gallery (University of Edinburgh), The Travelling Gallery, Edinburgh Printmakers, WASPS, Artlink, Edinburgh Sculpture Workshop, Doggerfisher, Stills, Collective Gallery, Out of the Blue, The Embassy, Magnifitat, Sleeper, Total Kunst, OneZero, Standby, Portfolio Magazine, MAP magazine, Edinburgh's One O'Clock Gun Periodical and Product magazine and the Edinburgh Annuale.

Visual arts

Edinburgh is home to Scotland's five National Galleries as well as numerous smaller galleries. The national collection is housed in the National Gallery of Scotlandmarker, located on the Mound, and now linked to the Royal Scottish Academy, which holds regular major exhibitions of painting. The contemporary collections are shown in the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Artmarker, and the nearby Dean Gallerymarker. The Scottish National Portrait Gallerymarker focuses on portraits and photography.

The council-owned City Arts Centre shows regular art exhibitions. Across the road, The Fruitmarket Gallerymarker offers world class exhibitions of contemporary art, featuring work by British and international artists with both emerging and established international reputations.

There are world class private galleries, including: Doggerfisher and Ingleby Gallery, the latter serving up a constantly challenging exhibition program of Museum quality work.

Nightlife and shopping

Edinburgh has a large number of pubs, clubs and restaurants. The traditional areas were the Grassmarketmarker, Lothian Road and surrounding streets, Rose Streetmarker and its surrounds and the Bridges. In recent years George Streetmarker in the New Townmarker has grown in prominence, with a large number of new, upmarket public houses and nightclubs opening, along with a number on the parallel Queen Street. Stockbridgemarker and the waterfront at Leithmarker are also increasingly fashionable areas, with a number of pubs, clubs and restaurants.

The largest nightclubs are Lava & Ignite (formerly Cavendish) and City Nightclub, as well as Edinburgh University's student union, Potterrow. Smaller commercial venues include Base, Faith, Stereo, and Karma. In recent years night clubs on George Street such as Opal Lounge, Lulu's, Why Not and Shanghai have become popular.

The main alternative, indie and rock nights are hosted at The Hive, Opium and Studio 24. The Liquid Room is currently undergoing a full re-fit after being damaged by the fire that destroyed an Indian restaurant which was situated behind it in December 2008. It is expected to reopen within the year.

The underground nightclub scene playing music such as techno, house, electronica, drum & bass and dubstep has suffered in recent years with the closure of Wilkie House, The Honeycomb, The Venue, La Belle Angele (destroyed in the Cowgatemarker fire) and Luna (formerly eGo). Cabaret Voltaire, The Bongo Club, and The Caves now host the majority of underground events held in Edinburgh.


There are two dedicated gay clubs in Edinburgh, CC Blooms and GHQ; several other club venues have LGBT nights.

A fortnightly publication, The List, is dedicated to life in Edinburgh and around, and contains listings of all nightclubs, as well as music, theatrical and other events. The List also regularly produces specialist guides such as its Food and Drink guide and its guide to the Edinburgh Festivals.

Princes Street is the main shopping area in the city centre, with a wide range of stores from souvenir shops, from chains such as Boots and H&M and institutions like Jennersmarker. George Street, north of Princes Street, is home to a number of upmarket chains and independent stores. The St. James Centremarker, at the eastern end of George Street and Princes Street, hosts a substantial number of national chains including a large John Lewis. Multrees Walkmarker, adjacent to the St. James Centre, is a recent addition to the city centre, hosting brands such as Louis Vuitton, Emporio Armani, Mulberry and Calvin Klein, with Harvey Nichols anchoring the development.

Edinburgh also has substantial retail developments outside the city centre. These include The Gylemarker and Hermiston Gait in the west of the city, Cameron Tollmarker, Straiton Retail Park and Fort Kinnairdmarker in the south and east, and Ocean Terminalmarker to the north, on the Leithmarker waterfront. The Royal Yacht Britanniamarker lies in dock here next to the centre.

Edinburgh Zoo

Edinburgh Zoomarker is a non-profit zoological park located in Corstorphinemarker. The land lies on Corstorphine Hillmarker and provides extensive views of the city. Built in 1913, and owned by the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland, it receives over 600,000 visitors a year, which makes it Scotland's second most popular paid-for tourist attraction, after Edinburgh Castlemarker. As well as catering to tourists and locals, the Zoo is involved in many scientific pursuits, such as captive breeding of endangered animals, researching into animal behaviour, and active participation in various conservation programs around the world. The Zoo is the only zoo in Britain to house polar bears and koalas, as well as being the first zoo in the world to house and to breed penguins.

Sport

Football

Edinburgh has two professional football clubs - Hibernian and Heart of Midlothian. They are known locally as Hibs and Hearts and both teams currently play in the Scottish Premier League. Hibs play at Easter Road Stadiummarker, which straddles the former boundary between Edinburgh and Leithmarker, while Hearts play at Tynecastle Stadiummarker in Gorgiemarker.

Edinburgh was also home to senior sides St Bernard's, and Leith Athletic. Most recently, Meadowbank Thistle played at Meadowbank Stadiummarker until 1995, when the club moved to Livingstonmarker, becoming Livingston F.C.. Previously, Meadowbank Thistle had been named Ferranti Thisle. The Scottish national team has occasionally played at Easter Road and Tynecastle.

-league sides include Spartans and Edinburgh City, who play in the East of Scotland League along with Civil Service Strollers F.C., Lothian Thistle F.C., Edinburgh University A.F.C., Edinburgh Athletic F.C., Tynecastle F.C., Craigroyston F.C. and Heriot-Watt University F.C.. Edinburgh United F.C. plays in the Scottish Junior Football Association, East Region.

Rugby Union

The Scotland national rugby union team plays at Murrayfield Stadium, which is owned by the Scottish Rugby Union and is also used as a venue for other events, including music concerts. Edinburgh's professional rugby team, Edinburgh Rugby, play in the Celtic League at Murrayfield. It is the largest capacity stadium in Scotland. Raeburn Place held the first rugby international game between Scotland and England. Edinburgh is also home to numerous smaller rugby teams including The Edinburgh Academicals (who play at Raeburn Place), The Murrayfield Wanderers and several teams from the universities in Edinburgh.

Other sports

The Scottish cricket team, who represent Scotland at cricket internationally and in the Friends Provident Trophy, play their home matches at The Grangemarker.

The Edinburgh Capitals are the latest of a succession of ice hockey clubs to represent the Scottish capital. Previously Edinburgh was represented by the Murrayfield Racers and the Edinburgh Racers. The club play their home games at the Murrayfield Ice Rinkmarker and are the sole Scottish representative in the Elite Ice Hockey League.


The Edinburgh Diamond Devils is a baseball club claiming its first Scottish Championship in 1991 as the "Reivers." 1992 saw the team repeat as national champions, becoming the first team to do so in league history and saw the start of the club's first youth team, the Blue Jays. The name of the club was changed in 1999.

Edinburgh has also hosted various national and international sports events including the World Student Games, the 1970 British Commonwealth Games, the 1986 Commonwealth Games and the inaugural 2000 Commonwealth Youth Games. For the Games in 1970 the city built major Olympic standard venues and facilities including the Royal Commonwealth Poolmarker and the Meadowbank Stadiummarker.

In American football, the Scottish Claymores played WLAF/NFL Europe games at Murrayfield, including their World Bowl 96 victory. From 1995 to 1997 they played all their games there, from 1998 to 2000 they split their home matches between Murrayfield and Glasgow's Hampden Park, then moved to Glasgow full-time, with one final Murrayfield appearance in 2002. The city's most successful non-professional team are the Edinburgh Wolves who currently play at Meadowbank Stadium.

The Edinburgh Marathon has been held in the city since 2003 with more than 13,000 taking part annually.

Edinburgh has a speedway team, the Edinburgh Monarchs, which is currently based at the Lothian Arena in Armadale, West Lothianmarker.

Economy

Edinburgh has the strongest economy of any city in the UK outside London. The strength of Edinburgh's economy is reflected by its GVA per capita, which was measured at £28,238 in 2005. The economy of Edinburgh and its hinterland has recently been announced as one of the fastest growing city regions in Europe. Education and health, finance and business services, retailing and tourism are the largest employers. The economy of Edinburgh is largely based around the services sector — centred around banking, financial services, higher education, and tourism. Unemployment in Edinburgh is low at 1.9%, which has been consistently below the Scottishmarker average.Banking has been a part of the economic life of Edinburgh for over 300 years, with the establishment of the Bank of Scotland by an act of the original Parliament of Scotland in 1695. Today, together with the burgeoning financial services industry, with particular strengths in insurance and investment underpinned by the presence of Edinburgh based firms such as Scottish Widowsmarker and Standard Lifemarker, Edinburgh has emerged as Europe's sixth largest financial centre. The Royal Bank of Scotland, which is the fifth largest in the world by market capitalisation, opened their new global headquarters at Gogarburnmarker in the west of the city in October 2005; their registered office remains in St. Andrew Square.

Edinburgh Financial District
Manufacturing has never had as strong a presence in Edinburgh compared with Glasgowmarker; however brewing, publishing, and nowadays electronics have maintained a foothold in the city. While brewing has been in decline in recent years, with the closure of the McEwan's Brewery in 2005, Caledonian Brewery remains as the largest, with Scottish and Newcastle retaining their headquarters in the city.

Tourism is an important economic mainstay in the city. As a World Heritage Site, tourists come to visit such historical sites as Edinburgh Castlemarker, the Palace of Holyroodhousemarker and the Georgian New Townmarker. This is augmented in August of each year with the presence of the Edinburgh Festivals, which bring in large numbers of visitors, generating in excess of £100m for the Edinburgh economy.

As the centre of Scotland's devolved government, as well as its legal system, the public sector plays a central role in the economy of Edinburgh with many departments of the Scottish Government located in the city. Other major employers include NHS Scotland and local government administration.

Governance

Following local government reorganisation in 1996, Edinburgh constitutes one of the 32 Unitary Authorities of Scotland. Today, the City of Edinburgh Council is the administrative body for the local authority and has its powers stipulated by the Local Government etc Act 1994. Like all other unitary and island authorities in Scotland, the council has powers over most matters of local administration such as housing, planning, local transport, parks, economic development and regeneration. The council is composed of 58 elected councillors, returned from 17 multi-member electoral wards in the city. Each ward elects three or four councillors by the single transferable vote system, to produce a form of proportional representation. Following the 2007 Scottish Local Elections the incumbent Labour Party lost majority control of the council, after 23 years, to a Liberal Democrat/SNP coalition.

Since 2007, the council has operated a committee structure, headed by the Lord Provost, who chairs the full council and acts as a figurehead for the city. The Provost, currently George Grubb, also serves as ex officio the Lord Lieutenant of the city. A Leader and Policy & Strategy Committee, appointed by the full council, are responsible for the day-to-day running of the city administration. Jenny Dawe has been the Council Leader since May 2007. Councillors are also appointed to sit on the boards of public bodies such as Lothian and Borders Police and the Forth Estuary Transport Authority.

In terms of national governance, Edinburgh is represented in the Scottish Parliamentmarker. For electoral purposes, the city area is divided between six of the nine constituencies in the Lothians electoral region. Each constituency elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament by the first past the post system of election, and the region elects seven additional MSPs, to produce a form of proportional representation.

Edinburgh is also represented in the House of Commonsmarker by 5 Members of Parliament elected from single member constituencies by the plurality system. One of the local constituencies, Edinburgh South West, is represented by Alistair Darling, the current UK Chancellor of the Exchequer.

Transport



Edinburgh Airportmarker is the principal international gateway to the city, handling almost 9 million passengers in 2008. In anticipation of rising passenger numbers, the airport operator BAA outlined a draft masterplan in 2006 to provide for the expansion of the airfield and terminal building. The possibility of building a second runway to cope with an increased number of aircraft movements has also been mooted.

As an important hub on the East Coast Main Line, is the primary railway station serving the city. With more than 14 million passengers per year, the station is the second busiest in Scotland behind . Waverley serves as the terminus for trains arriving from and is the departure point for many rail services within Scotland operated by First ScotRail.

To the west of the city centre lies Haymarket railway stationmarker which is an important commuter stop. Opened in 2003, Edinburgh Park stationmarker serves the adjacent business park located in the west of the city and the nearby Gogarburnmarker headquarters of the Royal Bank of Scotland. The Edinburgh Crossrail connects Edinburgh Park with Haymarket, Waverley and the suburban stations of and in the east of the city.. There are also commuter lines to South Gylemarker and Dalmenymarker, which serves South Queensferrymarker by the Forth Bridges, and to the south west of the city out to Wester Hailesmarker and Curriehillmarker

Lothian Buses operate the majority of city bus services within the City and to surrounding suburbs, with the majority of routes running via Princes Streetmarker. Services further afield operate from the Edinburgh Bus Stationmarker off St. Andrew Squaremarker. Lothian, as the successor company to the City's Corporation Trams, also operates all of the City's branded public tour bus services, the night bus network and airport buses. Lothian's Mac Tours subsidiary has one of the largest remaining fleets of ex-London Routemaster buses in the UK, many converted to open top tour buses. In 2007, the average daily ridership of Lothian Buses was over 312,000 - a 6% rise on the previous year.

order to tackle traffic congestion, Edinburgh is now served by six park and ride sites on the periphery of the city at Sheriffhall, Inglistonmarker, Riccartonmarker, Inverkeithingmarker (in Fifemarker) and Newcraighallmarker. A new facility at Straitonmarker opened in October 2008. A referendum of Edinburgh residents in February 2005 rejected a proposal to introduce congestion charging in the city.

Edinburgh has been without a tram system since 16 November 1956. However, following parliamentary approval in 2007, construction began on a new Edinburgh tram network in early 2008, which has lead to major disruption to transport services. The first stage of the project was expected to be operational by July 2011 but is unlikely to be working before the beginning of 2012 . The first phase will see trams running from the airport in the west of the city, through the centre of Edinburgh and down Leith Walkmarker to Ocean Terminalmarker and Newhavenmarker. The next phase of the project will see trams run from Haymarket through Ravelstonmarker and Craigleithmarker to Grantonmarker on the waterfront. Future proposals include; a line going west from the airport to Rathomarker and Newbridgemarker and a line running along the length of the waterfront.

Education

There are four universities in Edinburgh with over 100,000 students studying in the city. Established by Royal Charter in 1583, the University of Edinburgh is one of Scotland's ancient universities and is the fourth oldest in the country after St Andrewsmarker, Glasgowmarker and Aberdeen. Originally centred around Old Collegemarker the university expanded to premises on The Moundmarker, the Royal Mile and George Square. Today, the King's Buildingsmarker in the south of the city contain most of the schools within the College of Science and Engineering. In 2002, the medical schoolmarker moved to purpose built accommodation adjacent to the new Edinburgh Royal Infirmarymarker at Little Francemarker. Edinburgh University has strengths in medicine, law, engineering, chemistry, physics, English, veterinary science and informatics.

In the 1960s Heriot-Watt Universitymarker and Napier Technical College were established. Heriot-Watt traces its origins to 1821, when a school for technical education of the working classes was opened. Based in Riccartonmarker to the west of the city, Heriot-Watt specialises in the disciplines of engineering, business and mathematics. Napier College was renamed Napier Polytechnic in 1986 and gained university status in 1992. Edinburgh Napier University has campuses in the south and west of the city, including the former Craiglockhart Hydropathicmarker and Merchiston Towermarker. It is home to the Screen Academy Scotland.

Further education colleges in the city include Jewel & Esk College (incorporating Leith Nautical College founded in 1903), Telford Collegemarker, opened in 1968, and Stevenson College, opened in 1970. The Scottish Agricultural College also has a campus in south Edinburgh. Awarded university status in January 2007, Queen Margaret Universitymarker was founded in 1875, as The Edinburgh School of Cookery and Domestic Economy, by Christian Guthrie Wright and Louisa Stevenson.

Other notable institutions include the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh which were established by Royal Charter, in 1506 and 1681 respectively. The Trustees Drawing Academy of Edinburgh was founded in 1760 - an institution that became the Edinburgh College of Artmarker in 1907.

There are 18 nursery, 94 primary and 23 secondary schools in Edinburgh administered by the city council. In addition, the city is home to a large number of independent, fee-paying schools including George Heriot's Schoolmarker, Fettes Collegemarker, Merchiston Castle Schoolmarker, Edinburgh Academy and Stewart's Melville Collegemarker.

Hospitals



Hospitals in Edinburgh include the Royal Infirmary of Edinburghmarker, which includes Edinburgh University Medical School, and the Western General Hospitalmarker, which includes a large cancer treatment centre. There is one private hospital, Murrayfield Hospital, owned by Spire Healthcare. The Royal Infirmary is the main Accident & Emergency hospital not just for Edinburgh but also Midlothian and East Lothian, and is the headquarters of NHS Lothian, making it a centric focus for Edinburgh and its hinterland. The Royal Edinburgh Hospital specialises in mental health; it is situated in Morningside. The Royal Hospital for Sick Children is located in Sciennes Road; it is popularly known as the 'Sick Kids'.

Religious communities

Christianity

The Church of Scotlandmarker claims the largest membership of any religious denomination in Edinburgh. Its most important and historical church is St Giles' Cathedral; others include Greyfriars Kirkmarker, Barclay Churchmarker, Canongate Kirkmarker and St Andrew's and St George's Churchmarker. In the south east of the city is the 12th century Duddingston Kirkmarker. The Church of Scotland Officesmarker are located in Edinburgh, as is the Assembly Hallmarker and New Collegemarker on The Mound.

The Roman Catholic Church also has a sizeable presence in the city. Its notable structures include St Mary's Cathedralmarker at the top of Leith Walk, the Sacred Heart of Jesus, St Patrick's, St. Columba's, St. Peter's and Star of the Sea. The Roman Catholic community in Edinburgh is part of the Archdiocese of St Andrews and Edinburgh, which is led by Keith Cardinal O'Brien, considered to be the leader of the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland.

The Free Church of Scotland (Reformed and Presbyterian) has congregations on the Royal Mile and Crosscauseway; its offices and training college are located on the Mound.

The Scottish Episcopal Church is part of the Anglican Communion. Its centre is the resplendent St Mary's Cathedralmarker, Palmerston Place in the west end.


In addition, there are a number of independent churches situated throughout the city; these churches tend to have a high percentage of student congregants and include Destiny Church, Charlotte Chapelmarker, Carrubbers Christian Centremarker, Morningside Baptist Churchmarker and Bellevue Chapelmarker.

Other faiths

Edinburgh Central Mosquemarker - Edinburgh's main mosque and Islamic Centre is located on Potterrow on the city's southside, near Bristo Square. It was opened in the late 1990s and the construction was largely financed by a gift from King Fahd of Saudi Arabiamarker. The first recorded presence of a Jewish community in Edinburgh dates back to the late 17th century. Edinburgh's Orthodox synagogue is located in Salisbury Road, which was opened in 1932 and can accommodate a congregation of 2000. A Liberal congregation also meets in the city. There is also a Sikh Gurdwara and Hindu Mandir in the city which are both located in the Leith district.

Notable residents

Scotland has a rich history in science and engineering, with Edinburgh contributing its fair share of famous names. James Clerk Maxwell, the founder of the modern theory of electromagnetism, was born here and educated at the Edinburgh Academy and University of Edinburgh, as was the engineer and telephone pioneer Alexander Graham Bell. Other names connected to the city include Max Born, physicist and Nobel laureate; Charles Darwin, the biologist who discovered natural selection; David Hume, a philosopher, economist and historian; James Hutton, regarded as the "Father of Geology"; John Napier inventor of logarithms; chemist and one of the founders of thermodynamics Joseph Black; pioneering medical researchers Joseph Lister and James Young Simpson; chemist and discoverer of the element nitrogen, Daniel Rutherford; mathematician and developer of the maclaurin series, Colin Maclaurin and Ian Wilmut, the geneticist involved in the cloning of Dolly the sheep just outside Edinburgh. The stuffed carcass of Dolly the sheep is now on display in the National Museum of Scotland.

The lighthouse engineering family, the Stevenson family was based in Edinburgh.

Famous authors of the city include Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of Sherlock Holmes, Ian Rankin, author of the Inspector Rebus series of crime thrillers, J. K. Rowling, the author of Harry Potter, who wrote her first book in an Edinburgh coffee shop (Nicolson's Cafe, the Elephant House and Black Medicine), Adam Smith, economist, born in Kirkcaldymarker, and author of The Wealth of Nations, Walter Scott, the author of famous titles such as Rob Roy and Ivanhoe, Robert Louis Stevenson, creator of Treasure Island and the Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde.

Edinburgh has been home to the actor Sir Sean Connery, famed as the first cinematic James Bond; Ronnie Corbett, a comedian and actor, best known as one of The Two Ronnies; and Dylan Moran, the Irish comedian. Famous city artists include the portrait painters Sir Henry Raeburn, Sir David Wilkie and Allan Ramsay. Historians such as Douglas Johnson and Arthur Marwick had roots here.

The city has produced or been home to musicians that have been extremely successful in modern times, particularly Ian Anderson, frontman of the band Jethro Tull; Wattie Buchan, lead singer and founding member of punk band The Exploited; Shirley Manson, lead singer for the band Garbage; The Proclaimers, a musical ensemble of two brothers; the Bay City Rollers; Boards of Canada and Idlewild.


Edinburgh is the hometown of the former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Tony Blair, who was born in the city and attended Fettes Collegemarker; Robin Harper the co-convener of the Scottish Green Party; and John Witherspoon, the only clergyman to sign the United States Declaration of Independence, and later president of Princeton Universitymarker.

On the more sinister side, famous criminals from Edinburgh's history include Deacon Brodie, pillar of society by day and burglar by night, who is said to have influenced Robert Louis Stevenson's story, the Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde; the murderers Burke and Hare, who provided fresh corpses for anatomical dissection by the famous surgeon Robert Knox; and Major Weir a notorious warlock.

Twinning arrangements

The City of Edinburgh has entered into 11 international twinning arrangements since 1954. Most of the arrangements are styled as 'Twin Cities', but the agreement with Krakówmarker is designated as a 'Partner City'. The agreement with the Kyoto Prefecturemarker, concluded in 1994, is officially styled as a 'Friendship Link', reflecting its status as the only region to be twinned with Edinburgh.

Country City or municipality Subdivision Date of agreement
Munichmarker Bavariamarker 1954
Nicemarker Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azurmarker 1958
Florencemarker Tuscany 1964
Dunedinmarker Otago 1974
Vancouvermarker British Columbiamarker 1977
San Diegomarker Californiamarker 1977
Segoviamarker Castile and Leónmarker 1985
Xi'anmarker Shaanximarker 1985
Kievmarker Kiev Oblastmarker 1989
Aalborgmarker Nordjyllandmarker 1991
Kyoto Prefecturemarker Kansaimarker 1994
Krakówmarker Lesser Poland Voivodeshipmarker 1995


See also



Sources

Notes

References

  1. General Register Office for Scotland - mid 2008 population estimates by sex, age and administrative area
  2. Edinburgh voted most desirable city to live in www.edinburgh-inspiringcapital.com, 14 August 2009
  3. Coghill, Hamish Lost Edinburgh pp. 1/2.
  4. Harris, The Place Names of Edinburgh(1996)
  5. Lownie, Auld Reekie, An Edinburgh Anthology (2004), p.10
  6. Watson, The Celtic Place Names of Scotland (1926), p.340
  7. Lynch et al., The Oxford Companion to Scottish History (2001), p.658
  8. [1]
  9. Scottish Vernacular Dictionary
  10. List of Latin place names in the British Isles
  11. Vivas Schola Regia
  12. Royal High School
  13. The Cambridge Companion to Ben Jonson. Retrieved 17 April 2007.
  14. Marmion A Tale of Flodden Field by Walter Scott. Retrieved 17 April 2007.
  15. The Story of Leith XXXIII. How Leith was Governed
  16. J Stuart Murray in Edwards & Jenkins (2005); p64-65
  17. Edwards, B. & Jenkins, P. (2005) p21
  18. Lynch, M. (2001), p219
  19. Edwards, B. & Jenkins, P. (2005), p9
  20. Edwards, B. & Jenkins, P. (2005) p46
  21. Robinson, P. in Edwards, B. & Jenkins, P. (2005), p46
  22. http://thescotsman.scotsman.com/edinburgh/Train-interchange-delay-threatens-to.5471930.jp


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