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Ehrenfried Pfeiffer (born 1899 in Munichmarker, Germanymarker—died in 1961 in Spring Valley, New Yorkmarker, USAmarker) was a scientist, anthroposophist and disciple of Rudolf Steiner.


Ehrenfried Pfeiffer began work with Rudolf Steiner in 1920 to develop and install special diffuse stage lighting for eurythmy performances on the stage of the first Goetheanum. After Steiner's death in 1925, Pfeiffer worked in the private research laboratory at the Goetheanummarker in Dornachmarker, (Switzerlandmarker). He became manager and director of an experimental biodynamic farm at Loverendale, Hollandmarker. This farm was set up to carry out some of the agricultural studies of the Goetheanum laboratory.

Pfeiffer first visited the U.S.marker in 1933 to lecture to a group of anthroposophists at the Threefold Farm in Spring Valley, New Yorkmarker on biodynamic farming. His consulting was essential to the development of biodynamic agriculture in the U.S.

Pfeiffer developed an analytical method using copper chloride crystallization and used this technique as a blood test for detecting cancer. As a result, Pfeiffer was invited to the U.S.marker in 1937 to work at the Hahnemann Medical Collegemarker in Philadelphia While in the U.S., he continued to consult with those interested in biodynamic farming and helped to form the Biodynamic Farming & Gardening Association in 1938. He immigrated with his wife Adelhied, who subsequently took over the operation of their Chester N.Y. farm after his death, from Switzerlandmarker to the U.S.marker in 1940, escaping the advance of German troops into France. He brought with him his son Christoph and daughter Willi as well. In 1961, at his farm in Chester, N.Y. he suffered from a series of heart attacks, lingering for several days, but ultimately was not given the proper medical care and passed away.

His copper chloride sensitive crystallization theory brought him an honorary degree of Doctor of Medicine from Hahnemann Medical College and Hospitalmarker in Philadelphiamarker in 1939. He studied chemistry and became a professor of nutrition in 1956.


Pfeiffer was a pioneer of biodynamic agriculture in America. He is most widely known for his innovative work in composting. He conducted extensive research on the preparation and use of biodynamic compost and was is the inventor of BD Compost Starter, a compost inoculant. For many years Pfeiffer served as a compost consultant to municipal compost facilities, most notably Oaklandmarker, Californiamarker, as well as countries in the Caribbean, Europe, and the Far East. A technical difficulty with the resulting compost, that it would not spread readily with the commonly used fertilizer spreader, could not be overcome and the project ultimately failed.

Pfeiffer invented two anthroposophic Image forming methods, a method using a round filter chromatography (circular chromatography or chroma test) and the copper chloride crystallization method, developed together with Erika Sabarth. In the latter method, a solution of copper chloride and the test solution is allowed to evaporate. The pattern of the copper chloride crystals can be "read" based on the patterns of known samples. Similarly, the patterns of the circular chromatographs can be "read" based on known samples. Both methods require much practice to "read" and interpret the images.

Pfeiffer and Dr. George Miley of the Hahnemann Medical College claimed that in about a thousand tests of known cancer cases, the copper chloride crystallization of blood samples was about 83% accurate in detecting the presence of cancer, through a characteristic crystal pattern, and about 91% accurate for the absence of cancer.

Pfeiffer felt that these two imaging methods showed the presence of life-forces or etheric formative forces and could be used to gauge the quality or vitality in food, such as would be shown in biodynamically grown food. Some proponents, as well as critics, recognize that these methods are very much dependent on the interpretive ability of the researcher. Other biodynamic practitioners have found the methods useful in testing the results of their work such as in improving soil health.

See also


  1. Under Steiner's direction, Pfeiffer designed and constructed special diffuse stage lights, not concentrated by lenses, that would be suitable for eurythmy performances. He also designed and built a special lighting keyboard to allow the lights to be changed quickly and fluidly, a kind of "color piano". Pfeiffer, E., Autobiographical memoirs, cited in Barnes, H., Into the Heart's Land: A century of Rudolf Steiner's work in North America, 2005, pp. 232-233.
  2. Kevin Dann, Across the Great Border Fault: The naturalist myth in America, Rutgers University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-81352-790-2
  3. "Cancer Progress", Time Magazine, September 25, 1939. Reprint copy
  4. Naomi Rogers, An Alternative Path: The Making and Remaking of Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital of Philadelphia, Rutgers University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-81352-536-5, p. 200.
  5. Andrew Lorand, Biodynamic Agriculture — A paradigmatic analysis, Ph.D. thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1996.
  6. Steve Diver, Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation, Alternative Farming Systems Guide: ATTRA, February 1999. Document text
  7. A. W. Martinez, "The City With Golden Garbage", Collier's Weekly Magazine, May 31, 1952. Reprint copy
  8. Pfeiffer, E., and Miley, G., presentation at Third International Congress on Cancer Research in Atlantic City, NJ, June 6, 1939, referenced in Time article, op. cit.
  9. William Brinton, Jr. (1997). Dynamic Chemical Processes underlying BD Horn Manure (500) Preparation. Journal of Biodynamics, 214, Nov-Dec, 1997, p. 2. Reprint copy
  10. K. Perumal and T.M. Vatsala, Utilization of Local Alternative Materials in Cow Horn Manure (BD 500) Preparations: A case study of biodynamic vegetable cultivation, report published by Shri AMM Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre, Tharamani, Chennai, India, not dated, pp. 16-18. Reprint copy

Biographical resources

  • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, Ein Leben fur den Geist: Ehrenfried Pfeiffer (1899-1961): Pfeiffers autobiographische Erinnerungen, Aufzeichnungen zur Atherforschung und Ernahrung, zur ... Briefe und Aufzeichnungen aus dem Nachlass, Perseus-Verlag, 2000. ISBN 3907564316. (German)
  • Henry Barnes, Into the Heart's Land: A century of Rudolf Steiner's work in North America, SteinerBooks, 2005. ISBN 0-88010-554-2, Chapter 19.
  • Kevin T. Dann, Across the Great Border Fault: The naturalist myth in America, Rutgers University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-81352-790-2.
  • Alla Selawry, Ehrenfried Pfeiffer: Pioneer of spiritual research and practice: A contribution to his biography, Mercury Press, 1992.
  • Alla Selawry, Ehrenfried Pfeiffer: Pionier spiritueller Forschung und Praxis: Begegnung und Briefwechsel: ein Beitrag zu seiner Biographie (Pioniere der Anthroposophie), Philosophisch-Anthroposophischer Verlag am Goetheanum, 1987. ISBN 3-72350-449-3. (German)

Books and articles by Ehrenfried Pfeiffer

Biodynamics in farming and gardening

  • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, Soil Fertility, Renewal and Preservation: Bio-dynamic farming and gardening, Asiatic Publishing House, 2006. ISBN 8-18706-773-X.
  • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, Bio-Dynamic Gardening and Farming: Articles, Mercury Press, 1983-1984. ISBN 0-93613-267-1.
  • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, Using the Bio-Dynamic Compost Preparations & Sprays in Garden, Orchard & Farm, Biodynamic Farming & Gardening Association, 1984. ISBN 0-93825-026-4.
  • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer and Erika Riese, Grow a Garden and Be Self-Sufficient, Mercury Press, 1981. ISBN 0-93613-237-X.
  • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, Bio-Dynamics: Three Introductory Articles, Charter, 1999. ASIN B000PIZ250.
  • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, The biodynamic treatment of fruit trees, berries and shrubs, Biodynamic Farming & Gardening Association, 1976.
  • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, Weeds and What They Tell, Biodynamic Farming & Gardening Association, 1981. ASIN B00071HRSU.
  • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, The Earth's Face: Landscape and its relation to the health of the soil, Faber and Faber, 1947. ASIN B0007IXST0.
  • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, Practical guide to the use of the bio-dynamic preparations, Rudolf Steiner Publishing, 1945. ASIN B0007K8FAU.
  • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, The fair garden plot: Concise guidance for growing one's own vegetables, Rudolf Steiner Publishing, 1945. ASIN B0007KD2GC.


  • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, Chromatography applied to quality testing, Biodynamic Farming & Gardening Association, 1984.
  • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, Sensitive crystallization processes: A demonstration of formative forces in the blood, Anthroposophic Press, 1975. ASIN B00073467S.


  • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, The art and science of composting: Observations and testing methods: the chromatographic method, Biodynamic Farming & Gardening Association, 1959. ASIN B0007HK7MC.
  • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, The compost manufacturers manual: The practice of large scale composting, Pfeiffer Foundation, 1956. ASIN B0007G1MWC.

Other topics

  • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, Heart lectures: Three lectures, Mercury Press, 1982. ISBN 0-93613-249-3.
  • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz: A commentary, Mercury Press, 1984. ISBN 0-93613-216-7.
  • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, Zarathustrian Way, St. George Book Service, 1982. ISBN 0-93613-245-0.

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