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Ellsworth Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base near Rapid Citymarker in Meade Countymarker and Pennington Countymarker, South Dakotamarker, United Statesmarker. It is home to the 28th Bomb Wing of the Air Combat Command (ACC), operating the B-1B Lancer. Part of the base is a census-designated place (CDP), which had a population of 4,165 at the 2000 census. The base is named in memory of Brig Gen Richard E. Ellsworth, commander of the 28th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing, who lost his life in the crash of an RB-36 in March 1953.

As host wing, the 28th Bomb Wing includes an operations group, a maintenance group, a mission support group, and a medical group. The base controls all air space 40 miles (64 km) around its area, including all landings at nearby Rapid City Regional Airportmarker, Rapid City, South Dakotamarker. In 2004, pilots for a commercial Northwest Airlines flight mistakenly landed there instead of at the Rapid City airport. It is an emergency landing site for the NASAmarker Space Shuttle orbiter and its Boeing 747 Shuttle Transport Aircraft.

Geography

Ellsworth AFB is located at (44.137471, -103.068123).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.9 mi² (4.9 km², all land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 4,165 people, 1,056 households, and 991 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 2,217.8/ mi² (855.4/ km²). There were 1,076 housing units at an average density of 573.0/ mi² (221.0/ km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 82.21% White, 6.65% Black or African American, 0.91% Native American, 2.28% Asian, 0.29% Pacific Islander, 2.57% from other races, and 5.09% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.63% of the population.

There were 1,056 households out of which 74.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 86.6% were married couples living together, 4.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 6.1% were non-families. 4.5% of all households were made up of individuals, none of whom were 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.41 and the average family size was 3.51.

In the CDP the population was spread out with 36.4% under the age of 18, 24.7% from 18 to 24, 36.3% from 25 to 44, 2.4% from 45 to 64, and 0.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 22 years. For every 100 females there were 119.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 131.0 males.

The median income for a household in the CDP was $31,919, and the median income for a family was $31,941. Males have a median income of $20,721 versus $15,238 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $11,362. About 3.4% of the population and 4.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.9% of those under the age of 18 and none of those 65 and older.

History

Aerial view of Ellsworth AFB, c.1990.


On the 2 of January 1942, the U.S. War Department established Rapid City Army Air Base as a training location for B-17 Flying Fortress crews. From September 1942—when its military runways first opened—until mission needs changed in July 1945, the field's instructors taught thousands of pilots, navigators, radio operators and gunners from nine heavy bombardment groups and numerous smaller units. All training focused on the Allied drive to overthrow the Axis powers in Europe.

After World War II the base briefly trained weather reconnaissance and combat squadrons using P-61 Black Widow, P-38 Lightning, P-51 Mustang, and B-25 Mitchell aircraft. Those missions soon ended, however, and Rapid City Army Air Field temporarily shut down from September 1946 - March 1947. When operations resumed in 1947 the base was a new United States Air Force asset. The primary unit assigned to Rapid City Air Force Base was the new 28th Bombardment Wing (28 BMW) flying the B-29 Superfortress.

The installation changed names a few more times during its early years. In January 1948, Air Force Chief of Staff Gen Carl A. Spaatz renamed it Weaver Air Force Base in honor of Brig Gen Walter R. Weaver, one of the pioneers in the development of the Air Force. In June of that year, however, in response to overwhelming public appeals, Secretary of the Air Force Stuart Symington returned the base it to its previous name of Rapid City AFB. The base was also declared a "permanent installation" in early 1948.

Shortly after additional runway improvements, in July 1949, the 28 BMW began conversion from B-29s to the huge B-36 Peacemaker. In April 1950, the Air Staff reassigned the base from 15th Air Force to 8th Air Force.

Ellsworth AFB Main Gate with a B-52D on static display in the background, c.1988.


The base experienced one of its worst peacetime tragedies in March 1953 when an RB-36 and its entire crew of 23 crashed in Newfoundlandmarker while returning from a routine exercise in Europe. On 13 June 1953, President Dwight D. Eisenhower made a personal visit to dedicate the base in memory of Brig Gen Richard E. Ellsworth, commander of the 28th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing, who lost his life in that mishap. The base was subsequently renamed Ellsworth AFB, and unlike the previous local controversy in 1948, there was no community objection to the name change.

Military organizations periodically upgrade manpower and machines from time to time to meet new national security requirements and Ellsworth Air Force Base's organizations were no exception. Headquarters Strategic Air Command (HQ SAC) reassigned the 28 BMW from 8th Air Force back to 15th Air Force in October 1955. Approximately one year later, SAC set plans in motion to replace the 28th's B-36s with the new all-jet B-52 Stratofortress. The last B-36 left Ellsworth on 29 May 1957 and the first B-52 arrived sixteen days later. In 1958, all base units came under the command of the 821st Strategic Aerospace Division, headquartered at Ellsworth.

In October 1960, Ellsworth entered the "Space Age," with the activation of the 850th Strategic Missile Squadron, initially assigned to the 28 BMW. For more than a year this squadron prepared for the emplacement of Titan I intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM), which finally arrived in 1962, shortly after the activation of the 44th Strategic Missile Wing (44 SMW) in January. At that time, Headquarters SAC also named the 44 SMW as host wing at Ellsworth.

The Titan I's life span was short in western South Dakota. In July 1962, SAC had effectively rendered it obsolete by activating the 66th Strategic Missile Squadron, the first of three such units slated to operate 150 Minuteman I ICBMs under the 44 SMW. The 67th Strategic Missile Squadron joined the 44th in August, followed by the 68th Strategic Missile Squadron in September 1962.

On 1 June 1971, SAC inactivated the 821st Strategic Aerospace Division and by October of that year, an upgraded Minuteman II also replaced earlier missiles.

Ellsworth soon became known as "The Showplace of SAC" as it continued to fight the Cold War by maintaining two legs of America's strategic triad: strategic bombardment and ICBMs. It carried out these vital missions for more than 15 years with relatively little change. Then, the 1980s brought many new challenges. In 1986, the base and the 28 BMW made extensive preparations to phase out the aging B-52 fleet and become the new home for the advanced B-1B Lancer. Contractors completed new unaccompanied enlisted dormitories in March, a new security police squadron headquarters in October, and gave Ellsworth's runway a much-needed facelift. In addition, they completed new aircraft maintenance facilities for the complex new aircraft. The last of the 28 BMW's B-52Hs left in early 1986 and in January 1987, the wing received the first of 35 B-1B bombers.
A B-1B of the 28th Bomb Wing deployed at Ellsworth AFB
The 12th Air Division moved to Ellsworth on 15 July 1988. This organization was responsible for training B-1B, B-52, and KC-135 Stratotanker aircrews at Ellsworth and other SAC bases in the region. Headquarters SAC activated a third wing, the 99th Strategic Weapons Wing, at Ellsworth on 10 August 1989. This wing assumed primary responsibility for B-1B advanced aircrew training.

Internationally, the destruction of the Berlin Wallmarker in October 1989 symbolized the imminent demise of the Soviet Union over the next several months. During this transition the Air Force also had to reshuffle its organizations and resources to meet the shifting, although diminishing, threat. Changes came quickly. On 3 January 1990, SAC redesignated the 812th Combat Support Group as the 812th Strategic Support Wing (812 SSW), which, for a short time, became Ellsworth's fourth wing. The 812 SSW consolidated all combat support activities into one organization. On 31 July 1990, SAC replaced the 12th Air Division with the Strategic Warfare Center (SWC), which provided operational command and administrative control over Ellsworth's subordinate units. Then, as part of SAC's intermediate headquarters and base-level reorganization plan, on 1 September 1991, SAC renamed the 28 BMW the 28th Wing (28 WG), the 44 SMW the 44th Wing (44 WG) and the 99 SWW the 99th Tactics and Training Wing (99 TTW). Ten days later, SAC inactivated both the SWC and the 812 SSW. Once again, the 28th became Ellsworth's host organization and it soon absorbed all previous 812 SSW functions. It was also during this period that, in acknowledgment of the elimination of the Warsaw Pact, that the President, via the Secretary of Defense, ordered all strategic nuclear alert operations to stand-down. The decades-long Cold War was over.

On 1 June 1992, as part of the first major reorganization since the creation of USAF, the Air Force inactivated Strategic Air Command and assigned Ellsworth's organizations (including a renamed 28th Bomb Wing (28 BW) to the newly activated Air Combat Command (ACC). After less than a year under the new command, the 28th’s mission changed from that of strategic bombardment to one of worldwide conventional munitions delivery. The mission of the 99th Tactics and Training Wing (later to become the 99th Wing) also continued, albeit slightly modified to fit the requirements of the new force concept.

The 44th Missile Wing, however, had ably accomplished its deterrence mission. On 3 December 1991, the wing permanently pulled the first Minuteman II missile from its silo and on 6 April 1992, the first Minuteman II launch control center shut down. Deactivation of the entire missile complex ended in April 1994. In keeping with its patriotic Minuteman tradition, the 44th Missile Wing formally inactivated on 4 July 1994. Under conditions of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, all of the 44th Missile Wing's Minuteman silos and launch control centers were slated for demolition with the exception of Sites Delta-01 and Delta-09. These latter two sites were subsequently turned over to the National Park Service for preservation as part of the Minuteman Missile National Historic Sitemarker.

In March 1994, Ellsworth welcomed the 34th Bomb Squadron, a geographically separated unit (GSU) that was awaiting airfield upgrades before it could return to its parent organization, the 366th Wing (366 WG), at Mountain Home Air Force Basemarker, Idahomarker. While under the aegis of the 366 WG, the 34th's B-1Bs were part of one of the Air Force’s composite wings, which also included C/D and E model F-15 Eagles, C/D model F-16 Fighting Falcons, and R model KC-135 Stratotankers.

Also during 1994, the Air Force selected Ellsworth as the exclusive location from which to conduct a Congressionally-mandated operational readiness assessment of the B-1B, known locally as "Dakota Challenge." After six months of hard work, under both peacetime and simulated wartime conditions, the 28 BW and Ellsworth passed the test "with flying colors"; and proved the B-1 to be a reliable and capable weapons system; the mainstay of America's heavy bomber fleet for years to come.

In 1995, the 99th Wing departed Ellsworth for a new assignment at Nellis Air Force Basemarker, Nevadamarker, although a small contingent formerly attached to that wing remained behind to continue bomber tactics training and radar munitions scoring from a handful of dispersed detachments. The year also saw the inactivation of one of Ellsworth’s oldest units, the 77th Bomb Squadron. While the unit (as an administrative entity) departed to save Air Force dollars for development of new follow-on B-1 munitions, the organization’s aircraft remained at Ellsworth (in a flying reserve status) under the able care of its sister unit, the 37th Bomb Squadron.

A reversal of fortune occurred in early 1996 when, on 26 March, an announcement was made that the 77th Bomb Squadron would soon return to Ellsworth. On 1 April, the squadron again activated at Ellsworth as the geographically separated 34th Bomb Squadron completed its transfer to its new home with the 366th Wing at Mountain Home AFBmarker, Idahomarker. By June 1998, the 77th had six of its B-1Bs out of the reconstitution reserve. This number balanced those lost by the 34th BS.

In March 1999, the Air Force announced a reorganization plan that makes Ellsworth AFB and the 28 BW partners in the new Expeditionary Air Force (EAF) concept, now know as the Air & Space Expeditionary Force (AEF). The 28 BW was named a lead wing in the EAF, which enabled the 77 BS to gain six additional B-1Bs, and Ellsworth AFB to gain approximately 100 additional military personnel. The expeditionary force construct enables the Air Force to respond quickly to any worldwide crisis while making life more predictable for military members.

The summer of 2007 marked the last time that Ellsworth hosted a college/university level Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps Field Training (FT) encampment. All college AFROTC FT encampments were subsequently consolidated at the Air Force Officer Training School at Maxwell Air Force Basemarker, Alabama.

Operation Allied Force

It wasn’t long before Ellsworth and the 28th Bomb Wing were taking the lead in the AEF concept. Five B-1Bs from the 28th Bomb Wing joined NATO forces in Operation Allied Force and began striking military targets in Kosovomarker on April 1, 1999. By the end of the conflict in June 1999, B-1Bs from Ellsworth flew 100 combat missions and dropped over 1,260 tons of Mk-82 general-purpose bombs.

Operation Enduring Freedom

A B-1B Lancer takes off from Ellsworth AFB in front of the control tower and radar.


After the events of the September 11, 2001 attacks, Ellsworth deployed a number of B-1’s in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Aircraft from the 37th BS at Ellsworth AFB joined additional B-1's from the 34th BS at Mountain Home AFBmarker and formed the 34th Expeditionary Bomb Squadron. This squadron, along with other elements from Ellsworth, deployed to Diego Garciamarker and joined the 28th Air Expeditionary Wing. Their combat mission effectiveness was greater than 95% and they flew 5% of the total strike aircraft missions. They dropped 39% of the total tonnage of bombs, which was more than any other platform. During their deployment the 28th EBS dropped 2,974 JDAMs, 1,471 Mk-82, 135 Mk-84, and 70 CBU-87 bombs. Currently, the 28th Bomb Wing and personnel from Ellsworth Air Force Base continue to be the lead wing for AEF 8, and Ellsworth personnel continue to prepare for ongoing deployments in support of operations around the globe.

34th BS replaces the 77th BS



On 19 September 2001 the 34th Bomb Squadron rejoined the Ellsworth team and arrived from Mountain Home AFB, Idaho. Due to a drawdown in the number of active B-1B aircraft in the Air Force inventory, the 77th BS at Ellsworth was inactivated and the "Thunderbirds" of the 34th BS were moved to Ellsworth to take their place.

Base Realignment and Closure

During the 2004 Senate race in South Dakota, Republican challenger John Thune made Ellsworth a campaign issue, stating in an April 16, 2004 appearance at the base that if he were elected over incumbent Democrat and Senate Minority Leader Tom Daschle: “It puts Ellsworth in a lot stronger position than having someone who's going to be in the minority and someone who doesn't have a relationship with the President of the U.S.” In a debate between the two men broadcast on KSFY-TVmarker and KOTA-TVmarker television on October 17, 2004, Thune said: "I think we have got to have somebody that has a relationship with the President of the United States, can work constructively across party lines in the Congress to get this done if we're going save Ellsworth" and was later quoted in the "Rapid Citymarker Journal" newspaper on October 27, 2004 claiming that: "an all-Democratic congressional delegation would have little political influence if President Bush is elected to a second term.”

In campaigning in South Dakota for Thune, Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist on May 24, 2004 said of Daschle: "Who is the president going to listen to more? The majority leader of the Senate, who he works with on almost a daily basis, or a senator from another party who every day is saying things on the floor that demonstrate a lack of support?" also adding: “This time around, the President is appointing who's on that BRAC commission, all of them."

Thune defeated Daschle with 51% of the vote in the election and President Bush was elected to a second term. Nevertheless, on May 13, 2005, the Department of Defensemarker recommended that Ellsworth Air Force Base be closed. Thune in protest stated he would vote against confirmation of the President's nominee for United Nations Ambassador, John Bolton.

On August 26, 2005 the nine-member BRAC commission voted 8-1 to spare Ellsworth from the closure list. Commissioner Harold Gehman said, "We have no savings, we're essentially moving the airplanes from one very, very good base to another very, very good base, which are essentially equal." Senator Thune called the move a good, nonpolitical decision.

Tenant Units



Nearby Installations

The nearest major military installations to Ellsworth are F.E. Warren AFB in Cheyenne, Wyomingmarker and Minot AFBmarker in Minot, North Dakotamarker, both over 200 mi (300 km) away.

Smaller installations include Camp Rapid in Rapid City, which serves as the headquarters for the South Dakota National Guard. The 114th Fighter Wing (114 FW), an Air Combat Command-gained unit of the South Dakota Air National Guard flying the F-16 Fighting Falcon, is located at Sioux Falls Regional Airportmarker / Joe Foss Fieldmarker Air National Guard Station in Sioux Falls. The South Dakota Army National Guard also operates the South Dakota Military Academy located at Fort Meade, South Dakota, approximately NNW of Ellsworth AFB.

See also



References

  1. Space Shuttle Emergency Landing Sites
  2. http://www.nps.gov/mimi/index.htm


External links







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