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Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution: Map

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The Eleventh Amendment (Amendment XI) to the United States Constitution, which was passed by the Congress on March 4, 1794 and was ratified on February 7, 1795, deals with each state's sovereign immunity from being sued in federal court by someone of another state or country. This amendment was adopted in response to, and in order to overrule, the U.S.marker Supreme Court'smarker decision in Chisholm v. Georgia, .

Text

Summary

The Eleventh Amendment, the amendment to the Constitution ratified after the adoption of the Bill of Rights, was adopted following the Supreme Court ruling in Chisholm v. Georgia, . In Chisholm, the Court ruled that federal courts had the authority to hear cases in law and equity brought by private citizens against states and that states did not enjoy sovereign immunity from suits made by citizens of other states. Thus, the amendment clarified Article III, Section 2 of the Constitution, which gave diversity jurisdiction to the judiciary to hear cases "between a state and citizens of another state."

The amendment's text does not mention suits brought against a state by its own citizens. However, in Hans v. Louisiana, , the Supreme Court ruled that the amendment reflects a broader principle of sovereign immunity. As Justice Anthony Kennedy, writing for a five Justice majority, stated in Alden v. Maine, :

Writing for a four justice dissent in Alden, Justice David Souter said the states surrendered their sovereign immunity when they ratified the Constitution. The dissenting justices read the amendment's text as reflecting a narrow form of sovereign immunity that limited only the diversity jurisdiction of the federal courts. They concluded that the states are not insulated from suits by individuals by either the Eleventh Amendment in particular or the Constitution in general.

Although the Eleventh Amendment immunizes states from suit for money damages or equitable relief without their consent, in Ex parte Young, , the Supreme Court ruled that federal courts may enjoin state officials from violating federal law. In Fitzpatrick v. Bitzer, , the Supreme Court ruled that Congress may abrogate state immunity from suit under the enforcement clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. In Central Virginia Community College v. Katz , the Court ruled the Congress could do the same regarding bankruptcy cases by way of Article I, Section 8, Clause 4 of the Constitution. Also, in Lapides v. Board of Regents of Univ. System of Ga., , the Supreme Court ruled that a state voluntarily waives the Eleventh Amendment when it invokes a federal court's removal jurisdiction.

Proposal and ratification

The Eleventh Amendment was proposed by the Congress on March 4, 1794 and was ratified by the following states:
  1. New York (March 27, 1794)
  2. Rhode Island (March 31, 1794)
  3. Connecticut (May 8, 1794)
  4. New Hampshire (June 16, 1794)
  5. Massachusetts (June 26, 1794)
  6. Vermont (November 9, 1794)
  7. Virginia (November 18, 1794)
  8. Georgia (November 29, 1794)
  9. Kentucky (December 7, 1794)
  10. Maryland (December 26, 1794)
  11. Delaware (January 23, 1795)
  12. North Carolina (February 7, 1795)
Ratification was completed on February 7, 1795.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by the following state:

South Carolina (December 4, 1797).

The following states did not ratify the amendment:
  1. New Jersey
  2. Pennsylvania


References

  1. Dissenting opinion in Alden v. Maine


External links




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