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Eindhoven ( ) is a municipality and a city located in the province of Noord-Brabantmarker in the south of the Netherlandsmarker, originally at the confluence of the Dommelmarker and Gendermarker streams. The Gender was dammed off in the post-war years, but the Dommel still runs through the city.

Neighbouring cities and towns include Son en Breugelmarker, Nuenenmarker, Geldrop-Mierlomarker, Heeze-Leendemarker, Waalremarker, Veldhovenmarker, Eerselmarker, Oirschotmarker and Bestmarker. The agglomeration has some 440,000 inhabitants. The metropolitan area (which includes Helmondmarker) has nearly 750,000 inhabitants. Also, Eindhoven is part of Brabant Stad, a combined metropolitan area with more than 2 million inhabitants.

History

The written history of Eindhoven started in 1232, when Duke Hendrik I of Brabant granted city rights to Endehoven, then a small town right on the confluence of the Dommel and Gender streams. The city's name translates literally as "End Yards", reflecting its position at the southern end of Woenselmarker. At the time of granting of its charter, Eindhoven had approximately 170 houses enclosed by a rampart. Just outside of the city walls stood a small castle. The city was also granted the right to organize a weekly market and the farmers in nearby villages were obliged to come to Eindhoven to sell their produce. Another factor in its establishment was its location on the trade route from Holland to Liègemarker.

Around 1388 the city's fortifications were strengthened further. And between 1413 and 1420, a new castle was built within the city walls. In 1486, Eindhoven was plundered and burned by troops from Gelderland. The reconstruction was finished in 1502, with a stronger rampart and a new castle. However, in 1543 Eindhoven fell again: its defense works were neglected due to poverty.

A big fire in 1554 destroyed 75% of the houses but by 1560 these had been rebuilt with the help of William I of Orange. During the Dutch Revolt, Eindhoven changed hands between the Dutch and the Spanishmarker several times during which it was burned down by renegade Spanish soldiers, until finally in 1583 it was captured once more by Spanish troops and its city walls were demolished. Eindhoven did not become part of the Netherlands until 1629. During the French occupation Eindhoven suffered again with many of its houses destroyed by the invading forces. Eindhoven remained a minor city after that until the start of the industrial revolution.

The industrial revolution of the Nineteenth century provided a major growth impulse. Canals, roads and railroads were constructed. Eindhoven was connected to the major Zuid-Willemsvaartmarker canal through the Eindhovens Kanaal branch in 1843 and was connected by rail to Tilburgmarker, 's-Hertogenboschmarker, Venlomarker and Belgiummarker between 1866 and 1870. Industrial activities initially centred around tobacco and textile and boomed with the rise of lighting and electronics giant Philips, which was founded as a light bulb manufacturing company in Eindhoven in 1891.

The explosive growth of industry in the region and the subsequent housing needs of workers called for radical changes in administration, as the City of Eindhoven was still confined to its medieval moat city limits. In 1920, the five neighbouring municipalities of Woenselmarker (to the north), Tongelremarker (northeast and east), Stratummarker (southeast), Gestel en Blaarthemmarker (southwest) and Strijp (west), which already bore the brunt of the housing needs and related problems, were incorporated into the new Groot-Eindhoven ("Greater Eindhoven") municipality. The prefix "Groot-" was later dropped.

The early twentieth century saw additions in technical industry with the advent of car and truck manufacturing company Van Doorne's Automobiel Fabriek (DAF) and the subsequent shift towards electronics and engineering, with the traditional tobacco and textile industries waning and finally disappearing in the Seventies.

Large-scale air raids in World War II, including the preliminary bombing during Operation Market Garden to aid the US 101st Airborne Division paratroopers in securing the bridges in and around the town on 18 September 1944, destroyed large parts of the city. The reconstruction that followed left very little historical remains and the post-war reconstruction period saw drastic renovation plans in highrise style, some of which were implemented. At the time, there was little regard for historical heritage; in the Sixties, a new city hall was built and its neo-gothic predecessor (1867) demolished to make way for a planned arterial road that never materialised.

The Seventies, Eighties and Nineties saw large-scale housing developments in the districts of Woensel-Zuid and Woensel-Noord, making Eindhoven the fifth-largest city in the Netherlands.

In the past decade, Eindhoven has emerged as the capital of Dutch industrial design. The Design Academy Eindhoven has produced major Dutch designers, such as Maarten Baas, Marcel Wanders, Richard Hutten, Jurgen Bey, and Hella Jongerius. The school also has a strong affiliation with droog design. In 2003, Time Magazine called the Academy, "The School of Cool." Due to the fame of the D.A.E, Eindhoven has been able to grow in the design industry with such events as the Dutch Design Week, taking place every October. Eindhoven is currently one of two finalists for the World Design Capital 2012 award given by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design. As most of Phillips industries have moved out, the Phillips Design Bureau is still in Eindhoven.

Geography

The villages and city that make up modern Eindhoven were originally built on sandy elevations between the Dommel, Gender and Tongelreep streams. Starting from the Nineteenth Century, the basins of the streams themselves have also been used as housing grounds, leading to occasional floodings in the city centre. Partly to reduce flooding, the Gender stream, which flowed straight through the city centre, was dammed off and filled up after the War, and the course of the Dommel was regulated. New ecologial and socio-historical insights have led to parts of the Dommel's course being restored to their original states, and plans to have the Gender flow through the centre once again ( link to article in Dutch).

The large-scale housing developments of the Twentieth Century saw residential areas being built on former agricultural lands and woods, former heaths that had been turned into cultivable lands in the Nineteenth Century.

Demographics

, the population of Eindhoven consisted of 209,179 persons. Of these, 26.5% or some 55,400 people are of foreign descent. People are classified as being of foreign descent when they were born outside of the Netherlands, or when at least one of their parents was born outside of the Netherlands.


Large minority groups include :

Other large minority groups are Germans and Indonesians.

Economy

Eindhoven has grown from a little village in 1232 to one of the bigger cities in the Netherlandsmarker with around 210,000 inhabitants in 2006. Much of its growth is due to Philips and DAF Trucks.

In 1891, brothers Gerard and Anton Philips founded the small light bulb factory that would grow into one of the largest electronics firms in the world. Philips' presence is probably the largest single contributing factor to the major growth of Eindhoven in the 20th century. It attracted and spun off many hi-tech companies, making Eindhoven a major technology and industrial hub. In 2005, a full third of the total amount of money spent on research in the Netherlands was spent in or around Eindhoven. A quarter of the jobs in the region are in technology and ICT, with companies such as FEI Companymarker (once Philips Electron Optics), NXP Semiconductors (formerly Philips Semiconductors), ASML, Toolex, Simac, Neways, Atos Origin and the aforementioned Philips and DAF.

Prime examples of industrial heritage in Eindhoven are the renovated Witte Dame ("White Lady") complex, a former Philips lamp factory; and the Admirant building (informally known as Bruine Heer or "Brown Gentleman" in reference to the Witte Dame across the street), the former Philips main offices. The Witte Dame currently houses the municipal library, the Design Academy and a selection of shops. The Admirant has been renovated into an office building for small companies. Across the street from the Witte Dame and next to the Admirant is Philips' first light bulb factory (nicknamed Roze Baby, or "Pink Baby", in reference to its pink colour and much smaller size when compared to the "White Lady" and "Brown Gentleman"). The small building now houses the"Centrum Kunstlicht in de Kunst" (centre artificial light in art) and the"Philips Incandescent Lamp Factory of 1891" museum.

Administration and population

After the incorporation of 1920, the five former municipalities became districts of the Municipality of Eindhoven, with Eindhoven-Centrum (the City proper) forming the sixth. Since then, an additional seventh district has been formed by dividing the largest district, that of Woensel, into Woensel-Zuid and Woensel-Noord.

At the turn of the century, a whole new housing development called Meerhoven was constructed at the site of the old airport of Welschap, west of Eindhoven. The airport itself, now called Eindhoven Airportmarker, had moved earlier to a new location, paving the way for much needed new houses. Meerhoven is part of the Strijp district and partially lies on lands annexed from the municipality of Veldhovenmarker.

Of all Eindhoven districts, the historical centre is by far the smallest in size and population, numbering only 5,419 in 2006.

According to the Eindhoven City Council, the city will reach the maximum population of 230,000 inhabitants around the year 2025.

Population figures for all districts, as of January 1, 2008, ranked by size:

  1. Woenselmarker-Noord (65,429)
  2. Woensel-Zuid (35,789)
  3. Stratummarker (31,778)
  4. Gestel (26,590)
  5. Strijp (25,402)
  6. Tongelremarker (19,680)
  7. Centrum (5,757)


Government and politics

After the municipal elections on March 7 2006, the division of the 45 seats in the Eindhoven city council was as follows:



In April 2006 a coalition was formed between PvdA, SP and CDA. Together they have 27 seats in the city council.

On January 23, 2008, a referendum to elect a mayor was held in Eindhoven. This referendum, the second of its kind in the Netherlands, was attended by 24,6% of the inhabitants. This was less than the required 30% needed to make a referendum binding. Nevertheless, the city council would choose the winner of the referendum as the preferred candidate. The main reason for the low attendance was that the candidates, Leen Verbeek and Rob van Gijzel, were from the same party. Rob van Gijzel won the referendum with 61,8% of the votes and will be the city's new mayor.

In research by the Dutch newspaper Algemeen Dagblad based on the police’s statistical data on crime rates, Eindhoven was found to have the highest crime rate in the Netherlands for 2006.

Culture

The students from the Eindhoven University of Technologymarker and a number of undergraduate schools give Eindhoven a young population.

Eindhoven has a lively cultural scene. For going out, there are numerous bars on the Market square, Stratumseind (Stratum's End), Dommelstraat, Wilhelmina square and throughout the rest of the city.

The biggest festivals in Eindhoven are:

The Van Abbemuseummarker has a collection of modern and contemporary art, including works by Picasso and Chagall.
The Effenaar is a popular music venue and cultural center in Eindhoven, it's located at the Dommelstraat.

Eindhoven was home to the Evoluon science museum, sponsored by Philips. The Evoluon building is used as a conference centre.

In 1992 the Muziekcentrum Frits Philips was opened as a stage for classical and popular music in Eindhoven, reviewed by critics as a concert hall with acoustics that rival the best halls in Europe.

Parktheater Eindhoven is Eindhoven's stage for opera, cabaret, ballet etc. Opened in 1964, it has received over 250,000 visitors every year. With its 1000 m2 it has one of the largest stages in the Netherlands. With a major renovation ending in 2007, the new Parktheater will receive an estimated 300,000 visitors a year.

During Carnival, Eindhoven is rechristened Lampegat (Hole of lamps).

Eindhoven's Plaza Futura is now a cinema featuring cultural movies, lectures and special cultural events.

Transport

Eindhoven Airportmarker serves as a military air base and a civilian commercial airport.

Eindhoven is a rail transport hub. The main stationmarker has connections in the directions of:



Eindhoven's central railway stationmarker is served by both intercity and local services while the smaller station, Eindhoven Beukenlaanmarker is only served by local trains.

Up until World War II, a train service connected Amsterdam to Liègemarker via Eindhoven and Valkenswaardmarker, but the service was discontinued and the line broken up. Recently, talks have resumed to have a service to Neerpeltmarker, Belgiummarker via Weertmarker.

Located approximately 8 kilometres from the town centre, Eindhoven Airportmarker is the closest airport nearby, and the second busiest in the country (after Schipholmarker). There are flights with Air France to London Citymarker, and Ryanair serves London Stanstedmarker airport, Dublinmarker, Romemarker, Milanmarker, Pisamarker, Marseillemarker, Glasgowmarker, Madridmarker, Valenciamarker, Stockholmmarker and Barcelonamarker. In the summerseason, Reykjavíkmarker is served with 2 weekly flights operated by Iceland Express.

The A2 / E25 motorway from Amsterdammarker to Luxemburgmarker passes Eindhoven to the west and south of the city. The A2 connects to the highway A58 to Tilburgmarker and Bredamarker just north of the city. Just south of Eindhoven, the A2 connects to the A67 / E34 between Antwerpmarker and Duisburgmarker. In 2006, the A50 was completed connecting Eindhoven to Nijmegenmarker and Zwollemarker.

The public transport of Eindhoven consists of almost 25 city bus lines, which also serve neighbouring cities like Veldhovenmarker, Geldropmarker and Nuenenmarker. Two of these buslines (401 and 402) are high quality public transport and the buses on these lines are so-called Phileas vehicles, a combination of tram and bus. Apart from the city lines there are some 30 regional and rush-hour lines.

Sport

  • PSV Eindhoven is the major football club in the city. Playing in the Philips Stadionmarker it is one of the dominant clubs in The Netherlands' top-ranked league, Eredivisie. PSV won the national title a total of 21 times. Recent successes include the 2000, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 national titles, finishing second in the league in 2002 and 2004. In international football, PSV were the 1988 winners of the European Cup (Champions League), the highest achievement in European club football.










  • Eindhoven houses Europe's largest indoor skateboard park Area 51 marker and is home of a lively skateboard culture.


  • Eindhoven has two boxing clubs, The Golden Gloves and Muscle Fit.








  • Eindhoven has an Australian Rules Football team, the Eindhoven Eagles, due to play in the inaugural Dutch Australian Football Association competition in 2010.


Notable residents

Statue of Frits Philips in Eindhoven


International relations

Twin towns - sister cities

Eindhoven is twinned with:



See also



References

  1. Eindhoven Population Municipality of Eindhoven. Accessed 26 January 2007
  2. eindhoven.buurtmonitor.nl bij "bevolking->stand bevolking"


External links



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