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Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1st Baronet (28 August 1833 – 17 June 1898) was a British artist and designer closely associated with the later phase of the Pre-Raphaelite movement, who worked closely with William Morris on a wide range of decorative arts as a founding partner in Morris, Marshall, Faulkner, and Company. Burne-Jones was closely involved in the rejuvenation of the tradition of stained glass art in England; his stained glass works include the windows of Birmingham Cathedral, St Martin's Church in Bramptonmarker, Cumbriamarker, the church designed by Philip Webb, All Saints, Jesus Lanemarker, Cambridgemarker and in Christ Church, Oxfordmarker.

Burne-Jones's early paintings show the heavy inspiration of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, but by the 1860s Burne-Jones was discovering his own artistic "voice". In 1877, he was persuaded to show eight oil paintings at the Grosvenor Gallery (a new rival to the Royal Academymarker). These included The Beguiling of Merlin. The timing was right, and he was taken up as a herald and star of the new Aesthetic Movement.

In addition to painting and stained glass, Burne-Jones worked in a variety of crafts; including designing ceramic tiles, jewellery, tapestries, and illustration, most famously designing woodcuts for the Kelmscott Press's Chaucer in 1896.

Early life

Edward Coley Burne Jones (the hyphen came later) was born in Birminghammarker, the son of a Welshman, Edward Richard Jones, a frame-maker at Bennetts Hillmarker, where a blue plaque commemorates the painter's childhood. His mother Elizabeth Coley Jones died within six days of his birth, and he was raised by his grieving father and the family housekeeper, Ann Sampson, an obsessively affectionate but humorless and unintellectual local girl. He attended Birmingham's King Edward VI grammar schoolmarker from 1844 and the Birmingham School of Artmarker from 1848 to 1852, before studying theology at Exeter Collegemarker, Oxfordmarker. At Oxford he became a friend of William Morris as a consequence of a mutual interest in poetry. The two Exeter undergraduates, together with a small group of Birmingham men at Pembroke College and elsewhere, speedily formed a very close and intimate society, which they called "The Brotherhood". The members of the Brotherhood read John Ruskin and Tennyson, visited churches, and worshipped the Middle Ages. At this time Burne-Jones discovered Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur which was to be so influential in his life. At that time neither Burne-Jones nor Morris knew Rossetti personally, but both were much influenced by his works, and met him by recruiting him as a contributor to their Oxford and Cambridge Magazine which Morris founded in 1856 to promote their ideas.

Burne-Jones had intended to become a church minister, but under Rossetti's influence both he and Morris decided to become artists, and Burne-Jones left college before taking a degree to pursue a career in art. In February 1857, Rossetti wrote to William Bell Scott

Burne-Jones' early work was heavily influenced by his mentor Rossetti, but he later developed his own style influenced by his travels in Italy with Ruskin and others.

Marriage and family

Portrait of Georgiana Burne-Jones, with Philip and Margaret, 1883
In 1856 Burne-Jones became engaged to Georgiana "Georgie" MacDonald (1840–1920), one of the MacDonald sisters. She was training to be a painter, and was the sister of Burne-Jones's old school friend. The couple married in 1860, after which she made her own work in woodcuts and became a close friend of George Eliot. (Another MacDonald sister married the artist Sir Edward Poynter, a further sister married the ironmaster Alfred Baldwin and was the mother of the Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, and yet another sister was the mother of Rudyard Kipling. Kipling and Baldwin were thus Burne-Jones's nephews).

Georgiana bore a son, Philip, in 1861. A second son, born in the winter of 1864 while Georgiana was gravely ill with scarlet fever, died soon after birth. The family soon moved to 41 Kensington Square, and their daughter Margaret was born there in 1866.

In 1867 Burne-Jones and his family settled at the Grange, an 18th-century house set in a large garden in North End Road, Fulhammarker, London. For much of the 1870s Burne-Jones did not exhibit, following a spate of bitterly hostile attacks in the press, and a passionate affair (described as the "emotional climax of his life") with his Greek model Maria Zambaco which ended with her trying to commit suicide by throwing herself in Regent's Canal. During these difficult years Georgiana developed a close friendship with Morris, whose wife Jane had fallen in love with Rossetti. Morris and Georgie may have been in love, but if he asked her to leave her husband, she refused. In the end, the Burne-Joneses remained together, as did the Morrises, but Morris and Georgiana were close for the rest of their lives.

In 1880 the Burne-Joneses bought Prospect Housemarker in Rottingdeanmarker, near Brightonmarker in Sussex, as their holiday home, and soon after the next door Aubrey Cottage to create North End House, reflecting the fact that their Fulham home was in North End Road. (Years later, in 1923, Sir Roderick Jones, head of Reuters, and his wife, playwright and novelist Enid Bagnold, were to add the adjacent Gothic House to the property and which became the inspiration and setting for her play The Chalk Garden).

His troubled son Philip became a successful portrait painter and died in 1926. His adored daughter Margaret (died 1953) married John William Mackail (1850–1945), the friend and biographer of Morris, and Professor of Poetry at Oxford from 1911–1916. Their children were the novelists Angela Thirkell and Denis Mackail.

Artistic career

Early years: Rossetti and Morris

Burne-Jones once admitted that after leaving Oxford he "found himself at five-and-twenty what he ought to have been at fifteen." He had had no regular training as a draughtsman, and lacked the confidence of science. But his extraordinary faculty of invention as a designer was already ripening; his mind, rich in knowledge of classical story and medieval romance, teemed with pictorial subjects; and he set himself to complete his equipment by resolute labour, witnessed by innumerable drawings. The works of this first period are all more or less tinged by the influence of Rossetti; but they are already differentiated from the elder master's style by their more facile though less intensely felt elaboration of imaginative detail. Many are pen-and-ink drawings on vellum, exquisitely finished, of which 1856's Waxen Image is one of the earliest and best examples. Although subject, medium and manner derive from Rossetti's inspiration, it is not the hand of a pupil merely, but of a potential master. This was recognized by Rossetti himself, who before long avowed that he had nothing more to teach him. Burne-Jones's first sketch in oils dates from this same year, 1856; and during 1857 he made for Bradfield Collegemarker the first of what was to be an immense series of cartoons for stained glass. In 1858 he decorated a cabinet with the Prioress's Tale from Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, his first direct illustration of the work of a poet whom he especially loved and who inspired him with endless subjects. Thus early, therefore, we see the artist busy in all the various fields in which he was to labour.

In the autumn of 1857 Burne-Jones joined Morris, Valentine Prinsep, J. R. Spencer Stanhope and others in Rossetti's ill-fated scheme to decorate the walls of the Oxford Unionmarker. None of the painters had mastered the technique of fresco, and their pictures had begun to peel from the walls before they were completed. In 1859 Burne-Jones made his first journey to Italy. He saw Florencemarker, Pisamarker, Sienamarker, Venicemarker and other places, and appears to have found the gentle and romantic Sienese more attractive than any other school. Rossetti's influence still persisted, and is visible, more strongly perhaps than ever before, in the two watercolours of 1860, Sidonia von Bork and Clara von Bork. Both paintings illustrate the 1849 gothic novel Sidonia the Sorceress by Lady Wilde, a translation of Sidonia Von Bork: Die Klosterhexe (1847) by Johann Wilhelm Meinhold.

Decorative arts: Morris & Co.

In 1861, William Morris founded the decorative arts firm of Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. with Rossetti, Burne-Jones, Ford Madox Brown and Philip Webb as partners, together with Charles Faulkner and P. P. Marshall, the former of whom was a member of the Oxford Brotherhood, and the latter a friend of Brown and Rossetti. The prospectus set forth that the firm would undertake carving, stained glass, metal-work, paper-hangings, chintzes (printed fabrics), and carpets. The decoration of churches was from the first an important part of the business. The work shown by the firm at the 1862 International Exhibition attracted much notice, and within a few years it was flourishing. Two significant secular commissions helped establish the firm's reputation in the late 1860s: a royal project at St. James's Palacemarker and the "green dining room" at the South Kensington Museum (now the Victoria and Albertmarker) of 1867 which featured stained glass windows and panel figures by Burne-Jones.

In 1871 Morris & Co. were responsible for the windows at All Saints, designed by Burne-Jones for Alfred Baldwin, his wife's brother-in-law. The firm was reorganized as Morris & Co. in 1875, and Burne-Jones continued to contribute designs for stained glass, and later tapestries until the end of his career.Stained glass windows in the Christ Church cathedral and other buildings in Oxfordmarker are by William Morris & Co. with designs by Burne-Jones Stanmore Hall was the last major decorating commission executed by Morris & Co. before Morris's death in 1896. It was also the most extensive commission undertaken by the firm, and included a series of tapestries based on the story of the Holy Grail for the dining room, with figures by Burne-Jones.


The Beguiling of Merlin, 1874
In 1864 Burne-Jones was elected an associate of the Society of Painters in Water-Colours (also known as the Old Water-Colour Society), and exhibited, among other works, The Merciful Knight, the first picture which fully revealed his ripened personality as an artist. The next six years saw a series of fine watercolours at the same gallery; but in 1870, Burne-Jones resigned his membership following a controversy over his painting Phyllis and Demophoön. The features of Maria Zambaco were clearly recognizable in the barely-draped Phyllis (as they are in several of Burne-Jones's finest works), and the undraped nakedness of Demophoön coupled with the suggestion of female sexual assertiveness offended Victorian sensibilities. Burne-Jones was asked to make a slight alteration, but instead "withdrew not only the picture from the walls, but himself from the Society."

During the next seven years, 1870-1877, only two works of the painter's were exhibited. These were two water-colours, shown at the Dudley Gallery in 1873, one of them being the beautiful Love among the Ruins, destroyed twenty years later by a cleaner who supposed it to be an oil painting, but afterwards reproduced in oils by the painter. This silent period was, however, one of unremitting production. Hitherto Burne-Jones had worked almost entirely in water-colours. He now began a number of large pictures in oils, working at them in turn, and having always several on hand. The first Briar Rose series, Laus Veneris, the Golden Stairs, the Pygmalion series, and The Mirror of Venus are among the works planned and completed, or carried far towards completion, during these years. These years also mark the beginnings of Burne-Jones's partnership with the fine-art photographer Frederick Hollyer, whose reproductions of paintings and—especially—drawings would expose a wider audience to Burne-Jones's works in the coming decades.

At last, in May 1877, the day of recognition came, with the opening of the first exhibition of the Grosvenor Gallery, when the Days of Creation, The Beguiling of Merlin, and the Mirror of Venus were all shown. Burne-Jones followed up the signal success of these pictures with Laus Veneris, the Chant d'Amour, Pan and Psyche, and other works, exhibited in 1878. Most of these pictures are painted in brilliant colours. A change is noticeable next year, 1879, in the Annunciation and in the four pictures making up the second series of Pygmalion and the Image; the former of these, one of the simplest and most perfect of the artist's works, is subdued and sober; in the latter a scheme of soft and delicate tints was attempted, not with entire success. A similar temperance of colours marks The Golden Stairs, first exhibited in 1880. The almost sombre Wheel of Fortune was shown in 1883, followed in 1884 by King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid, in which Burne-Jones once more indulged his love of gorgeous colour, refined by the period of self-restraint. He next turned to two important sets of pictures, The Briar Rose and The Story of Perseus, though these were not completed for some years to come.

Burne-Jones was elected an Associate of the Royal Academymarker in 1885, and the following year he exhibited (for the only time) at the Academy, showing The Depths of the Sea, a painting of a mermaid carrying down with her a youth whom she has unconsciously drowned in the impetuosity of her love. This picture adds to the habitual haunting charm a tragic irony of conception and a felicity of execution which give it a place apart among Burne-Jones's works. He formally resigned his Associateship in 1893. One of the Perseus series was exhibited in 1887, two more in 1888, with The Brazen Tower, inspired by the same legend. In 1890 the second series of The Legend of Briar Rose were exhibited by themselves, and won the widest admiration. The huge tempera picture, The Star of Bethlehem, painted for the corporation of Birmingham, was exhibited in 1891. A long illness for some time checked the painter's activity, which, when resumed, was much occupied with decorative schemes. An exhibition of his work was held at the New Gallerymarker in the winter of 1892-1893. To this period belong several of his comparatively few portraits. In 1894 Burne-Jones was made a baronet. Ill-health again interrupted the progress of his works, chief among which was the vast Arthur in Avalon. In the winter following his death a second exhibition of his works was held at the New Gallery, and an exhibition of his drawings (including some of the charmingly humorous sketches made for children) at the Burlington Fine Arts Club.

Design for the theatre

In 1894, theatrical manager and actor Henry Irving commissioned Burne-Jones to design sets and costumes for the Lyceum Theatremarker production of King Arthur by J. Comyns Carr, who was Burne-Jones's patron and the director of the New Gallery as well as a playwright. The play starred Irving as King Arthur and Ellen Terry as Guinevere, and toured America following its London run.
Burne-Jones accepted the commission with some enthuisiasm, but was disapppointed with much of the final result. He wrote confidentially to his fried Mrs Gaskell "The armour is good—they have taken pains with it ... Perceval looked the one romantic thing in it ... I hate the stage, don't tell—but I do—don't tell but I do don't tell..."


The Golden Stairs, 1880
Burne-Jones's paintings were one strand in the evolving tapestry of Aestheticism from the 1860s through the 1880s, which considered that art should be valued as an object of beauty engendering a sensual response, rather than for the story or moral implicit in the subject matter. In many ways this was antithetical to the ideals of Ruskin and the early Pre-Raphaelites.

Burne-Jones's aim in art is best given in some of his own words, written to a friend:
 No artist was ever more true to his aim. Ideals resolutely pursued are apt to provoke the resentment of the world, and Burne-Jones encountered, endured and conquered an extraordinary amount of angry criticism. Insofar as this was directed against the lack of realism in his pictures, it was beside the point. The earth, the sky, the rocks, the trees, the men and women of Burne-Jones are not those of this world; but they are themselves a world, consistent with itself, and having therefore its own reality. Charged with the beauty and with the strangeness of dreams, it has nothing of a dream's incoherence. Yet it is a dreamer always whose nature penetrates these works, a nature out of sympathy with struggle and strenuous action. Burne-Jones's men and women are dreamers too. It was this which, more than anything else, estranged him from the age into which he was born. But he had an inbred "revolt from fact" which would have estranged him from the actualities of any age. That criticism seems to be more justified which has found in him a lack of such victorious energy and mastery over his materials as would have enabled him to carry out his conceptions in their original intensity. Yet Burne-Jones was singularly strenuous in production. His industry was inexhaustible, and needed to be, if it was to keep pace with the constant pressure of his ideas. Whatever faults his paintings may have, they have always the fundamental virtue of design; they are always pictures. His designs were informed with a mind of romantic temper, apt in the discovery of beautiful subjects, and impassioned with a delight in pure and variegated colour.


In 1881 Burne-Jones received an honorary degree from Oxfordmarker, and was made an Honorary Fellow in 1882. In 1885 he became the President of the Birmingham Society of Artistsmarker. At about that time he began hyphenating his name, merely—as he wrote later—to avoid "annihilation" in the mass of Joneses. In November 1893, he was approached to see if he would accept a Baronetcy on the recommendation of the outgoing Prime Minister William Gladstone, the following February he legally changed his name to Burne-Jones He was formally created a baronet of Rottingdean, in the county of Sussex, and of the Grange, in the parish of Fulham, in the county of London in the baronetage of the United Kingdom on 3 May 1894, but remained unhappy about accepting the honour, which disgusted his socialist friend Morris and was scorned by his equally socialist wife Georgiana. Only his son Philip, who mixed with the set of the Prince of Wales and would inherit the title, truly wanted it.

Morris died in 1896, and the devastated Burne-Jones's health declined substantially. In 1898 he had an attack of influenza, and had apparently recovered, when he was again taken suddenly ill, and died on 17 June 1898. Six days later, at the intervention of the Prince of Wales, a memorial service was held at Westminster Abbeymarker. It was the first time an artist had been so honoured. Burne-Jones was buried in Rottingdeanmarker churchyard, near Brightonmarker, a place he knew through summer family holidays.


Burne-Jones exerted a considerable influence on British painting. Burne-Jones was also highly influential among French symbolist painters, from 1889. His work inspired poetry by Swinburne — Swinburne's 1886 Poems & Ballads is dedicated to Burne-Jones.

Two of Burne-Jones's studio assistants, T.M. Rooke and Charles Fairfax Murray, went on to a successful art careers as painters in their own right. Murray later became an important collector and respected art dealer. Between 1903 and 1907 he sold a great many works by Burne-Jones and the Pre-Raphaelites to the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallerymarker, at far below their market worth. Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery now has the largest collection of works by Burne-Jones in the world, including the massive watercolour Star of Bethlehem, commissioned for the Gallery in 1897. The paintings are believed by some to have influenced the young J. R. R. Tolkien, then growing up in Birmingham.

Burne-Jones was also a very strong influence on the Birmingham Group of artists, from the 1890s onwards.

Neglect and rediscovery

On 16 June 1933, Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, a nephew of Burne-Jones, officially opened the centenary exhibition featuring Burne-Jones's drawings and paintings at the Tate Gallerymarker in London. In his opening speech at the exhibition, Mr Baldwin expressed what the art of Burne-Jones stood for:

But in fact, long before 1933, Burne-Jones was hopelessly out-of-fashion in the art world, much of which soon preferred the major trends in Modern art, and the exhibit marking the 100th anniversary of his birth was a sad affair, poorly attended. It was not until the mid-1970s that his work began to be re-assessed and once again acclaimed. A major exhibit in 1989 at the Barbican Art Gallerymarker, London (in book form as: John Christian, The Last Romantics, 1989) traced Burne-Jones's influence on the next generation of artists, and another at Tate Britainmarker in 1997 explored the links between British Aestheticism and Symbolism.

A second lavish centenary exhibit—this time marking the 100th anniversary of Burne-Jones's death—was held at the Metropolitan Museum of Artmarker in New York in 1998, before traveling to the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery and the Musée d'Orsaymarker, Paris.

Fiona MacCarthy in a review of Burne-Jones's legacy notes that he was "a painter who, while quintessentially Victorian, leads us forward to the psychological and sexual introspection of the early twentieth century."


Stained and painted glass

Image:Edward Burne-Jones Daniel 1873.jpg|Cartoon for Daniel window, St. Martin's-on-the-Hill, Scarboroughmarker, 1873Image:USA Massachusetts Boston Trinity Nativity.jpg|Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris' Nativity windows (1882), Trinity Church, Bostonmarker.Image:USA Massachusetts Boston Trinity Nativity-window.jpg|The Worship of the Magi window (1882), Trinity Church, Boston.Image:USA Massachusetts Boston Trinity-Nativity-detail-2.jpg|The Worship of the Shepherds window (1882), Trinity Church, Boston.Image:Burnejoneswindow.jpg|Nativity scene in St Mary's Church, Huish Episcopimarker, SomersetmarkerImage:David_Burne-Jones.jpg|David 1872, in St Michael and All Angels, Waterford, HertfordshiremarkerImage:Miriam_Burne-Jones.jpg|Miriam, 1872 in St Michael and All Angels, Waterford, HertfordshiremarkerImage:Salvator_Mundi_Burne-Jones.jpg|Christ as Salvator Mundi, 1896 in St Michael and All Angels, Waterford, Hertfordshiremarker


Image:Edward Burne-Jones The Knights Farewell.jpg|The Knight's Farewell, 1858, pen-and-ink on vellum, 1858Image:Edward Burne-Jones Going to the Battle 1858.jpg|Going to the Battle, pen-and-ink with gray wash on vellum, 1858Image:Paderewski by Burne-Jones.jpg|Portrait of Ignacy Jan Paderewski, 1892


Early worksImage:Burne ,Princess Sabra Led to the Dragon.jpg|The Princess Sabra Led to the Dragon, 1866Image:Edward Burne-Jones Maria Zambaco 1870.jpg|Portrait of Maria Zambaco, 1870Image:Edward Burne-Jones Phyllis and Demophoon 1870.jpg|Phyllis and Demophoön, 1870Image:Edward Burne-Jones Temperantia 1872.jpg|Temperantia, 1872

Pygmalion (first series)Image:The Heart Desires, Pygmalion (Burne-Jones).jpg|The Heart Desires, 1868-70Image:The Hand Refrains, Pygmalion (Burne-Jones)i.jpg|The Hand Refrains, 1868-1870Image:The Godhead Fires, Pygmalion (Burne-Jones).jpg|The Godhead Fires, 1868-70Image:The Soul Attains, Pygmalion (Burne-Jones).jpg|The Soul Attains, 1868-70

Pygmalion and the Image (second series)Image:The Heart Desires, 2nd series, Pygmalion (Burne-Jones).jpg|The Heart Desires, 1878Image:The Hand Refrains, 2nd series, Pygmalion (Burne-Jones).jpg|The Hand Refrains, 1878Image:The Godhead Fires, 2nd series, Pygmalion (Burne-Jones).jpg|The Godhead Fires, 1878Image:The Soul Attains, 2nd series, Pygmalion (Burne-Jones).jpg|The Soul Attains, 1878

The Grosvenor Gallery yearsImage:Edward Burne-Jones Pan and Psyche.jpg|Pan and Psyche, 1874Image:Edward Burne-Jones The Annunciation.jpg|The Annunciation, 1879Image:Burnejones3.jpg|The Angel, 1881Image:The Mill by Edward Burne-Jones.jpg|The Mill, 1882

The Legend of Briar Rose (second series)

Image:Briar Wood Buscot Park.jpg|The Briar Wood, completed 1890Image:The Council Chamber Buscot Park.jpg|The Council Chamber, 1890Image:The Garden Court Buscot Park.jpg|The Garden Court, 1890Image:The Rose Bower Buscot Park.jpg|The Rose Bower, 1890

Later worksImage:Edward Burne-Jones Star of Bethlehem.jpg|The Star of Bethlehem, 1890Image:Burne-jones-love-among-the-ruins.jpg|Love Among the Ruins, 1894 recreation in oilsImage:Edward Burne-Jones001.jpg|Psyche's Wedding, 1895Image:Burne-Jones Last Sleep of Arthur in Avalon v2.jpg|The Last Sleep of Arthur in Avalon 1881–1898

Decorative arts

Image:Rubaiyat Morris Burne-Jones Manuscript.jpg|Illuminated manuscript of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam by William Morris, illustrated by Burne-Jones with a variant of Love Among the Ruins, 1870sImage:Holy Grail Tapestry -The Arming and Departure of the Kniights.jpg|The Arming and Departure of the Knights, tapestry, 1890s, figures by Burne-Jones.Image:Kelmscott Troilus.jpg|A page from the Kelmscott Chaucer, decoration by Morris and illustration by Burne-Jones, 1896


Image:Carrcraven7.jpg|Scene from King Arthur, sets by Burne-Jones, 1895Image:Ellen Terry as Guinevere costume by Burne-Jones.jpg|Ellen Terry as Guinevere, costume by Burne-Jones, 1894


Image:Frederick Hollyer Morris and Burne-Jones Families 1874.jpg|The Burne-Jones and Morris families in the garden at the Grange, 1874, photograph by Frederick HollyerImage:Frederick Hollyer portrait of Edward Burne-Jones c1882.jpg|Edward Burne-Jones, c. 1882 (Hollyer)Image:Frederick Hollyer portrait of Georgiana Burne-Jones c1882.jpg|Georgiana Burne-Jones, c. 1882 (Hollyer)Image:Frederick Hollyer Garden Studio at the Grange 1887.jpg|Burne-Jones's garden studio at the Grange, 1887 (Hollyer)

See also



  1. Wildman, Burne-Jones, p. 42-43.
  2. Daly, Pre-Raphaelites in Love, p. 249-251
  3. Dictionary of National Biography (1909), "Edward Burne-Jones"
  4. Dictionary of National Biography (1901), "William Morris"
  5. Wildman, Edward Burne-Jones, p. 107
  6. Wildman, Edward Burne-Jones, p. 114
  7. Flanders, Circle of Sisters, p. 118-120.
  8. Flanders, Circle of Sisters, p. 136
  9. 1911 Encyclopedia Brittanica
  10. Marsh, Letters and Diaries, p. 110
  11. Wildman, Edward Burne-Jones, p. 66.
  12. Linda Parry, "Domestic Decoration." In Parry, William Morris, p. 139-140
  13. Edward Burne-Jones Southgate Green Association "His work included both stained-glass windows for Christ Church in Oxford and the stained glass windows for Christ Church on Southgate Green."
  14. PreRaphaelite Painting and Design University of Texas
  15. Linda Parry, "Domestic Decoration." In Parry, William Morris, p. 146-147
  16. J. J. Roget, A History of the "Old" Water-Colour Society, (1891), quoted in Wildman, Edward Burne-Jones, p. 138
  17. Wildman, Burne-Jones, p. 197-98.
  18. Wildman, p. 315
  19. Wood, p. 119
  20. Wood, p. 120
  21. Wildman, Edward Burne-Jones, p. 112-113
  22. Taylor, Victorian Sisters, p. 150-51
  23. Flanders, Circle of Sisters, p. 258
  24. Wildman, Edward Burne-Jones, p. 1
  25. Wildman, Edward Burne-Jones, front matter
  26. Tate: "A Visionary Oddity: Fiona MacCarthy on Edward Burne-Jones"


This article also incorporates text from the Dictionary of National Biography, supplemental volume 3 (1901) and volume 22 (1909), publications now in the public domain
  • Daly, Gay, Pre-Raphaelites in Love, New York, Ticknor & Fields, 1989, ISBN 0899194508
  • Flanders, Judith, A Circle of Sisters: Alice Kipling, Georgiana Burne Jones, Agnes Poynter, and Louisa Baldwin, Norton, 2001, ISBN 0-393-05210-9
  • Mackail, J. W., "William Morris," in The Dictionary of National Biography. Supp. vol. 3 (London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1901), p. 197–203, reproduced at the William Morris Society
  • Marsh, Jan: The Pre-Raphaelites: Their Lives in Letters and Diaries, Trafalgar Square, 1997, ISBN 1855852462
  • Parry, Linda, ed., William Morris, Abrams, 1996, ISBN 0-8109-4282-8
  • Taylor, Ina, Victorian Sisters, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1987
  • Todd, Pamela, Pre-Raphaelites at Home, New York, Watson-Guptill Publications, 2001, ISBN 0823042855
  • Wildman, Stephen: Edward Burne-Jones: Victorian Artist-Dreamer, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1998, ISBN 0870998595
  • Wood, Christopher: Burne-Jones, Phoenix Illustrated, 1997, ISBN 9780753807279

Further reading

  • Arscott, Caroline. William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones: Interlacings, (New Haven and London: Yale University Press (Published for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art), 2008). ISBN 978-0-300-14093-4
  • Mackail, J. W., The Life of William Morris in two volumes, London, New York and Bombay: Longmans, Green and Co., 1899
  • Marsh, Jan, Jane and May Morris: A Biographical Story 1839–1938, London, Pandora Press, 1986 ISBN 0-86358-026-2
  • Marsh, Jan, Jane and May Morris: A Biographical Story 1839–1938 (updated edition, privately published by author), London, 2000

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