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Ernst Leopold Salkowski (October 11, 1844March 8, 1923) was a German biochemist who was a native of Konigsbergmarker.

He received his education at the University of Konigsberg, and in 1872 was an assistant at the chemical laboratory of Rudolf Virchow's Institute of Pathology in Berlinmarker, where he became head of the department of chemistry in 1880.

Salkowski specialized in the fields of physiological and pathological chemistry. In 1890 he became the first to describe tissue autolysis, which he named "auto-digestion", and in 1892 was the first to describe pentosuria. He is remembered for developing tests for detection of various compounds and substances, such as cholesterol, creatinine, bile pigments, carbon monoxide, and indole.

Salkowski also conducted research on urea, which he documented in a book published with internist Wilhelm von Leube (1842-1922) called Die Lehre vom Harn. Another important work of his was Practicum der physiologischen und pathologischen Chemie, which was later translated into English as "A Laboratory Manual of Physiological and Pathological Chemistry".

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