The Full Wiki

More info on Edward Pellew, 1st Viscount Exmouth

Edward Pellew, 1st Viscount Exmouth: Map


Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:

Admiral Edward Pellew, 1st Viscount Exmouth, GCB (9 April 1757 – 23 January 1833) was a Britishmarker naval officer. He fought during the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary, and the Napoleonic Wars. His younger brother, Israel Pellew, also pursued a naval career.

Pellew is remembered as an officer and a gentleman of great courage and leadership, earning his land and titles through courage, leadership and skill - serving as a paradigm of the versatility and determination of British naval officers during the Napoleonic Wars.


Pellew was born at Dovermarker, the second son of Samuel Pellew (1712 – 1764), commander of a Dover packet. The family was Cornish, descended from a family which came originally from Normandy, but had for many centuries been settled in the west of Cornwallmarker. Edward's grandfather, Humphrey Pellew (1650 - 1721), a merchant and ship owner, son of a naval officer, resided at Flushing manor-house in the parish of Mylor. Part of the town of Flushingmarker was built by Samuel Trefusis MP for Penryn; the other part was built by Humphrey Pellew who was buried there. He also had a property and a tobacco plantation in Marylandmarker, United States of America. Part of the town of Annapolismarker stands on what was, before the revolt of the colonies, the estate of the Pellews. On the death of Edward's father in 1764 the family removed to Penzancemarker, and Pellew was for some years at the grammar school at Truromarker. He was a pugnacious youth, which did not endear him to his headmaster. He ran away to sea at the age of 14, but soon deserted because of unfair treatment to another midshipman.

Early career

In 1770 he entered the Royal Navy on board the Juno, with Captain John Stott, and made a voyage to the Falkland Islandsmarker. In 1772 he followed Stott to the Alarm, and in her was in the Mediterranean for three years. In consequence of a high-spirited quarrel with his captain, he was put on shore at Marseillemarker, where, finding an old friend of his father's in command of a merchant ship, he was able to get a passage to Lisbonmarker and so home. He afterwards was in the Blonde, which, under the command of Captain Philemon Pownoll, took General John Burgoyne to America in the spring of 1776. In October Pellew, together with another midshipman, Brown, was detached, under Lieutenant Dacres, for service in the Carleton tender on Lake Champlainmarker. During the Battle of Valcour Islandmarker on 11 October, Dacres and Brown were both severely wounded, and the command devolved on Pellew, who, by his personal gallantry, extricated the vessel from a position of great danger. As a reward for his service he was immediately appointed to command the Carleton. In December Lord Howe wrote, promising him a commission as lieutenant when he could reach New York, and in the following January Lord Sandwich wrote promising to promote him when he came to England. In the summer of 1777 Pellew, with a small party of seamen, was attached to the army under Burgoyne, was present in the fighting at Saratogamarker, where his youngest brother, John, was killed. He, together with the rest of the force, was taken prisoner. After the surrender of General Burgoyne at Saratoga, he was repatriated.

On returning to England he was promoted, on 9 January 1778, to be lieutenant of the Princess Amelia guardship at Portsmouthmarker. He wanted to be appointed to a sea-going ship but Lord Sandwich considered that he was bound by the terms of the surrender at Saratoga not to undertake any active service. Towards the end of the year he was appointed to the Licorne, which, in the spring of 1779, went out to Newfoundlandmarker, returning in the winter, when Pellew was moved into the Apollo, with his old captain, Pownoll. On 15 June 1780 the Apollo engaged a large French privateer, the Stanislaus, off Ostendmarker. Pownoll was killed by a musket-shot, but Pellew, continuing the action, dismasted the Stanislaus and drove her on shore, where she was protected by the neutrality of the coast. On the 18th Lord Sandwich wrote to him: "I will not delay informing you that I mean to give you immediate promotion as a reward for your gallant and officer-like conduct." and on 1 July he was accordingly promoted to the command of the Hazard sloop, which was employed for the next six months on the east coast of Scotlandmarker. She was then paid off. In March 1782 Pellew was appointed to the Pelican, a small French prize, and so low that he used to say "his servant could dress his hair from the deck while he sat in the cabin." On 28 April, while cruising on the coast of Brittany, he engaged and drove on shore three privateers. In special reward for this service he was promoted to post rank on 25 May, and ten days later was appointed to the temporary command of the Artois, in which on 1 July, he captured a large frigate-built privateer.

From 1786 to 1789 he commanded the Winchelsea frigate on the Newfoundland station, returning home each winter by Cadizmarker and Lisbonmarker. Afterwards he commanded the Salisbury on the same station, as flag-captain to Vice-admiral Milbanke. In 1791 he was placed on half-pay and tried his hand at farming with indifferent success. He was offered a command in the Russian navy but declined it. He was still struggling with the difficulties of his farm when the revolutionary government of France declared war on Great Britain on 1 February 1793. He immediately applied for a ship and was appointed to the Nymphe, a 36-gun frigate which he fitted out in a remarkably short time. Having expected a good deal of difficulty in manning her, he had enlisted some eighty Cornish miners, who were sent round to the ship at Spitheadmarker. With these and about a dozen seamen — apart from the officers (who were obliged to help in the work aloft) — he put to sea and by dint of pressing from the merchant ships in the Channelmarker, succeeded in filling up his complement but with very few seasoned navy men. On 18 June the Nymphe sailed from Falmouthmarker on the news that two French frigates had been seen in the Channel. At daybreak on the 19th Nymphe fell in with the Cléopâtre, also of 36 guns, commanded by Captain Mullon, one of the few officers of the ancien régime who still remained in the French navy. After a short but very sharp action, the Cléopâtre's mizenmast and wheel were shot away, and the ship, being unmanageable, fell foul of the Nymphe, and was boarded and captured in a fierce rush. Mullon was mortally wounded, and died in trying to swallow his commission, which, in his dying agony, he had mistaken for the code of secret signals. The code thus fell intact into Pellew's hands, and was sent to the admiralty. The Cléopâtre, the first frigate taken in the war, was brought to Portsmouthmarker, and on 29 June Pellew was presented to the king by the Earl of Chatham and was knighted.

Service in the French Revolutionary War

Edward Pellew in ceremonial dress
By 1794 he was Commodore of the Western Frigate Squadron. In 1795, he took command of HMS Indefatigable, the ship with which he is most closely associated.

He was also a good swimmer and noted for saving many lives. The most striking event was on 26 January 1796 when the East Indiaman Dutton, which was carrying troops, ran aground under Plymouth Hoemarker. Due to the heavy seas, the crew and soldiers aboard were unable to get to shore. Pellew swam out to the wreck with a line and helped rig a lifeline which saved almost all aboard: for this feat he was, on 18 March 1796 created a baronet.

His most famous action was the Action of 13 January 1797marker when, cruising in company with HMS Amazon, a French 74 gun ship of the line, the Droits de l'Homme, was sighted. Normally a ship of the line would outmatch two frigates, but by skilful sailing in the stormy conditions, the Britishmarker frigates avoided bearing the brunt of the superior fire power of the French. In the early morning of 14 January 1797, the three ships were embayed on a lee shore in Audierne Bay. Both the Droits de l'Homme and Amazon ran aground, but Indefatigable managed to claw her way off the lee shore to safety.

Pellew was responsible for pressing the brilliant young black violinist and composer Joseph Antonio Emidy who had been playing in the Lisbon Opera orchestra.

Admiralcy and Peerage

Pellew was promoted to Rear Admiral in 1804. He was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the East Indies. It took six months to sail out to Penangmarker so he took up the appointment in 1805. On his return from the east in 1809, he was appointed to the position of Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterraneanmarker Fleet from 1811 to 1814 and again in 1816.

In 1814, he was made Baron Exmouth of Canonteign. He led an Anglo-Dutchmarker fleet against the Barbary states and was victor of the Bombardment of Algiers in 1816 and secured the release of the 1,000 Christian slaves in the city. For this action he was created 1st Viscount Exmouth on 10 December 1816. Following his return to England he became Port Admiral at Plymouthmarker from 1817 to 1820, when he effectively retired from active service. He continued to attend and speak in the House of Lordsmarker. In 1832 he was appointed Vice-Admiral of the United Kingdom and Admiral of the Red Squadron of His Majesty's Fleet, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, also of the Royal and distinguished Order of Charles the Third of Spain, Of the Military Order of William of the Netherlands, Of the Royal Sicilian Order of St. Ferdinand and Merit, Of the Military Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazare of Sardinia, and Knight of the Most Honourable and Most Ancient Order of the Annunciation of the Royal House of Savoy, High Steward of Great Yarmouth, and one of the Elder Brethren of the Hon. Corporation of the Trinity House.

He bought Bitton House in Teignmouthmarker in 1812 and it was his home until his death in 1833. The museum in Teignmouth has a comprehensive collection of artefacts which belonged to him.

Marriage and family

On 28 May 1783 Pellew married Susannah Frowde. They had four sons and two daughters. These children were:
  • Emma Mary Pellew, b. 18 January 1785. Married Captain Lawrence Halsted in 1803.
  • Pownoll Bastard Pellew, later 2nd Viscount Exmouth, b. 1 July 1786
  • Julia Pellew, b. 31 May 1787
  • Fleetwood Broughton Reynolds Pellew, later an admiral and knight, b. 13 December 1789
  • George Pellew, later a bishop, born 3 April 1793
  • Edward William Pellew, later a minister, born 3 November 1799

Geographical namesakes

The Sir Edward Pellew Group of Islandsmarker, situated in the Gulf of Carpentariamarker were named after Pellew by Matthew Flinders who visited them in 1802. Other Australian geographical features include Cape Pellew (adjacent to the islands) and Exmouth Gulf. Pellew Island, Jamaicamarker is also named after Edward Pellew. However, while Palaumarker (formerly the Pellew or Pelew Islands), east of the Philippinesmarker is often said to be named for Edward Pellew, it was called that by Captain Henry Wilson in 1783 which was well before Pellew came to prominence. It appears to be an anglicization of the indigenous name Belau. Point Pellew, Alaska.

There is also a building in HMS Raleighmarker (where Naval basic training is conducted) named after him which is used as sleeping quarters for new recruits, and a Sea Cadet Unit in Truro called T.S. Pellew.

Fictional appearances

Pellew is featured as the Captain of Indefatigable in some of C. S. Forester's fictional Horatio Hornblower novels; in the television adaptations, as portrayed by Robert Lindsay, he is given a more prominent role. As a midshipman, he appears in the novel Jack Absolute by C. C. Humphreys. Pellew is the name of a minor character in several of Patrick O'Brian's Aubrey-Maturin novels, including The Reverse of the Medal, The Surgeon's Mate, but as himself is only mentioned in The Yellow Admiral and The Hundred Days. As a captain, he has a small role in the American Revolution in Rabble in Arms, a historical novel by Kenneth Roberts.


Embed code:

Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address