Eliot Laurence Spitzer (born
June 10, 1959) is an American lawyer and
former politician of the Democratic Party.
served as Governor of New York
from January 2007 until his resignation on March 17, 2008 in the
wake of the exposure of his involvement in a high-priced
prostitution ring. Prior to being elected governor, Spitzer served
as New York State
Early life and background
Eliot Spitzer was born on
June 10, 1959 in the Bronx, the son of Anne (née Goldhaber), a former teacher,
and Bernard Spitzer, a real estate
Both sets of grandparents immigrated to New York City
in 1920s. His paternal grandparents were Galician Jews born in Tluste, Poland.
His maternal grandparents were born in the
1890s in Palestine
the youngest of three children. He was raised in the affluent Riverdale section of The Bronx in New York
His family was not particularly religious
and Spitzer did not have a bar
. He was born and raised in The Bronx, to Jewish real estate tycoon Bernard Spitzer and Anne Spitzer, an
professor. He attended Princeton University for his undergraduate studies and Harvard Law
School for his Juris
After earning his Juris Doctor
degree, Spitzer joined the law
firm of Paul, Weiss,
Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison
He is a
graduate of Horace Mann
School. After scoring 1590 on the SAT exam, Spitzer attended Princeton
University and majored in the Woodrow
Wilson School of Public and International Affairs.
Princeton, he was elected chairman of the undergraduate student
government, and graduated in 1981. He scored a perfect score on the LSAT, and went on to Harvard Law
School, where he met and married Silda Wall.
They married on
October 17, 1987, and together they have three daughters. Spitzer
was an editor of the Harvard Law
.As of now he works at The City
College of New York in Harlem.
He teaches a class in
Upon receiving his Juris Doctor
degree, Spitzer clerked for Judge Robert W. Sweet in
Manhattan, then joined the law firm
Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison.
He stayed there
for less than two years before leaving to join the Manhattan District
Spitzer joined the staff of Manhattan District Attorney Robert M. Morgenthau
, where he became chief of
the labor-racketeering unit, spending six years pursuing organized crime
. His biggest case came in
1992, when Spitzer led the investigation that ended the Gambino organized crime
family's control of
Manhattan's trucking and garment industries. Spitzer joined the
's office, headed by Robert M. Morgenthau
, to pursue organized crime
. He launched the
investigation that brought down the Gambino family
's control over
Manhattan's garment and trucking industries. In 1992, Spitzer left
to work at the law firm of Skadden, Arps, Slate,
Meagher & Flom
and, later, Constantine and Partners.
Spitzer devised a plan to set up his own sweatshop in the city's
garment district, turning out shirts, pants and sweaters, and
hiring 30 laborers. The shop manager eventually got close to the
Gambinos, and officials were able to plant a bug in their office.
The Gambinos, rather than being charged with extortion, which was
hard to prove, were charged with antitrust
violations. Joseph and Thomas
, the latter being an extremely high-ranking member, and
two other defendants took the deal and avoided jail by pleading
guilty, paying $12 million in fines and agreeing to stay out of the
Spitzer left the District Attorney's office in 1992 to work at the
law firm of Skadden, Arps, Slate,
Meagher & Flom
, where he stayed until 1994. From 1994 to
1998 he worked at the law firm Constantine and Partners on a number
of consumer rights and antitrust cases.
In 1994, Spitzer put aside his private practice to concentrate on
attaining the elected office of New York State Attorney
. He lost in the 1994 election but was successfully
elected in the next election in 1998. He has since become one of
New York's most recognizable Democratic politicians. On November 7,
2006, he was elected Governor of
Campaigns for Attorney General
In 1994, long-serving Democratic New York State Attorney General
decided to leave office
after having unsuccessfully challenged Al
for the seat of U.S. Senator
from New York in 1992. Several
Democrats saw weakness in Abrams' replacement as Attorney General,
G. Oliver Koppell
, and ran for the party's
nomination, Spitzer among them. At the time, he was young and
unknown, and, despite heavy funding from his own family, his
campaign ended when he placed last among four candidates for the
nomination. Judge Karen Burstein
Burstein subsequently lost to Republican Dennis Vacco
in the general election
, part of a Republican
sweep that included the election of Governor George Pataki
That election of a Republican in 1994 allowed Spitzer to run again
in 1998. Now more experienced in party politics, he won the
Koppell, State Senator Catherine
, local representative Jeff Orlick, and former Governor's
Counsel Charles Davis. He went on to defeat the incumbent Vacco by
48.2 percent of the vote to Vacco's 47.6 percent. He ran for
re-election in 2002, opposed by Republican Judge Dora Irizarry
. Spitzer won re-election, this
time with 66 percent of the vote. In the 1998 election, Spitzer
defeated incumbent Republican Dennis Vacco
by a slim margin to become
New York State Attorney
. His campaign was financed by a controversial
multi-million dollar loan from his father. As attorney general,
Spitzer prosecuted cases relating to corporate white collar crime
, securities fraud
, internet fraud
and environmental protection
. He most
notably pursued cases against companies involved in computer chip
, investment bank stock price inflation
predatory lending practices by mortgage
, fraud at American International Group
and the 2003 mutual fund
. He also sued Richard Grasso, the former chairman of the
Stock Exchange, claiming he had failed to fully inform the board
of directors of his deferred compensation package, which exceeded
In 2004, The Nation
Spitzer as a possible Democratic candidate for vice president,
stating that he was 'the single most effective battler against
corporate abuses in either political party'. He was, however, not
On December 8, 2004, Spitzer announced his intention to seek the
Democratic nomination for governor of New York. While long rumored,
Spitzer's announcement was unusually early—nearly two years before
the election. As a result of Spitzer's relative speed in bringing
state Democrats to his side, he gained the respect of Democratic
leaders nationwide. New
Mexico Governor Bill
Richardson dubbed Spitzer the "future of the Democratic Party"
at a fund raiser held in June 2005 for Spitzer's gubernatorial
In January 2006, Spitzer selected New York State Senate minority
leader David Paterson
as his choice
for Lieutenant Governor and running mate. After announcing his
candidacy, Spitzer was endorsed by numerous New Yorkers, including
state Comptroller Alan Hevesi
former New York City mayors, David
and Ed Koch
. On May 30, 2006,
Spitzer and Paterson won the endorsement of the New York State
Democratic party. A June 2006 Quinnipiac University poll showed
him leading Nassau county executive
Thomas Suozzi 76-13 percent.
July 25, 2006, he faced Suozzi in a gubernatorial debate held at
discussing issues such as public
. When asked
, Spitzer stated that
he disagrees with medicinal use
the drug, claiming that other medicines were more effective. In the
Democratic primary held on September 12, 2006, Spitzer handily
defeated Suozzi, securing his party's nomination with 81 percent of
On October 5, Spitzer, addressing the Empire State Pride Agenda
declared that as governor he would work to legalize gay marriage in
Spitzer was elected Governor on November 7, 2006 with 69 percent of
the vote, defeating Republican John Faso
Clifton, among others.
In 2007, Spitzer was inaugurated governor of New York after
defeating Republican John Faso
. During his time in office, he proposed a bill to
legalize same-sex marriage
in New York
and issued an executive order allowing illegal immigrants
to be issued driver's
licenses, which have both attracted controversy. In July 2007, he
was admonished for his administration's involvement in ordering the
to record the
whereabouts of State Senate majority leader Joseph L. Bruno
Work as Attorney General
As Attorney General, Spitzer stepped up the profile of the office.
Traditionally, state attorneys general have pursued consumer rights
cases, concentrating on
while deferring national issues to
the federal government
Breaking with this traditional deference, Spitzer took up civil
actions and criminal prosecutions relating to corporate white-collar
crime, securities fraud,
fraud, and environmental
A number of experts, including economists, lawyers, and political
analysts have commented on Spitzer's active role in public policy
debates. The New York Attorney General's office has
Street (and thus many leading corporate and financial
institutions) within its jurisdiction.
Also, the New York
Attorney General wields greater than usual powers of investigation
and prosecution as to corporations under New York State's General
Business Law. In particular, under Article 23-A, § 352 (more
commonly known as the Martin Act
1921), the New York Attorney General has the power to subpoena
witnesses and company documents pertaining
to investigations of fraud or illegal activity by a corporation.
Spitzer used this statute
to allow his
office to prosecute cases which have been described as within
federal jurisdiction.In January 2005, the president of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce
described Spitzer's approach as "the most egregious and
unacceptable form of intimidation we've seen in this country in
Spitzer used this authority in his civil actions against
corporations and criminal prosecutions against their officers. It
proved its usefulness in the wake of several U.S. corporate scandals
that began with the
collapse of Enron
in 2001. Several of these
corporations, as well as the brokerage houses that sold their
stock, were accused of having inflated stock values by unethical
means throughout the 1990s. When inquiries into these allegations
by the SEC
gain traction, Spitzer's office used its subpoena power to obtain
corporate documents, building cases against the firms both in
courtrooms and in public
In addition to prosecutions and civil actions in the financial
sector, Spitzer has pursued cases in both state and federal courts
involving pollution, entertainment, technology, prostitution,
corruption, occupational safety and health and other fields in
which New York plays a part in setting and maintaining national
standards of conduct.
The New York State Senate Investigations committee is considering
investigating a controversial multi-million dollar loan the
governor’s father Bernard Spitzer
gave him when he ran for attorney general in 1998, a loan the
younger Spitzer has acknowledged not being truthful about. Senate
Investigations Committee Chairman George
told The New York Post
that subpoenas should be
used to find out about the loans. Winner wrote to Senate Elections
Committee Chairman Senator Joseph
that an article profiling Spitzer in New York Magazine
"outlined what may
have been a willful effort by Eliot Spitzer and his father to
circumvent campaign-contribution limits in New York state law and
then conceal their actions." In 1998, Spitzer claimed that he
secured the $5 million loan by mortgaging
apartments his father had given him, but later revealed that his
father was actually paying off the loans and, therefore, financing
At the traditional midnight ceremony, Spitzer was sworn in as
governor of New York on January 1, 2007. A public ceremony was held
at 1 p.m. on the same day which featured brass and percussion
players from the Empire
State Youth Orchestra
Bucking tradition, the ceremony was held
outdoors the first outdoor inauguration ceremony in New York for
over a century. After taking the oath of office, he attended
a concert at the Times Union Center in his honor, headlined by James Taylor and Natalie Merchant.
Roadblocks to reform
reform-based platform, and his pledge "to change the ethics of
Albany", hit an early roadblock when his ideas on how to
fill vacancies in the executive department were defeated by the
According to the New York State Constitution
is the duty of the state legislature to fill executive vacancies.
The Governor was criticized as unreasonable for admonishing the
legislature when it took constitutional actions. The appointment of
state assemblyman Thomas DiNapoli
succeed disgraced Alan Hevesi
of the State of New York was
a serious blow to the new governor. Spitzer had backed an outside
panel to draft a list of qualified candidates. The legislature
revolted when the panel failed to select one of its own.
Spitzer's choice was New York City Finance Commissioner Martha Stark
, who was selected by a panel that
consisted of former State Comptroller Edward Regan
, former State Comptroller Carl McCall
and former New York City Comptroller
Harrison J. Goldin
. On February 7, 2007, when the
Legislature voted, Stark was one of two names put into nomination,
along with Assemblyman Thomas DiNapoli of Long Island, Assembly
Leader Sheldon Silver
's choice. The
final vote was 150 for DiNapoli and 56 for Stark. Stark's main
support came from Democrats in the Senate, along with Republicans
in both chambers.
Spitzer traveled to the home districts of various Democratic
assembly members to publicly criticize them for their vote on
DiNapoli. He visited the regions of Syracuse Assemblyman William B.
Magnarelli and George
S. Latimer of Westchester County, and had plans to continue his pressure.
Some Assembly Democrats were alienated over the incident, and
questioned Spitzer's refusal of extending special treatment
to party members seeking local
One of Spitzer's key campaign pledges was to reform the state
budget process. While the state did pass a budget on schedule in
2007, the ultimate results fell short of what many reformers hoped
Spitzer would achieve. The New
opined, "Spitzer promised reform, and delivered
something completely different" and termed the budget itself
Spitzer's budget quickly turned into a deficit, as by the end of
October it was projected the state would run a deficit exceeding $4
billion for the year. During Spitzer's first year the state payroll
increased, aggravating budget problem. Despite increasing the
public sector payroll, in late 2007 New York State started leading
the nation in lost jobs. The 2008-09 budget includes measures to
counter financial effects of the crisis in the financial sector
starting in the second half of 2007.
Spitzer was criticized by members of the New York State Legislature
failing to compromise on issues during his first few months as
governor. In a now infamous exchange, Spitzer told New York State
Assembly Minority Leader James
: "Listen, I'm a fucking steamroller and I'll roll over
you and anybody else." According to The New York Post
Spitzer confirmed the exchange the following day. Spitzer's
reputation as a "steamroller" was shared by a plurality of New
Yorkers in a Quinnipiac
, but by a 3 to 1 margin they believed the
tactic had been unsuccessful and had only added to political
later accused Spitzer of cutting $300,000 of state funding for
health care and education grants in the Schenectady area as retaliation for Tedisco's opposition to the
Spitzer plan to allow illegal
immigrants New York State driver's licenses.
accused the Governor of "dirty tricks" and "bullying".
In the wake of the controversy involving the "troopergate" scandal
involving Bruno, Spitzer was accused of pandering to special
interest groups to solidify his base of support. "The governor who
took office vowing to clean up Albany has lost so much public
support that he is reduced to feathering the nest of the unions and
", wrote Michael Goodwin of
the Daily News
In February 2008, the Washington Post
written by Spitzer in which he
criticized the Bush
for inhibiting States from pursuing predatory lender
Proposal to legalize same-sex marriage
In April 2007, Spitzer proposed a bill that would legalize same-sex marriage in New York
State Senate Majority Leader Joe Bruno
announced his opposition to the proposal. This legislation passed
in the State Assembly
June 19, 2007, but denied in the State Senate
and was returned to the
Controversy over use of State Police for surveillance
On July 23, 2007, New
York State Attorney General Andrew
's office admonished the Spitzer administration for
ordering the State Police to keep special records of Senate
majority leader Joseph L. Bruno
's whereabouts when he traveled with
police escorts in New York City. At the direction of top officials
of the Spitzer administration, the New York State Police
documents meant to cause political damage to Bruno.
A 57-page report issued by the Attorney General's office concluded
that Spitzer engaged in creating media coverage concerning Senator
Bruno's travel. The investigation looked into both Bruno's travel
and the Senate leader's allegation that Spitzer used State Police
to spy on him. Cuomo concluded that "These e-mails show that
persons in the governor's office did not merely produce records
under a Freedom of
request, but were instead engaged in planning
and producing media coverage concerning Senator Bruno's travel on
state aircraft before any FOIL request was made." It also suggests
that the governor's staff lied when they tried to explain what they
had done and forced the State Police to go far beyond their normal
procedures in documenting Bruno's whereabouts.
The report cleared Bruno of any misuse of the state's air fleet,
which had been alleged. The report criticized Spitzer's office for
using State Police resources to gather information about Bruno's
travel and releasing the information to the media. The findings of
the report were endorsed by Spitzer’s own Inspector General,
Spitzer responded at a July 23 press conference that "As governor,
I am accountable for what goes on in the executive branch and I
accept responsibility for the actions of my office" and that his
administration had "grossly mishandled" the situation. Spitzer
subsequently announced that he would indefinitely suspend his
communications director, Darren Dopp, and reassign another top
official. When questioned about his promise to bring ethical
responsibility to state politics, Spitzer responded by saying "I
will not tolerate this behavior", "ethics and accountability must
and will remain rigorous in my administration," and that "I have
always stated that I want ethics and integrity to be the hallmarks
of my administration. That is why I requested that the State
Inspector General review the allegations with respect to my office,
and that is why we have fully cooperated with both
The investigations of the event, dubbed "Troopergate" by media
outlets, have not been affected by Spitzer's resignation. As of
March 2008, four probes by the state Attorney General's office, the
State Senate Investigations Committee, the Albany County District
Attorney's Office, and the New York Commission on Public Integrity
Controversy over driver's licenses for illegal immigrants
On September 21
, Spitzer issued an executive order
that state offices allow illegal immigrants to be issued driver's licenses
effective December 2007.
Applicants for driver's licenses would not be required to prove
legal immigration status and would be allowed to present a foreign
as identification. After meeting with
the Department of Homeland
Security in October 2007, Spitzer altered the plan so that
licenses issued to illegal aliens would look different from other
licenses and that the new licenses would not allow access to
airplanes and federal buildings.
On October 21, 2007, the State Senate voted to oppose the Spitzer
plan by a 39–19 vote. Eight Democrats from moderate districts broke
with Spitzer on the vote. After the vote, The New York Times
called this issue
"Mr. Spitzer’s single most unpopular decision since he took
Following the State Senate's vote, Spitzer revised his plan again,
proposing the issuance of a third type of driver's license. This
driver's license would be available only to United States citizens
who are New York State residents, and would be valid for crossing
the Canadian border
. Spitzer also
announced that the expiration dates of temporary visa
would be printed on the driver's
licenses of individuals living in the country with them.
On November 14, the day following the release of a poll showing the
proposal as extremely unpopular with voters, Spitzer announced he
would withdraw the plan, acknowledging that it would never be
implemented. The decision drew derision from the press, as the
reversal a "surrender." WCBS-TV labeled him "Governor Flip-Flop."
Senator Rubén Díaz
of the Bronx said he was "betrayed" by Spitzer's abandonment of the
Approval as Governor
As of November 13, 2007, Spitzer's approval rating as Governor was
33 percent, a further decline from his 44% approval rating of
October 24, 2007. A later poll showed that New York City Mayor
Spitzer were he to seek reelection. Two polls in December 2007
showed further erosion in Spitzer's public standing.
Scandal and resignation
On March 10, 2008, The New York
reported that Spitzer was a client of a prostitution ring
under investigation by the federal
government. Two days later, he announced his resignation as
governor of New York, effective March 17, citing "private
failings." On March 10, 2008, The New York Times
that Spitzer had previously patronized a high-priced prostitution
service called Emperors Club VIP
and met for over two
hours with a $1,000-an-hour call girl
New York City
singer going by the name Ashley Alexandra Dupré
name Ashley Rae Maika DiPietro, born Ashley Youmans). This information
originally came to the attention of authorities from a federal wiretap.
Spitzer had at least seven or eight liaisons with women from the
agency over six months, and paid more than $15,000. According to
published reports, investigators believe Spitzer paid up to $80,000
for prostitutes over a period of several years while he was
Attorney General, and later as Governor. Spitzer first drew the
attention of federal investigators when his bank reported
suspicious money transfers, which initially led investigators to
believe that Spitzer may have been hiding bribe proceeds. The
investigation of the governor led to the discovery of the
In the wake of the revelations, Spitzer announced on March 12, 2008
that he would resign his post as Governor effective at noon of
March 17, 2008, amid threats of his impeachment
by state lawmakers.
"I cannot allow for my private failings to disrupt the people's
work," Spitzer said at a news conference in New York City. "Over
the course of my public life, I have insisted I believe correctly
that people take responsibility for their conduct. I can and will
ask no less of myself. For this reason, I am resigning from the
office of governor."
resigning, Spitzer has kept a relatively low profile and regularly
meets with lawyers in his father
Bernard's real estate office in Manhattan. On July 16, 2008, The New York Times made public that
Spitzer used campaign funds to pay for two Mayflower
Hotel bookings, $411.06 apiece, where he was suspected to
have met with prostitutes.
While it remains unclear if
Spitzer actually stayed in the hotel on the nights he booked,
has stated that Spitzer met with prostitutes in
early 2008. Spitzer declined to comment on the issue. According to
an article published on July 23, 2008 in The New York Times
, the state ethics
committee is continuing their investigation into his
administration's handling of travel records. If found guilty of
wrongdoing, he faces a maximum $10,000 fine. The Times
also reported that federal investigators are still debating on
whether or not to bring about criminal charges against Spitzer for
his involvement in the prostitution scandal. Spitzer has declined
to comment on the recent developments. In September 2008,
The New York Times
reported that Spitzer is considering entering philanthropic
, or pro bono legal work
in an effort
to improve his reputation. In November 2008, prosecutors in charge
of the case announced that Spitzer would not face criminal charges
for his involvement in the sex ring citing they found no evidence
of misuse of public funds and therefore pressing charges would not
serve the public interest. Spitzer offered an apology for his
conduct saying "I appreciate the impartiality and thoroughness of
the investigation by the U.S. Attorney's Office, and I acknowledge
and accept responsibility for the conduct it disclosed." Later in
the month, The Washington
published a Spitzer opinion piece conveying his
analysis of the financial
crisis of 2008
and suggested remedies. Spitzer concluded the
piece by saying that he hoped the Obama Administration would make
the right policy choices, "although mistakes I made in my private
life now prevent me from participating in these issues as I have in
the past." On December 3, 2008, Slate
magazine published the first of
a new column by Spitzer dedicated to the economy.
In March 2009, Spitzer was interviewed by Fareed Zakaria
, the discussion centered
around the 2008
. Spitzer argued that as attorney general he
was active in pursuing white collar crime and that he had
investigated many of the investment banks that have been blamed for
contributing to the crisis. On April 7, 2009, it was announced that
Spitzer's first scheduled extended public-speaking engagement would
be a discussion with the New York chapter of the Entrepreneurs' Organization
take place on June 17.
According to sources, Spitzer is considering a run for Senate or Comptroller in 2010, speculation which Spitzer immediately dismissed.
September 2009, Spitzer joined the adjunct faculty of the City College
of New York and is currently teaching an undergraduate course
called "Law and Public Policy."
On September 25, 2009 he
appeared on the HBO
show Real Time With Bill Maher
where he advocated the legalisation of marijuana.
It was at Harvard that Spitzer met his future wife, Silda Wall
. Spitzer and his wife have entered
- Hakim, Danny. "A Gilded Path to Political Stardom, With
Detours", New York Times, October 12, 2006.
Abstract retrieved January 1, 2007.
- Lowenstein, Roger. "As Governor, What Would His Battles Be?",
The New York Times, July 16, 2006.
Accessed April 13, 2008. "Eliot and his two siblings grew up in the
prosperous Riverdale enclave of the Bronx, fed on progressive
politics and duly enrolled in private schools."
- Healy, Patrick. "An Ill-Timed Candidate Believes His Time Is
Now", New York Times, October 18, 2006.
Retrieved January 1, 2007.
- WaPo-Spitzer: How to Ground The Street
- Dicker, Fredric. "GOP PUTS HEAT ON ELIOT'S $5M LOAN",
Post, July 23, 2007. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
- "Spitzer, Sworn in as New York Governor, Vows
Historic Reform", Bloomberg, January 1, 2007. Retrieved
July 27, 2007.
- Fenner, Austin and Mahoney, Joe. "Bulldog Spitzer rips pol", Daily
News, February 12, 2007. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
- Hakim, Danny. "On Tour to Talk Up Budget Plan, Spitzer Stays on
Attack", New York Times, February 13, 2007.
Retrieved July 28, 2007.
- Gershman, Jacob. "Democrats Deny Governor Cover" New York Sun (25 July
- "ELIOT'S EDUCATION", New York Post, April
3, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
- , retrieved 2008-03-14
- Dicker, Fredric. Full Steam Ahead for Spunky Spitz,
Post, February 1, 2007. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
- Dicker, Fredric U., Young & Poor Hit Hardest, New York Post.
- Tedisco Accuses Spitzer of 'Dirty Tricks,'
'Bullying' October 17, 2007
- Goodwin, Michael, Cornered by Troopergate, Spitzer is showing his
desperation, Daily News.
- Hakim, Danny. "Spitzer’s Staff Misused Police, Report Finds",
Times, July 23, 2007. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
- Matthews, Cara. "Cuomo: Spitzer aides used state police to try to
damage Bruno", The Ithaca Journal, July 23, 2007.
Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
- Gormley, Michael. "Report: NY Governor's Office Leaked Data",
Unlimited, July 23, 2007. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
- Gormley, Michael. "Spitzer aides linked to Bruno leaks",
Utica Observer-Dispatch, July 24,
2007. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
- Faiola, Anthony. "N.Y. Governor Moves to Limit Ethics Scandal",
Washington Post, Page A06, July 25,
2007. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
- Hakim, Danny. "His Aura Faded Now, Spitzer Faces Bolder
Enemies", New York Times, July 23, 2007. Retrieved
on July 28, 2007.
- Gershman, Jacob. "Spitzer Faces Probe in Senate",
Sun, July 24, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
- Goldenberg, Sally. "Report: Governor's office compiled, leaked data on
Bruno", Staten Island Advance, July 23,
2007. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
- Jochnowitz, Jay. "AG report faults Spitzer aides in Bruno
scheme", Albany Times-Union, July 23, 2007.
Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
- Freifeld, Karen. " Spitzer Troopergate Subpoenas Still Stand, Judge
Told". Bloomberg. March 13, 2008.
- " Eliot Spitzer's tumultuous reign".
Daily News. March 13, 2008.
- Spector, Joseph. " Troopergate In Court". Journal News. March
- Woman at the Center of Governor’s Downfall
- Kessler, Robert. " Eliot Spitzer met with call girls 7 or 8 times".
- " GOP Pol: Resign Or Else". WNBC. March 11, 2008.
- Disgraced NY Governor won't Need New Job
Associated Press, March 12, 2008
- 80G 'Addicted to Love' Gov", New York
Post, March 12, 2008.
Biographies and profiles
- National Governors Association - New York Governor
- "TIME Crusader of the Year 2002: Eliot
Spitzer", by Adi Ignatius, December 21, 2002 issue of
- "Eliot Spitzer - How New York's attorney general became
the most powerful man on Wall Street" – Profile by Daniel Gross
from Slate's "Assessment"
column, October 21, 2004
- "Corruption probe hits US insurers" – BBC News,
15 October 2004.
- "Spoiling for a Fight: The Rise of Eliot Spitzer" by
Brooke A. Masters (Times Books, July 2006)
Small Laws: Eliot Spitzer and the Way to Insurance Market
Reform," by Sean M. Fitzpatrick, 74 Fordham L. Rev. 3041
- "Power Couples" profile in 02138,
: Greg Palast
- Attorney General Watch – blog of the American Enterprise Institute,
a conservative think tank, critical of Eliot Spitzer and other
state attorneys general.
- "Not Spitzer's Job" – article by Alan Reynolds, senior fellow of the Cato Institute, a libertarian think-tank. Reprinted from
The Wall Street
- "The unintended economic consequences of
Spitzer" - Commentary by Mark Gilbert in The Royal
Gazette of Bermuda (originally published by Bloomberg News)
- The Passion of Eliot Spitzer: Is he telling the
truth as he tries to "take people out"? by Kimberley A.
Strassel, The Wall Street
Journal, May 2006
- Eliot Spitzer's Real Agenda... is Eliot Spitzer
By Kimberley A. Strassel, The
Wall Street Journal, May 2006
- Houston attorney Tom Kirkendall's collection of
opinion and article references critical of the history of Eliot
Spitzer as Attorney General.
- "Power Corrupts: Elliot [sic] Spitzer’s Record as
N.Y. Attorney General" By Alan Reynolds,
Cato-at-liberty, March 8, 2008.