English (from ) are a nation
and ethnic group native to England, who speak
English identity as a people is of early medieval origin, when they
were known in Old English
largest single English population live in England, the largest
constituent country of the
They are believed to be genetically
of several groups that have settled in the area, including Angles
, who founded what was to become England (from
the Old English Engla-lond
also the earlier Britons
the later Vikings
. More recent migrants to England include
people from Wales, Scotland and Ireland, and from
many other countries, mostly from within the Commonwealth or from other European
Some of these more recent migrants and their
descendants have assumed a solely British
or English identity, while others
have developed dual or hyphenated identities.
Writing about the English may be complicated because England has
historically been settled by waves of invaders and immigrants at
different periods in history, and has also spread its influence,
and its populace, worldwide. Hence, the English can be considered
to be an ethnic group that shares a belief in their common descent
from a mass migration of Germanic peoples (usually referred to as
) during the sub-Roman
period. Historian Catherine Hills describes what she calls the
"national origin myth
" of the English:
- The arrival of the Anglo-Saxons ... is still perceived as an
important and interesting event because it is believed to have been
a key factor in the identity of the present inhabitants of the
British Isles, involving migration on such a scale as to
permanently change the population of south-east Britain, and making
the English a distinct and different people from the Celtic Irish, Welsh and Scots.....this is an example of a national
origin myth... and shows why there are seldom simple answers to
questions about origins.
The English can be viewed in a variety of different ways, but the
broadest concept comprises anyone who considers themselves English
and are considered English by most other people.
Although England is no longer an independent nation state, but
rather a constituent country
within the United Kingdom, the English may still be regarded as a
" according to the Oxford English Dictionary'
definition: a group united by factors that include "language,
culture, history, or occupation of the same territory".
The concept of an 'English nation' is older than that of the
'British nation' and the 1990s witnessed a revival in English
self-consciousness.Krishan Kumar, The Rise of English National
(Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp. 262-290. This
is linked to the expressions of national self-awareness of the
other British nations of Wales and Scotland — which take
their most solid form in the new devolved
political arrangements within the United Kingdom — and the
waning of a shared British national identity as the British Empire
fades into history.Krishan Kumar. The Making of English National Identity
Cambridge University Press, 2003
While expressions of English national identity can involve beliefs
in common descent, most political English nationalists
do not consider
Englishness to be a form of kinship
example, the English Democrats
states that "We do not claim Englishness to be purely
ethnic or purely cultural, but it is a complex mix of the two. We
firmly believe Englishness is a state of mind", while the Campaign for an English
says, "The people of England includes everyone who
considers this ancient land to be their home and future regardless
of ethnicity, race, religion or culture". In an article for
The Guardian, novelist
Andrea Levy (born in London to Jamaican parents)
calls England a separate country "without any doubt" and asserts
that she is "English.
Born and bred, as the saying goes. (As
far as I can remember, it is born and bred and not
Arguing that "England has never been an exclusive club, but rather
a hybrid nation", she writes that "Englishness must never be
allowed to attach itself to ethnicity. The majority of English
people are white, but some are not ... Let England, Scotland, Wales
and Ireland be nations that are plural and inclusive."
However, this use of the word "English" is complicated by the fact
that most non-white people in England identify as British rather
than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office of National Statistics
compared the ethnic
identities of British people with
their perceived national
identity. They found that while
58% of white people described their nationality as "English", the
vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British". For
example, "78 per cent of Bangladeshis
said they were British,
while only 5 per cent said they were English, Scottish or Welsh",
and the largest percentage of non-whites to identify as English
were the people who described their ethnicity as "Mixed
difficult to clearly define the origins of the English, owing to
the close interactions between the English and their neighbours in
Isles, and the waves of immigration that have added to
England's population at different periods. The conventional view
of English origins is that the English are primarily descended from
the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes that migrated to Great Britain following the end of the Roman occupation of Britain,
with assimilation of later migrants such as the Vikings and Normans.
This version of history is considered by some historians and
geneticists as simplistic or even incorrect. The Celts,
particularly their use of Brythonic
languages such as Cornish,
Cumbric, and Welsh), held on for several centuries in
parts of England such as Cornwall, Devon, Cumbria, Northumberland, the West
Midlands (particularly Herefordshire and Shropshire), Cheshire, Lancashire, and parts of Yorkshire (particularly West
However, the notion of the Anglo-Saxon
English has traditionally been important in defining English
identity and distinguishing the English from their Celtic
neighbours, such as the Scots
. Furthermore, the idea of an
English Anglo-Saxon origin is important to those who see
differences between people with long-standing English ancestry and
people whose ancestors arrived much more recently, an ethno-nationalistic
succinctly by a character in Sarah Kane
who boasts "I'm not an
import", contrasting himself with the children of immigrants: "they
have their kids, call them English, they're not English, born in
England don't make you English".
A popular interest in English identity is evident in the recent
reporting of scientific and sociological investigations of the
English, in which their complex results are heavily simplified.
the BBC used the headline "English and Welsh are
races apart" to report a genetic survey of test subjects from
market towns in England and Wales, while
in September 2006, The Sunday
Times reported that a survey of first names and surnames
in the UK had identified Ripley in Derbyshire as "the 'most English' place in England with 88.58%
of residents having an English ethnic background".
printed an article
with the headline "We're all Germans! (and we have been for 1,600
years)". In all these cases, the conclusions of these studies have
been exaggerated or misinterpreted, with the language of race being
employed by the journalists. In addition, several recent books,
including those of Stephen
and Brian Sykes
argued that the recent genetic studies in fact do not show a clear
dividing line between the English and their 'Celtic' neighbours,
but that there is a gradual clinal
change from west coast
Britain (primarily Iberian origin with some genetic ties to Altaic
peoples) to east coast Britain(primarily Iberian and Balkan origin
from the "Balkan refuge"). They suggest that the majority of the
ancestors of British peoples were the original paleolithic settlers
of Great Britain, and that the differences that exist between the
east and west coasts of Great Britain though not large, are deep in
prehistory, mostly originating in the upper paleolithic and
mesolithic (15,000-7,000 years ago).
Oppenheimer also claims that Celtic
split from Indo-European earlier than previously suspected, some
6000 years ago, while English split from Germanic
before the Roman period.
Oppenheimer believes that a Germanic language that become English
was spoken by the tribes of what is now England long before the
arrival of the Anglo-Saxon and also discounts the view that the
people of the area were ever Celtic.
Relatedly, studies of people with English ancestry have shown that
they tend not to regard themselves as an 'ethnic group', even when
they live in other countries. Patricia Greenhill studied people in Canada with English
heritage, and found that they did not think of themselves as
"ethnic", but rather as "normal" or "mainstream", an attitude
Greenhill attributes to the cultural dominance of the English in
Relationship to Britishness
It is unclear how many British people consider themselves English.
In the 2001 UK census
were invited to state their ethnicity, but while there were
and for 'Scottish'
, there were none for 'English' or
, who were subsumed into the
general heading 'White British'. Following complaints about this,
the 2011 census will "allow respondents to record their English,
Welsh, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other identity."
Another complication in defining the English is a common tendency
for the words "English" and "British" to be used interchangeably.
In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common
slip of the tongue in which people say "English, I mean British".
He notes that this slip is normally made only by the English
themselves and by foreigners: "Non-English members of the United
Kingdom rarely say 'British' when they mean 'English'". Kumar
suggests that although this blurring is a sign of England's
dominant position with the UK, it is also "problematic for the
English [...] when it comes to conceiving of their national
identity. It tells of the difficulty that most English people have
of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other
inhabitants of the British Isles".
In 1965, the historian A. J. P.
- "When the Oxford
History of England was launched a generation ago,
"England" was still an all-embracing word. It meant
indiscriminately England and Wales; Great Britain; the United
Kingdom; and even the British Empire. Foreigners used it as the
name of a Great Power and indeed
continue to do so. Bonar Law, a Scotch Canadian, was not ashamed to describe
himself as "Prime Minister of England" [...] Now terms have become
more rigorous. The use of "England" except for a geographic area
brings protests, especially from the Scotch."
However, although Taylor believed this blurring effect was dying
out, in his 1999 book The Isles
, Norman Davies
lists numerous examples in
of "British" still being
used to mean "English" and vice versa.
Writer Paul Johnson
suggested that like most dominant groups, the English have only
demonstrated interest in their ethnic self-definition when they
were feeling oppressed.
History of English identity
The term "English" is not used to refer to the earliest inhabitants
of the area that would become England - Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers
, and Roman
colonists,; the same applies to the
"Irish", "Welsh" and "Scots". This is because up to and during the
Roman occupation of
, the region now called England was not a distinct
country; all the native inhabitants of Britain spoke Brythonic languages
and were regarded as
(or Brythons) divided
into many tribes
. The word "English" refers to
a heritage that began with the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons
in the 5th century, who settled
lands already inhabited by Romano-British
tribes. That heritage
then comes to include later arrivals, including Scandinavians,
, as well as those Romano-Britons who
still lived in England.
people to be called 'English' were the Anglo-Saxons, a group of closely related
Germanic tribes that began
migrating to eastern and southern Great Britain, from southern Denmark and northern Germany, in the 5th century AD, after the Romans had withdrawn from
The Anglo-Saxons gave their name to England
(Angle-land) and to the English.
The Anglo-Saxons arrived in a land that was already populated by
people commonly referred to as the 'Romano-British
'—the descendants of the native
Brythonic-speaking population that lived in the area of Britain
under Roman rule during the 1st-5th centuries AD. The multi-ethnic
nature of the Roman Empire meant that small numbers of other
peoples may have also been present in England before the
Anglo-Saxons arrived: for example, archaeological
discoveries suggest that North
Africans may have had a limited presence.
The exact nature of the arrival of the
and their relationship with the Romano-British is
a matter of debate. Traditionally, it was believed that a mass
invasion by various Anglo-Saxon tribes largely displaced the
indigenous British population in southern and eastern Great Britain (modern day England with the exception of Cornwall).
This was supported by the writings of
, the only contemporary historical
account of the period, describing slaughter and starvation of
native Britons by invading peoples (aduentus Saxonum
). Added to this
was the fact that the English
contains no more than a handful of words borrowed from
sources (although the
names of some towns, cities, rivers etc do have Brythonic or
pre-Brythonic origins, becoming more frequent towards the west of
Britain). However, this view has been re-evaluated by some
archaeologists and historians since the 1960s, and more recently
supported by genetic studies, who see only minimal evidence for
mass displacement. Archaeologist Francis
has stated that he "can't see any evidence for bona
mass migrations after the Neolithic
." While the historian Malcolm Todd
writes "It is much more likely that a large proportion of the
British population remained in place and was progressively
dominated by a Germanic aristocracy, in some cases marrying into it
and leaving Celtic names in the, admittedly very dubious, early
lists of Anglo-Saxon dynasties. But how we identify the surviving
Britons in areas of predominantly Anglo-Saxon settlement, either
archaeologically or linguistically, is still one of the deepest
problems of early English history." In a survey of the genes of
British and Irish men, even those British regions that were most
genetically similar to (Germanic speaking) continental regions were
still more genetically British than continental: "When included in
the PC analysis, the Frisians were more 'Continental' than any of
the British samples, although they were somewhat closer to the
British ones than the North German/Denmark sample. For example, the
part of mainland Britain that has the most Continental input is
Central England, but even here the AMH+1
frequency, not below 44%
(Southwell), is higher than the 35% observed in the Frisians. These
results demonstrate that even with the choice of Frisians as a
source for the Anglo-Saxons, there is a clear indication of a
continuing indigenous component in the English paternal genetic
Vikings and the Danelaw
about AD 800 waves of Danish Viking assaults on the coastlines of the British Isles were gradually followed by a succession of Danish
settlers in England.
At first, the Vikings were very much
considered a separate people from the English. This separation was
enshrined when Alfred the Great
signed the Treaty of Alfred
and Guthrum to establish the Danelaw, a division of England between English and Danish
rule, with the Danes occupying northern and eastern England.
However, Alfred's successors subsequently won military victories
against the Danes, incorporating much of the Danelaw into the
nascent kingdom of England. Danish invasions continued into the
11th century, and there were both English and Danish kings in the
period following the unification of England (for example, Æthelred II
(978–1013 and 1014–1016)
was English but Cnut
Gradually, the Danes in England came to be seen as 'English'. They
had a noticeable impact on the English
: many English words, such as dream
are of Old Norse
origin, and place names that end in
are Scandinavian in
The English population was not politically unified until the 10th
century. Before then, it consisted of a number of
petty kingdoms which gradually
coalesced into a Heptarchy of seven
powerful states, the most powerful of which were Mercia and Wessex.
English nation state
began to form when
the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms united against Danish Viking invasions,
which began around 800 AD. Over the following century and a half
England was for the most part a politically unified entity, and
remained permanently so after 959.
nation of England was formed in 937 by
Athelstan of Wessex after the
Battle of Brunanburh, as Wessex
grew from a relatively small kingdom in the South West to become
the founder of the Kingdom of the English, incorporating all
Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and the Danelaw.
Norman and Angevin rule
The Norman conquest of
during 1066 brought Anglo-Saxon and Danish rule of
England to an end, as the new Norman
almost universally replaced the Anglo-Saxon aristocracy and church
leaders. After the conquest, "English" normally included all
natives of England, whether they were of Anglo-Saxon, Scandinavian
or Celtic ancestry, to distinguish them from the Norman invaders,
who were regarded as "Norman" even if born in England, for a
generation or two after the Conquest. The Norman dynasty ruled
England for 87 years until the death of King Stephen
in 1154, when the succession
passed to Henry II
, House of Plantagenet
(based in France),
and England became part of the Angevin
Various contemporary sources suggest that within fifty years of the
invasion most of the Normans outside the royal court had switched
to English, with Anglo-Norman
remaining the prestige language of government and law largely out
of social inertia. For example, Orderic Vitalis, a historian born
in 1075 and the son of a Norman knight, said that he learned French
only as a second language. Anglo-Norman continued to be used by the
Plantagenet kings until Edward I
came to the throne. Over time the English language became more
important even in the court, and the Normans were gradually
assimilated, until, by the 14th Century, both rulers and subjects
regarded themselves as English and spoke the English
Despite the assimilation of the Normans, the distinction between
'English' and 'French' survived in official documents long after it
had fallen out of common use, in particular in the legal phrase
(a rule by which a hundred
had to prove an
unidentified murdered body found on their soil to be that of an
Englishman, rather than a Norman, if they wanted to avoid a fine).
This law was abolished in 1340.
In the United Kingdom
18th century, England has been one part of a wider political entity
covering all or part of the British Isles, which is today called the United Kingdom. Wales was annexed by England by the Laws in Wales Acts
1535–1542, which incorporated Wales into the English
A new British identity was subsequently developed
when James VI of Scotland
became James I of England
and expressed the desire to be known as the monarch of Britain.
England formed a union with Scotland by the passage of the Acts of Union 1707 in both the Scottish and English parliaments, creating the
Great Britain. In 1801 another Act of Union formed a union between the
Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Ireland. About two thirds of Irish population, (those
who lived in 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland) left the United
Kingdom in 1922 to form the Irish Free
State, and the remainder became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Throughout the history of the UK, the English have been dominant in
terms of population and political weight. As a consequence, notions
of 'Englishness' and 'Britishness' are often very similar. At the
same time, after the 1707 Union, the English, along with the other
peoples of the British Isles, have been encouraged to think of
themselves as British rather than identifying themselves by the
smaller constituent nations.
Although England has not been successfully conquered since the
Norman conquest or extensively settled since prior to that, it has
been the destination of varied numbers of migrants at different
periods from the seventeenth century. While some members of these
groups maintain a separate ethnic identity, others have assimilated
with the English.
Oliver Cromwell's resettlement of the Jews
in 1656, there have been waves of Jewish
immigration from Russia in the
nineteenth century and from Germany in the twentieth.
After the French king
illegal in 1685 with the
Edict of Fontainebleau
estimated 50,000 Protestant Huguenots
to England. Due to sustained and sometimes mass
emigration from Ireland, current
estimates indicate that around 6 million people in the UK have at
least one grandparent born in Ireland.
There has been a black
England since at least the 16th century due to the slave trade
an Indian presence since the mid 19th century because of the
proportions have grown in England as immigration from the British
Empire and the subsequent Commonwealth of Nations
encouraged due to labour shortages during post-war rebuilding. In
2006, an estimated 591,000 migrants arrived to live in the UK for
at least a year, while 400,000 people emigrated from the UK for a
year or more. The largest group of arrivals was people from the
. While one
result of this immigration has been incidents of racial tension
, such as the
riots, there has also been
2001 census recorded that 1.31% of England's population call
themselves "Mixed", and The Sunday
reported in 2007 that mixed
people are likely to be the largest ethnic minority
in the UK by 2020.
1990s saw a resurgence of English national identity, spurred by
devolution in the 1990s of some powers to
Assembly for Wales and the Northern Ireland Assembly.
As England lacks its own devolved parliament, its laws are created
only in the UK parliament, giving rise to the "West Lothian question
", a hypothetical
situation in which a law affecting only England could be voted for
or against by a Scottish MP. Consequently, groups such as the
Campaign for an
are calling for the creation of a devolved English Parliament
claiming that there is now a discriminative democratic deficit
against the English. A rise in English self-consciousness has
resulted, with increased use of the English
was formed in 2005 to promote Englishness as a
cultural and civic notion rather than a political or religious one.
The Society promotes itself via a number of campaigns, mostly
web-based and has a membership as of October 2008 of around 800
The English nationalist movement has had mixed results. Opinion
polls show support for a devolved English parliament from about two
thirds of the residents of England as well as support from both
Welsh and Scottish nationalists. Conversely, the English Democrats
gained just 14,506 votes
in the 2005 UK
English ancestry abroad
From the earliest times English people have left England to settle
in other parts of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, but it is not
possible to identify their numbers, as British censuses have
historically not invited respondents to identify themselves as
English. However, the census does record place of
birth, revealing that 8.08% of Scotland's population, 3.66% of the
population of Northern
Ireland and 20% of the Welsh population were born in
England. Similarly, the census of the Republic of
Ireland does not collect information on ethnicity, but it
does record that there are over 200,000 people living in Ireland
who were born in England and
English emigrant and ethnic descent communities are found across
the world, and in some places, settled in significant numbers.
Substantial populations descended from
English colonists and immigrants exist in the United States, Canada, Australia, South
Africa and New
In the 2000 United States
, 24,509,692 Americans described their ancestry
as wholly or partly English. In addition,
1,035,133 recorded British ancestry. In the 1980 United States Census
million Americans claimed English ancestry.
In the 2006 Canadian Census
'English' was the most common ethnic origin (ethnic origin refers
to the ethnic or cultural group(s) to which the respondent's
ancestors belong) recorded by respondents; 6,570,015 people
described themselves as wholly or partly English, 16% of the
population. On the other hand people identifying as Canadian but
not English may have previously identified as English before the
option of identifying as Canadian was available.
, the 2006 Australian Census
6,298,945 people who described their ancestry, but not ethnicity,
as 'English'. 1,425,559 of these people recorded that both their
parents were born overseas.
Significant numbers of people with at least
some English ancestry also live in Scotland and Wales, as well as
in Ireland, Chile, Argentina, New
Zealand, and South
1980s there have been increasingly large numbers of English people,
estimated at over 3 million, permanently or semi-permanently living
in Spain and
there by the climate and cheaper house prices.
culture of England is sometimes difficult to separate clearly from
the culture of the United Kingdom, so influential has English
culture been on the cultures of the British Isles and, on the other hand, given the extent to which
other cultures have influenced life in England.
Institutions and politics
- "Ethnic minorities feel strong sense of identity with Britain,
report reveals" Maxine Frith The Independent 8 January 2004.
- Hussain, Asifa and Millar, William Lockley (2006)
Multicultural Nationalism Oxford
University Press p149-150 
- CONDOR Susan; GIBSON Stephen; ABELL Jackie. (2006) "English
identity and ethnic diversity in the context of UK constitutional
change" Ethnicities 6:123-158 abstract
- "Asian recruits boost England fan army" by Dennis Campbell,
Guardian 18 June 2006. 
- "National Identity and Community in England" (2006)
Institute of Governance Briefing No.7. 
- Hills, Catherine (2003) "The Origins of the English" p. 18.
Duckworth Debates in Archaeology. Duckworth. London. ISBN 0 7156
- "Nation", sense 1. The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd
- English nationalism 'threat to UK', BBC, Sunday, 9 January, 2000
- The English question Handle with care,
Economist 1 November 2007
- English Democrats FAQ
- 'Introduction', The Campaign for an English
- Andrea Levy, "This is my England", The Guardian,
February 19, 2000.
- 'Identity', National Statistics, 21 Feb,
- Sarah Kane, Complete Plays (19**), p. 41.
- "English and Welsh are Races Apart",
BBC, 30 June, 2002
- " Found: Migrants with the Mostest", Robert
Winnett and Holly Watt, The Sunday Times, 10 June, 2006
- Julie Wheldon. We're all Germans! (and we have been for 1,600
years), The Daily Mail, 19 July 2006
- The BBC article claims a 50-100% "wipeout" of "indigenous
British" by Anglo-Saxon "invaders", while the original article (
Y Chromosome Evidence for Anglo-Saxon Mass
Migration Michael E. Weale et al., in
Molecular Biology and Evolution 19 ) claims only a
50-100% "contribution" of "Anglo-Saxons" to the current Central
English male population, with samples deriving only from
central England; the conclusions of this study have been questioned
in Cristian Capelli, et al., A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles
Biology, 13 (2003). The Times article reports
Richard Webber's OriginsInfo database, which does not use
the word 'ethnic' and acknowledges that its conclusions are unsafe
for many groups; see "Investigating Customers Origins",
- Oppenheimer, S. (2006). The Origins of the British: A Genetic
Detective Story: Constable and Robinson, London. ISBN
- Pauline Greenhill, Ethnicity in the Mainstream: Three
Studies of English Canadian Culture in Ontario (McGill-Queens,
1994) - page reference needed
- Scotland's Census 2001: Supporting Information
(PDF; see p. 43); see also
Philip Johnston, "Tory MP leads English protest
over census", Daily Telegraph 15 June, 2006.
- 'Developing the Questionnaires', National
- Krishan Kumar, The Making of English National Identity
(Cambridge UP, 2003), pp.1-2.
- A.J.P. Taylor, English History, 1914-1945 (Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1965), p. v.
- Norman Davies, The Isles, [page reference needed]
- Quoted by Kumar, Making, p.266.
- The Black Romans: BBC culture website. Retrieved 21 July
- The archaeology of black Britain:
4 history website. Retrieved 21 July 2006.
- Gildas, The Ruin of Britain &c. (1899). pp.
4-252. The Ruin of Britain
- Britain BC: Life in Britain and Ireland before the
Romans by Francis Pryor, p. 122. Harper Perennial. ISBN
- Anglo-Saxon Origins: The Reality of the Myth by
Retrieved 1 October 2006.
- Capelli, C., N. Redhead, J. K. Abernethy, F. Gratrix, J. F.
Wilson, T. Moen, T. Hervig, M. Richards, M. P.H. Stumpf, P. A.
Underhill, P. Bradshaw, A. Shaha, M. G. Thomas, N. Bradman and D.
B. Goldstein A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles
Biology, 13 (2003).
- The Age of Athelstan by Paul Hill (2004), Tempus
Publishing. ISBN 0-7524-2566-8
- Online Etymology Dictionary by Douglas
Harper (2001), List of sources used. Retrieved 10 July
- The Adventure of English, Melvyn Bragg, 2003. Pg 22
- Athelstan (c.895 - 939): Historic
Figures: BBC - History. Retrieved 30 October
- The Battle of Brunanburh, 937AD by h2g2, BBC website. Retrieved 30 October 2006.
- A. L. Rowse,
The Story of Britain, Artus 1979 ISBN 0-297-83311-1
- OED, 2nd edition,
- England — Plantagenet Kings
- BBC - The Resurgence of English 1200 -
- OED, s.v. 'Englishry'.
- Liberation of Ireland: Ireland on the
Net Website. Retrieved 23 June 2006.
- A History of Britain: The British Wars 1603-1776 by
BBC Worldwide. ISBN 0-563-53747-7.
- The English, Jeremy Paxman 1998
- EJP looks back on 350 years of history of Jews in the
UK: European Jewish Press. Retrieved 21 July
- Meredith on the Guillet-Thoreau Genealogy
- More Britons applying for Irish passports
by Owen Bowcott The Guardian, 13 September 2006.
Retrieved 9 January 2006.
- Black Presence, Asian and Black History in
Britain, 1500-1850: UK government website.
Retrieved 21 July 2006.
- Postwar immigration The National Archives
Accessed October 2006
- Resident population: by ethnic group, 2001:
Regional Trends 38, National Statistics.
- Jack Grimston, "Mixed-race Britons to become biggest minority",
The Sunday Times, 21 January, 2007.
- An English Parliament...
- Poll shows support for English parliament The
Guardian, 16 January 2007
- Fresh call for English Parliament BBC 24 October
- Welsh nod for English Parliament BBC 20 December
- Scotland's Census 2001: Supporting Information
(PDF; see p. 43)
- Scottish Census Results Online Browser,
accessed November 16, 2007.
- Key Statistics Report, p. 10.
- Country of Birth: Proportion Born in Wales
Falling, National Statistics, 8 January, 2004.
- US Census 2000 data, table PHC-T-43.
- Shifting Identities - statistical data on ethnic
identities in the US, American Demographics, December 1,
- Ethnic Origin Statistics Canada
- Staff. Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces
and territories - 20% sample data, Statistics Canada,
- According to Canada's Ethnocultural Mosaic, 2006
Census, (p.7) "...the presence of the Canadian example has
led to an increase in Canadian being reported and has had an impact
on the counts of other groups, especially for French, English,
Irish and Scottish. People who previously reported these origins in
the census had the tendency to now report Canadian."
- Krishnan Kumar - The Making of English