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Enfield is a town in Grafton Countymarker, New Hampshiremarker, United Statesmarker. The population was 4,618 at the 2000 census. Enfield includes the villages of Enfield, Enfield Center, Upper Shaker Village, Lower Shaker Village and Lockehaven.

The primary settlement in town, where over 36% of the population resides, is defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as the Enfield census-designated place (CDP) and includes the main village of Enfield, centered around U.S. Route 4 and the inlet of the Mascoma Rivermarker into Mascoma Lakemarker.

History

Main Street c.
1912
The town was incorporated in 1761 by Colonial Governor Benning Wentworth. First named "Enfield" by settlers from Enfield, Connecticutmarker, the town was renamed "Relhan" in 1766 to honor Dr. Anthony Relhan (ca. 1715-1776). The doctor was a promoter of sea-bathing as a curative, making Brightonmarker, Englandmarker, a fashionable resort. Following the American Revolution, the New Hampshire town was renamed "Enfield" in 1784.

The first European settlers in town were Jonathan Paddleford and family who arrived, after the successful conclusion of the French and Indian War, between 1765 and 1772.

On the southwest shore of Mascoma Lakemarker is Enfield Shaker Village, once a utopian religious community of Shakers, renowned for simple and functional architecture and furniture. Established in 1793 and called "Chosen Vale", the village was subdivided into several "Families", with men and women leading pious, celibate and industrious lives. Although the genders shared dormitories, like Enfield's "Great Stone Dwelling" built between 1837-1841, the sexes used separate doors and stairways. They practiced ecstatic singing and dancing, an expression of their worship, which earned them the appellation: "Shaking Quakers", or "Shakers".

Several trades operated at the village, from agriculture and packaging of seeds, to manufacture of brooms, brushes, spinning-wheels and furniture. To speed delivery of products to the railroad across Mascoma Lake, in 1849 the community erected "Shaker Bridge".

Shaker Bridge c.
1920
The Shaker movement crested in the 1840s, with 19 "societies" scattered from Mainemarker to Kentuckymarker and west to Indianamarker. But growing employment opportunities created by the Industrial Revolution, as near as the mill town of Lebanonmarker, enticed away potential and practicing church members. Others grew disaffected with celibacy, self-abnegation, and communal ownership of property. Indeed, Mary Marshall Dyer, once a member of the Enfield church, became an outspoken Anti-Shaker. Eventually the village would close and, in 1927, be sold to the La Salette Brotherhood of Montreal, a Catholic order noted for its Christmas display. In 1986, Enfield Shaker Village was established as a museum.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of , of which is land and is water, comprising 6.61% of the town. Enfield is drained by the Mascoma Rivermarker. Mascoma Lakemarker, in the west, represents Enfield's lowest elevation at above sea level. The highest elevation is over at the summit of Prospect Hill, overlooking Halfmile Pond. Crystal Lakemarker is in the east. Enfield lies fully within the Connecticut River watershed.

The village area of the town, defined as a census-designated place (CDP), has a total area of , of which (2.55%) is water.

Demographics

Mascoma Lake c.
1908
As of the census of 2000, there were 4,618 people, 1,975 households, and 1,291 families residing in the town. The population density was 114.7 people per square mile (44.3/km²). There were 2,372 housing units at an average density of 22.8 persons/km² (58.9 persons/sq mi). The racial makeup of the town was 97.94% White, 0.15% African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.74% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, and 0.89% from two or more races. 0.74% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 1,975 households out of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.1% were married couples living together, 7.5% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, and 34.6% were non-families. 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.78.

Enfield Center Village in 1909
In the town the population was spread out with 21.8% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 33.6% from 25 to 44, 26.8% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 95.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $47,990, and the median income for a family was $53,631. Males had a median income of $33,139 versus $27,177 for females. The per capita income for the town was $23,054. 5.0% of the population and 3.2% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 4.3% are under the age of 18 and 5.6% are 65 or older.

Town center

As of the census of 2000, there were 1,698 people, 757 households, and 449 families residing in the central settlement, or CDP. The population density was 742.9 people per square mile (286.3/km²). There were 792 housing units at an average density of 133.5 persons/km² (346.5 persons/sq mi). The racial makeup of the town was 97.76% White, 0.18% African American, 0.12% Native American, 1.06% Asian, 0.18% from other races, and 0.71% from two or more races. 0.94% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 757 households out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 10.4% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, and 40.6% were non-families. 32.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.79.

In the CDP the population was spread out with 22.4% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 25.2% from 45 to 64, and 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 87.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males.

The median income for a household is $35,595, and the median income for a family was $46,198. Males had a median income of $36,000 versus $28,365 for females. The per capita income for the town was $19,963. 7.2% of the population and 6.1% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 5.8% are under the age of 18 and 8.2% are 65 or older.

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