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Eisenstadt ( , , ) is a city in Austriamarker, the state capital of Burgenlandmarker. It has a population of about 12,000 (2006).In the Habsburg monarchy, Kismarton (Eisenstadt) was the seat of the Eszterházy Hungarian noble family. The composer Joseph Haydn lived there as Hofkapellmeister under Esterházy patronage.

Geography

Eisenstadt lies on a plain leading down to the river Wulka, at the south foot of the mountain range known as the Leithagebirge (Hungarian Lajta Mountains), about 12 km from the Hungarianmarker border.

Subdivisions

The city is divided into 4 or 5 districts:

Wiesäcker and Lobäcker quarter are lies in south of Eisbachmarker (River).

Origin of the name

The present city name, meaning "Iron City", was first recorded in 1118 as "castrum ferrum" and refers to the history of iron mining and iron trade in the area. The first written mention of the town took place in 1264 as "minor Mortin", matching the Hungarian name, Kismarton, which is recalling Saint Martin, the patron saint of the main church.

History

Archeological finds prove that the Eisenstadt area was already settled in the Hallstatt period. Celts and Romans settled somewhat later. During the Migration Period, the area was settled by different Germanic tribes and the Huns. Around 800, during the reign of Charlemagne, settlement by the Bavarii began.

The fortress built on the original earth works was destroyed by the troops of Leopold III, Margrave of Austria. In 1241, it was destroyed by the Mongol invaders. In 1373, the town came into the possession of the Kanizsai family, who rebuilt the walls surrounding the town and built a fortress at the site of the present day castle between 1388 and 1392. In 1388, Eisenstadt was given the right to hold markets by Emperor Sigismund.

In 1445 Archduke Albert VI of Austria acquired the town. In 1451 it was ceded to Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor by Matthias Corvinus in return for the Holy Crown of Hungary. Matthias Corvinus reconquered it by force in 1482, but Maximilian I acquired it again in 1490. It remained under Habsburg rule until 1622. In 1529 and 1532 the Ottoman Empire conquered Eisenstadt with their advance on the city of Viennamarker (see Ottoman wars in Europe). It was captured by the army of Imre Thököly in 1683, and it saw the defeat of the kuruc army of Sándor Károlyi by the Habsburgs in 1704. A royal town since 1648, it was destroyed by fire in 1589 and 1776.

In 1648, it passed under the rule of the Esterházy family. These Hungarian princes permanently changed the face of the city due to their extensive construction especially on their castle, Schloss Esterházymarker. The appointment of Joseph Haydn as the prince's Hofkapellmeister (court orchestra director, composing and performing music) began the great artistic period in the city's history. In 1809, Eisenstadt was occupied by Frenchmarker troops during the Napoleonic Wars; in 1897, it was joined to the railway network.

Until the end of World War I, it was the seat of Kismarton district in Sopron county in the Kingdom of Hungary. In 1921, by the Saint-Germain and Treaties of Trianon it became part of Austria. Since 30 April 1925, Eisenstadt is seat of the Burgenland state government and thus the state capital. During World War II, Eisenstadt was heavily bombarded. In 1945, it was occupied by the Red Army, and the city remained until 1955 under Soviet occupation. In 1960, Eisenstadt became the see of its own Roman Catholic diocese.

Politics

The current mayor of Eisenstadt is Andrea Fraunschiel ÖVP.

The district council is composed as follows (as of 2007):

Main sights

The Old Town Hall

Religious edifices



Castles and palaces



Buildings



Museums



Gallery

Image:Image:Kismarton légifotó1.jpgImage:Kismarton légifotó2.jpgImage:Kismarton légifotó3.jpg

Culture

Eisenstadt hosts a Haydn festival, the Haydnfestspiele, and an annual otter-baiting event, Vadnnisier Di.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Eisenstadt is twinned with:

Nearby municipalities



People

[=== Natives ===

Other residents



As a surname

Eisenstadt (also Ajzenstat, Eisenstaedter, Asch, etc.), a Jewish surname, derives from this city. Some people with this surname or its variants include:

References

  1. [1], [2]
  2. [3]


External links




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