of Jehovah's Witnesses
is central to their
religious beliefs. They believe that Jesus
has been ruling in heaven as king since 1914 (a date
they believe was prophesied in Scripture), and that after that time
a period of cleansing occurred, resulting in God's selection of the
with Charles Taze Russell
his people in 1919. They also believe the destruction of those who
reject their message and thus willfully refuse to obey God will
shortly take place at Armageddon
, ensuring that
the beginning of the new earthly society will be composed of
willing subjects of that kingdom.
The religion's doctrines surrounding 1914 are the legacy of a
series of emphatic claims regarding the years 1799, 1874, 1878,
1914, 1918 and 1925 made by Watch Tower Society founder Charles Taze Russell
organization's publications between 1879 and 1924. Claims by the
religion about the significance of those years, including the
presence of Jesus Christ, the beginning of the "last days", the
destruction of worldly governments and the earthly resurrection of
Jewish patriarchs, were successively abandoned when it became
apparent the dates were wrong. The Watchtower
described its chronology as "of divine origin and divinely
corroborated ... absolutely and unqualifiedly correct" and that a
repudiation of Russell's teachings was "equivalent to a repudiation
of the Lord". The Watch Tower Society has admitted its early
leaders promoted "incomplete, even inaccurate concepts".
Jehovah's Witnesses teach the imminent end of this current world
society, or "system of things" by God's judgment, leading to
deliverance for the saved. This judgment will begin with false
religion, which they identify as the “harlot,” Babylon the Great
referred to in the Book of
. They apply this designation to all other
religions.Jehovah's Witnesses are told not to put their
expectations to one given date, and that various events will lead
up to the end of this "system of things", culminating in Armageddon
. Armageddon is understood to include
the destruction of all earthly governments by God. After
Armageddon, God will extend his heavenly kingdom to include
After Armageddon, based on scriptures such as John 5:28, 29, they
believe people in the graves will gradually be resurrected to a
"day of judgment" lasting for the
referred to in Revelation 20. This judgment will
be based on their actions after resurrection, not on past deeds. At
the end of the thousand years a final test will take place when
Satan is brought back to mislead perfect mankind. The end result
will be a fully tested, glorified human race.
Presence of Christ Jesus
Watch Tower Society publications currently teach that Christ Jesus
returned invisibly and began to rule in heaven as king in October
1914. They claim the beginning of Christ's heavenly rule would seem
worse initially for mankind because it starts with the casting out
of Satan from heaven to the earth, which according to Revelation
12, would bring a brief period of "woe" to mankind. But this woe
will be reversed when Christ finally comes to destroy Satan's
earthly organization, throwing Satan into the abyss and extend
God's Kingdom rule over the earth in which Jesus reigns as God's
appointed king. They believe the Greek word parousia
(usually translated as "coming") is more accurately understood as
"presence," perceived only by a series of "signs". Thus this
would be an invisible
presence, lasting for an extended time.
Witnesses base their beliefs about the significance of 1914 on the
Watch Tower Society's interpretation of biblical chronology. They
believe this to be reinforced by world events since 1914, which
they see as fulfillment of the "sign" of Christ's presence
for all to see. An example of this sign is said to be the world
wars which they say fulfills Christ's statement in answer to a
request for a sign.
They believe that their preaching is
part of that sign. To support this they point to Matthew 24:14,
which says "And this gospel of the kingdom shall be proclaimed in
all the world as a witness to all nations. And then the
shall come." (MKJV
Their interpretation of Bible chronology is hinged on their
assertion that the Babylonian
and destruction of Jerusalem occurred in 607 BCE.
Secular historians date the event of Jerualem's destruction to
within a year of 587 BC. The Witnesses alternative chronology
produces a 20-year gap somewhere between the reigns of Neo-Babylonian
(rule ended 560BC) and Nabonidus
(rule began 555BC) in addition to the
intervening reigns of Neriglissar
, despite the
availability of contiguous cuneiform records.
They believe that Daniel chapter 4 prophesied a period of 2,520
years starting with 607 BCE and ending at 1914 CE. Non-Witness
sources date Jerusalem's destruction to 587/586 BCE, some 20 years
later. They equate this period with the "Gentile Times" or "the
appointed times of the nations," a phrase taken from Luke 21:24.
They believe that when the Babylonians conquered Jerusalem, the
line of kings descended from David was interrupted, and that God's
throne was "trampled on" from then until Jesus began ruling in
They claim that after the war of Armageddon, Jesus will rule as
Earth's king for 1000 years after which he hands all authority back
Sign of Last Days
Jehovah's Witnesses teach that since October 1914, humanity has
been living in a period of intense increased trouble known as "the
last days," marked by war, disease, famine, earthquakes, lack of
love, the progressive degeneration of morality worldwide, and the
preaching work done by Jehovah's Witnesses. They claim that various
calamities in the modern world constitute proof of these beliefs,
such as the fighting of World War I
August 1914, the outbreak of Spanish flu
in May 1918, the onset of World War II
in 1939, and more recently, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001
Judgment of Religion and Selection of True Followers
Jehovah's Witnesses believe 1918 to be the time when Christ Jesus
judged all world religions claiming to be Christian.Watch Tower
Society publications teach that after a period of 18 months, among
all groups and religions claiming to represent Christ, only the
"Bible Students" (who became known as Jehovah's Witnesses in 1931)
met God's approval.Watch Tower Society publications claim that the
world's religions in general have misrepresented God, and filled
the world with hatred. They identify "Babylon The Great" and the
"mother of the harlots," referred to in Revelation 17:3-6 as the
"world empire of false religion"
During the final great tribulation, all the world's religions,
except the "true" one, will be destroyed by "crazed" member
governments of the United Nations
acting under the direction of Jehovah. Witness publications
identify the United Nations as the "beast" to whom the "ten kings"
of Revelation 17:12,13 give their "power and authority."
History of eschatology
From the earliest writings of Charles Taze Russell, Watch Tower
eschatology has undergone changes, mostly surrounding the dates
1874, 1914, 1918, and 1925. Although publications assured readers
the interpretations were based on Scripture and were therefore
reliable, they have also renounced any claim to infallibility with
regard to their interpretations. Watch Tower publications have
admitted their interpretations have at times been wrong and needed
Early Expectations 1871-1881
The Second Adventists
Nelson H. Barbour
expected a visible and dramatic
return of Christ in 1873, and later in 1874. They agreed with other
Adventist groups that the "time of the
" (also called the "last days") had started in 1799. Soon
after the 1874 disappointment, Barbour's group decided Christ had
returned to the earth in 1874, but invisibly. Writing in his
journal The Herald of the Morning
in 1875, Barbour
outlined his eschatological views and connected the years 1874,
1878, 1881, and 1914. The "harvest" was to run from 1874 to the
spring of 1878, concluding with "the translation of the living
saints into the air". 1881 would mark when the Jews would be
restored to Palestine and the time from 1881 until 1914 would see
the set-up of the Kingdom of God on earth. Barbour wrote:
Charles Taze Russell
fellowship with Barbour in 1876 and accepted Barbour's
eschatological understanding. In 1877, Barbour and Russell jointly
issued the book The Three Worlds
, which reiterated
Barbour's earlier teachings. It proclaimed Christ's invisible
return in 1874, the resurrection of the saints in 1875, and
predicted the end of the "harvest" and a rapture of the saints to
heaven for 1878 and thefinal end of "the day of wrath" in 1914.
1874 was considered the end of 6000 years of human history and the
beginning of judgment by Christ.
When none of the events predicted for 1878 took place, Russell
admitted they "felt somewhat disappointed; yet we did not for a
moment feel cast down". The 1878 date had been based on a 3½-year
parallel time period from the autumn of 1874 to the spring of 1878,
which was viewed as the "Harvest". Russell explained that they now
realized there would be an additional 3½-year period "making the
harvest seven years long". Successive issues of The Herald of
identified the autumn of 1881 as the end of the
"Harvest" and the likely time for the translation of the Church to
heaven. A theological disagreement over the nature of the Atonement
prompted Russell to break fellowship with Barbour and begin
publishing Zion's Watch Tower
in July, 1879. Initially,
the Watch Tower
held to the 1881 date as the probable time
for the Church's translation – with the "saints" remaining on earth
with visible bodies, living as materialized spirit bodies – but by
May 1881 Russell was claiming he had never predicted the rapture to
take place that year; the expectations were now only that the
opportunity to be part of the Bride of Christ would end about
October 2, 1881.
"The Time Is At Hand" 1881-1918
Early Watch Tower publications cited
"the testimony of the Great Pyramid" for expectations for 1910 and
Barbour's basic eschatology was retained by Russell after they
parted company, with some minor refinements. Basing his
interpretations on a concept of parallel "dispensations," Russell
taught that while Jesus was invisibly present here on earth he was
also made its King in 1878. He claimed God had rejected the
"nominal Church" (considered to be "Babylon the Great") in 1878.
Russell also taught that in 1878 Christ resurrected all the "dead
in Christ" as spirit beings to be with him on earth awaiting a
future glorification to heaven. (As each of the remainder of the
would die after 1878, Christ would
resurrect them as spirit beings to join those already resurrected.)
Together with Christ on earth, these invisible resurrected spirit
beings were said to be engaged in directing a harvest work (running
from 1874-1914) gathering the remainder of those with the heavenly
calling. Russell later moderated his view about the significance of
1881, stating that the "door" for the gathering of the Bride of
Christ "stands ajar."
He wrote that the culmination of Armageddon would occur in 1914,
preceded by the gathering of all the saints (both resurrected and
living) to heaven. Based on measurements from the Great Pyramid of
Gizeh, this "passing beyond the vail" or rapture was expected "before the close of
1910." Russell enumerated seven expectations for 1914
in The Time is at Hand
, providing biblical
evidence that the "lease of dominion" over earth by Gentiles would
end in 1914, "and that date will be the farthest limit of the rule
of imperfect men. He wrote that:
(1) In 1914 the Kingdom of God would obtain full, universal control
over earth "on the ruins of present institutions";
(2) Christ would then be present as earth’s new Ruler;
(3) Some time before the end of 1914 the last member of the "royal
priesthood, the body of Christ" would be glorified with
(4) Fom 1914 Jerusalem would no longer "be trodden down by the
(5) From that date, "Israel’s blindness will begin to be turned
(6) In 1914 the great "time of trouble" would reach its culmination
in a worldwide reign of anarchy;
(7) Before that date God’s Kingdom would "smite and crush the
Gentile image - and fully consume the power of these kings".
At first the hopes for 1914 were stretched to "near the end of A.D.
1915." A few months before his death in October 1916, Russell
wrote: "We believe that the dates have proven to be quite right. We
believe that Gentile Times have ended...The Lord did not say that
the Church would all be glorified by 1914. We merely inferred it,
and, evidently, erred." He expected the war in Europe to be the
beginning of Armageddon and the destruction of the "nominal Church"
to take place in April 1918.
Following Russell's lead, the book The Finished Mystery
emphasized events for 1918. The destruction of the churches of
Christendom and the deaths of "church members by the millions" was
expected in 1918.
The Finished Mystery proposed the spring of 1918 for the glorification of the Church and suggested the day of this "deliverance" as possibly being Passover day of 1918. First printings of The Finished Mystery predicted the end of the World War "some time about October 1, 1917," but this was changed in subsequent editions. It also predicted the destruction of governments in 1920.
"Millions Now Living Will Never Die!" 1918-1925
The "Millions" booklet written by
Judge Rutherford in 1920
The predictions for 1920 were discarded even before that year
arrived in favor of a new chronology. In 1918-1919, Joseph Franklin Rutherford
second president of the Watch Tower Society, inaugurated a
worldwide lecture series entitled "Millions Now Living Will Never
Die." The lecture was produced in booklet form and translated into
31 languages, with 3.3 million copies distributed in its first year
of publication. Its basic message was a re-interpretation of the
significance of the year 1914 (now seen as the beginning of the
"great tribulation") and new predictions for 1925. Expected by 1925
was the resurrection of the biblical patriarchs Abraham
and other Old
personages (referred to as "princes") and the
beginnings of a new world where death would cease and the dead
would be resurrected to an earthly paradise.
With the return of these "princes" a new order would begin. This
would mean that millions of people alive at that time would be able
to live forever. Newspaper advertisements for the "Millions"
lecture localized the claim, with a typical declaration in a
Ohio newspaper reading: "It will be conclusively
proved...that thousands now living in Marion and vicinity will
The Watch Tower
described the evidence for the chronology
surrounding 1925 as stronger than that for 1914 and was emphasized
strongly in the children's book The Way to Paradise
1921 book The Harp of God: Proof Conclusive That Millions
Now Living Will Never Die
predicted that "maimed and
disfigured" victims of World War I would be among the "first to
receive restoration blessings." Though claiming that 1925 would be
among the dates "stamped with God's approval", the Watch
acknowledged earlier disappointments surrounding
predictions for 1874, 1878, 1914 and 1918 and cautioned that "all
that some expect to see in 1925 may not transpire that year". It
said the expectations could be "a means of testing and
When 1925 also passed uneventfully, meeting attendance among the
Bible Students dropped dramatically in some congregations in France
and Switzerland. Attendance at the annual
, which had been steadily increasing since 1919, also
plummeted, dropping from 90,434 in 1925 to 17,380 in 1928.
As late as 1931 it was claimed 1925 was a year "fixed in the
Scriptures", but by 1936 the idea that millions of the general
populace would survive Armageddon
educated in a new world was discarded and replaced with the view
that only members of God's "organization" would survive God's final
Great Pyramid of Giza 1876-1928
by the Pyramidology theories of
John Taylor and Charles Piazzi Smyth, both Nelson
Barbour and Charles Russell taught that the Great Pyramid of
Giza contained prophetic measurements in "pyramid inches" that pointed to both 1874 and
John Edgar measuring the portal
between the Subterranean Chamber and the Descending Corridor in the
Great Pyramid of Egypt in 1909
Russell viewed the Great Pyramid as "God's Stone
Witness and Prophet". Smyth reviewed Russell’s manuscript on the
Great Pyramid before publication and Russell credited him and
Scottish writer Robert Menzies for the view “that the Great Pyramid
is Jehovah's ‘Witness,’ and that it was as important a witness to
divine truth as to natural science.” Prophetic dates derived from
the measurements inside the Great Pyramid were seen as
complementary to biblical interpretations. Russell included the
Great Pyramid as part of his film and color slide production
The Photo-Drama of
in 1914, suggesting that the Great Pyramid was
built by the Old Testament king-priest Melchizedek
. A special edition of the first
volume of Studies in the
was also published, which was re-titled The
Divine Plan of the Ages and the Corroborative Testimony of the
. In accordance with Russell's wishes, a high
replica of a pyramid was erected at his gravesite in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania with its capstone "patterned after the capstone of
the Great Pyramid of Egypt, symbolic of the Christ."
Russell’s interpretations of the Great Pyramid were supported by
the writings of John and Morton Edgar who were prominent members of
his movement. Russell had first published that the date 1874 was
derived from a measurement of 3416 pyramid inches, but the
measurement was revised in the 1910 edition to to point to 1915.
The Edgars explained the revision in measurement and change in date
was a result of errors made by Smyth.
In the early 1920s, the significance of the Pyramid predictions for
1914 were re-interpreted to mean that "the old evil order began to
pass away in 1914". A 1924 issue of Golden Age
the Great Pyramid as "the Scientific Bible" and added that
measurements on the Grand Gallery inside the Great Pyramid
confirmed the dates 1874, 1914 and 1925. Similarly, the 1924
publication The Way to Paradise
refers to the Great
Pyramid as "the Bible in Stone" and concludes:
The idea that the Great Pyramid contained a prophetic blueprint of
biblical chronology was rejected in 1928 with the Great Pyramid
being seen as built "under the direction of Satan the Devil."
"Armageddon Immediately Before Us" 1925-1966
1925-1933, the Watch Tower Society, under Rutherford's leadership,
radically changed much of its chronologies after the failure of
these eschatological expectations. In March 1925, the Watch
declared that Christ had been enthroned as King in
heaven in 1914, not 1878; 1874 remained the date of Christ's
invisible return until this, too, was abandoned in the early 1930s.
Christ's Second Advent was newly explained as a "turning of
attention" to the earth, with Christ remaining in heaven – a
departure from the earlier teaching of a literal return to earth.
By 1933, it was clearly taught that Christ had returned invisibly
in 1914 and the "last days" had also begun then. A 1927 Watch
had already transferred the timing of the resurrection
of the "saints" from 1878 to 1918, explaining that they would be
raised as spirit creatures to heavenly life to be with Christ
there. The judgment on Babylon changed from 1878 to 1919 with the
publication of the book Light
in 1930. The idea that the
"great tribulation" had begun in 1914 and was "cut short" in 1918
to be resumed at Armageddon was dropped in 1969.
Rutherford took up residence in a "Spanish mansion" in California
which he called Beth
Sarim, meaning, "House of the Princes".
held in trust for the ancient biblical "princes" who were expected
to be resurrected immediately prior to Armageddon
. Rutherford spent the winter months at
Beth Sarim and died there in January, 1942. The belief that those
"princes" would be
resurrected before Armageddon
abandoned in 1950.
In the mid-1930s and early 1940s, Watch Tower publications placed
emphasis on the imminence of Armageddon, said to be "months" away
and "immediately before us". Publications also urged converts to
remain single and childless because it was "immediately before
Armageddon" Young Witnesses were counselled in 1943: "It is better
and wiser for those of the Lord's 'other sheep' who hope to survive
Armageddon and be given the divine mandate to fill the earth with a
righteous offspring to defer matters until after the tribulation
and destruction of Armageddon is past." This view was discarded in
"Looking Forward to 1975" 1966-1975
Convention badge from Circuit
Assembly, circa 1970
During the 1960s and early 1970s, many Witnesses were stimulated by
articles in their literature and further encouraged by speakers at
their assemblies to believe that Armageddon and Christ's
thousand-year millennial reign could begin by 1975. Strong
statements for 1975 appeared, only sometimes accompanied with
cautionary remarks. The booklet The Approaching Peace of a
, which was the text of the keynote address to
major assemblies of Jehovah's Witnesses throughout the world in
1969, stated enthusiastically about that promised reign (which
would begin at "God's fixed time"):
In 1968, a Watchtower
article asked: "Why Are You Looking
Forward to 1975?":
Young Witnesses were advised in 1969 to avoid careers requiring
lengthy periods of schooling and a 1974 issue of the Kingdom
newsletter commended Witnesses who had sold their
homes and property to engage in fulltime preaching, adding:
"Certainly this is a fine way to spend the short time remaining
before the wicked world's end."
In a lecture in early 1975 then Vice-President Fred Franz
pinpointed after sundown
on September 5, 1975 as the end of 6000 years, but cautioned that
although all the prophecies "could happen" by then, it looked
improbable. After 1975 passed without any sign of the expected
paradise, the Watchtower
described as "unwise" the actions
of some Witnesses who had made radical changes in their lives,
commenting: "It may be that some who have been serving God have
planned their lives according to a mistaken view of just what was
to happen on a certain date or in a certain year. They may have,
for this reason, put off or neglected things that they otherwise
would have cared for ... But it is not advisable for us to set our
sights on a certain date, neglecting everyday things we would
ordinarily care for as Christians, such as things that we and our
families really need." In 1979, in a lecture entitled "Choosing the
Best Way of Life", the Watch Tower Society acknowledged
responsibility for much of the disappointment around 1975 and the
following year a Watchtower
article admitted the leaders
of Jehovah's Witnesses had erred in "setting dates for the desired
liberation from the suffering and troubles that are the lot of
persons throughout the earth". It admitted statements in the
book (1966) had led to "considerable
expectation" for 1975, with subsequent statements "that implied
that such realization of hopes by that year was more of a
probability than a mere possibility. It is to be regretted that
these latter statements apparently overshadowed the cautionary ones
and contributed to a buildup of the expectation already
Baptism statistics compared with the number of those reporting
preaching for 1976-1980 showed that many became inactive during
The "generation of 1914", 1976-
After the passing of 1975, the Watch Tower Society continued to
emphasize the teaching that God would execute his judgment on
humankind before the generation of people who had witnessed the
events of 1914 had all died. This teaching was based on an
interpretation of Matthew 24:34 ("Truly I say to you that this
generation will by no means pass away until all these things
occur"), with the term "a generation" said to refer "beyond
question" to a generation living in a given period.
The term had been used with regard to the nearness of Armageddon
from the 1940s, when the view was that "a generation" covered a
period of about 30 to 40 years. As the 40-year deadline passed
without Armageddon occurring, the definition of "a generation"
underwent a series of changes: in 1952 it was said for the first
time to mean an entire lifetime, possibly 80 years or more; in 1968
it was applied to those who had been at least 15 years old in 1914
and therefore "old enough to witness with understanding
what took place when the 'last days' began" (italics theirs); in
1980 the starting date for that "generation" was brought into the
20th century when the term was applied to those who had been born
in 1904 and therefore aged 10 and able simply "to observe" when
World War I had begun. The Watchtower
commented: "The fact
that their number is dwindling is one more indication that “the
conclusion of the system of things” is moving fast toward its
From 1982 to 1995 the inside cover of every Awake!
magazine included in its statement of
purpose a reference to the “generation of 1914” belief,
acknowledging “the Creator’s promise ... of a peaceful and secure
new world before the generation that saw the events of 1914 passes
away". In 1985 Witnesses were reminded: "The 1914 generation is
well into the evening of its existence, thus allowing only little
time for this prophecy yet to be fulfilled." .
Even as they taught it, however, members of the Governing Body of
debated replacing the doctrine with a
markedly different interpretation. In 1980 Albert Schroeder, Karl
Klein and Grant Suiter proposed moving the beginning of the
"generation" to the year 1957, to coincide with the year Sputnik
was launched. The proposal was rejected by
the rest of the Governing Body.
Despite its earlier description as being "beyond question", the
"generation of 1914" teaching was discarded in 1995. Rather than
being a literal lifespan of 70 to 80 years, the definition of a
"generation" was changed to “contemporary people of a certain
historical period, with their identifying characteristics” and thus
considered to be an unspecified amount of time. This class of
persons was described as "the peoples of earth who see the sign of
Christ's presence but fail to mend their ways". All reference to
1914 was dropped from the stated purpose of Awake!
magazine from the November 8, 1995 issue, with a new paragraph
explaining: "This magazine builds confidence in the Creator’s
promise of a peaceful and secure new world that is about to replace
the present, wicked, lawless system of things." The
insisted, however, that Armageddon was still
imminent, asking: "Does our more precise viewpoint on 'this
generation' mean that Armageddon is further away than we had
thought? Not at all!"
In 2008 the "generation" teaching was discarded yet again and the
term now refers to the "anointed" believers, some of whom will
still be alive on earth when the great tribulation begins.
Fall of Jerusalem
Jehovah's Witnesses assert that Jerusalem was destroyed by the
Babylonians in 607 BC and completely uninhabited for exactly 70
years. This date is critical to their selection of October 1914 for
the arrival of Christ in kingly power – 2520 years after 607 BC.
Non-Witness scholars do not support 607 BC for the event; most
scholars date the destruction to within a year of 587 BC, 20 years
later. Jehovah's Witnesses believe that periods of 70 years
mentioned in the books of Jeremiah and Daniel refer to the Jewish
In The Gentile Times Reconsidered: Chronology & Christ's
, Carl O. Jonsson, a former Witness himself, presents 18
lines of evidence to support the traditional view of neo-Babylonian
chronology. He accuses the Watch Tower Society of deliberately
misquoting sources in an effort to bolster their position.
, a Jehovah's Witness and a
lecturer in Semitic languages, presents a detailed study of 607 BC
in support of the Witnesses' conclusions in Assyrian,
Babylonian, Egyptian, and Persian Chronology Compared with the
Chronology of the Bible, Volume 1: Persian Chronology and the
Length of the Babylonian Exile of the Jews
. Of Furuli's study,
Lester L. Grabbe, professor of theology at the University of Hull,
responded: "Once again we have an amateur who wants to rewrite
scholarship. ... F. shows little evidence of having put his
theories to the test with specialists in Mesopotamian astronomy and
- “You Can Live Forever in Paradise on Earth”, Watch Tower Bible
& Tract Society, 1989, p. 155.
- “Revelation—Its Grand Climax at Hand!”, Watch Tower Bible &
Tract Society, 1988, p. 6.
- "The Strong Cable of Chronology", Watch Tower, July
- Watchtower, May 1, 1922.
- A full examination of these dates and claims, including copies
of the Watchtower articles, are contained in chapters 7 and 8 of
Crisis of Conscience (Commentary Press, fourth edition,
2007) by former Governing Body member Raymond Franz. A brief
coverage is contained in chapters 5 and 10 of Jehovah's
Witnesses – Proclaimers of God's Kingdom (Watch Tower Society,
- Jehovah's Witnesses – Proclaimers of God's Kingdom
(Watch Tower Society, 1993), chapter 10.
- “Revelation – Its Grand Climax at Hand” –1988 | 235-236 pars.
2-3 “Judging the Infamous Harlot” | . © Watch Tower Bible and Tract
Society of Pennsylvania
- “Revelation – Its Grand Climax at Hand”, Watch Tower Bible
& Tract Society, 1988, pp. 205-206.
- Watchtower, September 1, 1959, pp. 530-531 par.
- Armageddon—A Happy Beginning Jehovah's Witnesses
Official Web Site
- Watchtower, May 15, 2006, p 6.
- Insight on the Scriptures, Vol. 2, Watch Tower Bible
& Tract Society, 1988,p. 788.
- Watchtower, May 1, 2005, p. 20.
- Watchtower, August 15, 2006, p. 31
- Watchtower, February 1, 1996, p6.
- Pay Attention to Daniel’s Prophecy!, Watch Tower Bible
& Tract Society, 1999, p. 62.
- "Jesus’ Coming or Jesus’ Presence—Which?", Watchtower,
August 15, 1996, p. 12.
- All Scripture is Inspired of God, Watch Tower Bible
& Tract Society, 1990, pp. 278-284
- ”Why do Jehovah’s Witnesses say that God’s Kingdom was
established in 1914?”, Reasoning From the Scriptures,
Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1989, p. 95-96.
- The Truth That Leads to Eternal Life, Watch Tower
Bible & Tract Society, 1981, pg 86.
- True Peace and Security- How Can You Find It?, Watch
Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1986, pp 81-84.
- Matthew 24:3 ... And what shall be the sign of Your coming, and
of the end of the world?" (MKJV).
- Mat 24:14 And this gospel of the kingdom shall be proclaimed in
all the world as a witness to all nations. And then the end shall
- Watchtower, October 15, 2000, p11.
- Awake!, October 22, 1993, p. 11.
- What Does the Bible Really Teach?, page 216,
Watchtower Bible & Tract Society
- Let Your Kingdom Come", Appendix, page 187: "Business
tablets: Thousands of contemporary Neo-Babylonian cuneiform tablets
have been found that record simple business transactions, stating
the year of the Babylonian king when the transaction occurred.
Tablets of this sort have been found for all the years of reign for
the known Neo-Babylonian kings in the accepted chronology of the
period.", Watchtower Bible & Tract Society
- Let Your Kingdom Come, Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society
of Pennsylvania, 1981, pp. 186-189 Appendix to Chapter
- What Does The Bible Really Teach?, Watch Tower Bible
& Tract Society, 2005, pp. 217-218.
- Watchtower w04 1/15 p. 16
- Pay Attention to Daniel’s Prophecy!, Watch Tower Bible
and Tract Society of Pennsylvania, 2006, pp. 94,95.
- "Do You Recognize the Sign of Jesus’ Presence?",
Watchtower Society website.
- "A Century of Violence", Awake!, May 8, 2002, p.
- Revelation—Its Grand Climax at Hand!, Watch Tower
Bible & Tract Society, 1988, p. 56.
- Revelation—Its Grand Climax at Hand!, Watch Tower
Bible & Tract Society, 1988, pp. 259-260.
- Watchtower, January 15, 2008, p. 24.
- "Babylon the Great Indicted", Watchtower, April 15,
1989, page 23.
- “What Does The Bible Really Teach?”, Watch Tower Bible &
Tract Society, 2005, page 220.
- "Babylon the Great—Fallen and Judged", Watchtower, May
1, 1989, pages 3-7.
- “Revelation—Its Grand Climax at Hand!”, Watch Tower Bible &
Tract Society, 1988, page 256 par. 17.
- “No Peace for the False Messengers!” Watchtower, May
1, 1997, pp. 17-18 par. 17|"Shortly, 'crazed' members of the UN
will be maneuvered by Jehovah to turn on false religion, as
described at Revelation 17:16 ... This will mark the start of the
- “Deliverance at the Revelation of Jesus Christ”,
Watchtower, May 1, 1993, p. 24.
- Millennial Dawn (later retitled Studies in the
Scriptures), Volume 2, The Time is at Hand! p. 99: "In view of this
strong Bible evidence concerning the Times of the Gentiles, we
consider it an established truth..." The Watchtower, July 15, 1894, p. 1677|"We see no reason for
changing the figures — nor could we change them if we would. They
are, we believe, God’s dates, not ours. But bear in mind that the
end of 1914 is not the date for the beginning, but for the end of
the time of trouble."
- Zion’s Watch Tower and Herald of Christ’s Presence,
January 1908.|>“We do not even aver that there is no mistake in
our interpretation of prophesy and our calculations of chronology.
We have merely laid these before you, leaving it for each to
exercise his own faith or doubt in respect to them."
- Jehovah's Witnesses: Proclaimers of God's Kingdom,
Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1993, p.631-632
- The Watchtower, February 15, 1981, p. 19
- Evidences for the Coming of the Lord in 1873: or the
Midnight Cry, N.H. Barbour (1871). Available online at:
- The Midnight Cry and Herald of the
Morning, March 1874. See Section under "Our Faith."
- Present Truth, Or Meat in Due Season by
Wendell, pp. 34-35
- |"The writer, among many others now interested, was sound
asleep, in profound ignorance of the cry, etc., until 1876, when
being awakened he trimmed his lamp (for it is still very early in
the morning.) It showed him clearly that the Bridegroom had come
and that he is living "in the days of the Son of Man."
- Russell explained how he accepted the idea of an invisible
return of Christ from N.H. Barbour in "Harvest Gatherings and Siftings" in the July 15, 1906
Watch Tower, Reprints page 3822.
- The Three Worlds and The Harvest of This World by N.H.
Barbour and C.T. Russell (1877). Text available online at: http://www.heraldmag.org/olb/contents/history/3worlds.pdf
Scan of book in PDF format
- The Three Worlds, p. 175
- The Three Worlds, pp. 104-108
- See pages 68, 89-93, 124, 125-126, 143 of The Three
- The year 1914 was seen as the final end of the "day of wrath":
"...the 'times of the Gentiles,' reach from B.C. 606 to A.D. 1914,
or forty years beyond 1874. And the time of trouble, conquest of
the nations, and events connected with the day of wrath, have only
ample time, during the balance of this forty years, for their
fulfillment." The Three Worlds, p. 189.
- In 1935, the idea that the 6,000 years ran out in 1874 was
moved forward 100 years. .
- |"...showing that we are now in the last half of the 'harvest'
of the gospel age; and that it will terminate in A.D. 1881."
- |"Hence, the 'real rising again of Israel' can not begin until
the autumn of 1881, at which date, the presumption is, that the
gospel church will be taken away to meet the Lord."
- |"And from that time, or the autumn of 1881, the 91st Ps[alm]:
'He shall give his angels charge over thee,' etc., will begin to
have its fulfillment. From that time onward, we believe no one of
the company of the overcomers need die, even though they reach that
point tottering, as it were on the verge of the grave."
- |"Soon, probably by, probably before, the fall of 1881, we
shall be changed--born of the spirit [of which we are now begotten]
into the glorious likeness of our Head."
- |"The Watch Tower never claimed that the body of Christ will be
changed to spiritual beings during this year. There is such a
change due sometime. We have not attempted to say when, but have
repeatedly said that it could not take place before the fall of
1881...We have no desire to dogmatize nor to keep any one out, but
we believe (and therefore speak) that the favor which ends this
fall, is that of entering the Bride company ... To our
understanding it will be due at any time after October 2nd,
- . See also The Time is At Hand!, p. 235
- "This spuing out, or casting off, of the nominal church as an
organization in 1878, we then understood, and still proclaim, to be
the date of the commencement of Babylon's fall..."—Zion's Watch
Tower, April 1883. Reprints pp. 474-5
- Detailed in Thy Kingdom Come (1890), Volume 3 of
Millennial Dawn, later retitled Studies in the
Scriptures, p. 305-308.
- "Our understanding is that the open or general 'call' of this
age to kingdom honors ceased in October, 1881....we make a
distinction between the end of the 'call' and the closing of the
'door'; and believe that the door into the kingdom class is not yet
closed; that it stands ajar for a time..."
- Thy Kingdom Come, p. 364|"...this
date, 1910, indicated by the pyramid ... we may accept as correct
the testimony of the great pyramid, that the last members of the
body or bride’ of Christ will have been tested and accepted and
will have passed beyond the vail before the close of A.D.
- The New Creation, p.579|"According to our expectations
the stress of the great time of trouble will be on us soon,
somewhere between 1910 and 1912 — culminating with the end of the
'Times of the Gentiles,' October, 1914." (Later editions may read
- The Time is at Hand, pages 76-78. Post 1914 editions read differently-- 1917 edition.
- The Time is at Hand, 1915 ed., p. 99|"In view
of this strong Bible evidence concerning the Times of the Gentiles,
we consider it an established truth, that the final end of the
kingdoms of this world, and the full establishment of the Kingdom
of God, will be accomplished near the end of A.D. 1915. Then the
prayer of the church, ever since her Lord took his departure - 'Thy
kingdom come' - will be answered; and under that wise and just
administration, the whole earth will be filled with the glory of
the Lord" (Later editions have 1914 instead of 1915)
- Watch Tower, September 1, 1916|"Our eyes of
understanding should discern clearly the Battle of the Great Day of
God Almighty now in progress."
- September 1, 1916 Watch Tower, pages 264-265
- The Finished Mystery from Google Book
Search. Published in 1917 by the Watch Tower Society. It was
considered to be volume 7 of Studies in the Scriptures.
PDF version of The Finished Mystery.
Later editions read differently.
- The Finished Mystery, Watch Tower Bible
& Tract Society, 1917, Page 485|"Also, in the year 1918,
when God destroys the churches wholesale and the church members by
millions, it shall be that any that escape shall come to the works
of Pastor Russell to learn the meaning of the downfall of
- The Finished Mystery, Watch Tower Bible
& Tract Society, 1917,Pages 398-9|"The people who are the
strength of Christendom shall be cut off in the brief but terribly
eventful period beginning in 1918 A.D. A third part are 'burned
with fire in the midst of the city.' Fire symbolizes destruction
... After 1918 the people supporting churchianity will cease to be
its supporters, be destroyed as adherents, by the spiritual
pestilence of errors abroad, and by the famine of the Word of God
- See also the chart on page 594 and 595|"Entire destruction of nominal Christendom,
accomplished in 40 years after being cast off...A.D. 1918."
- The Finished Mystery, Watch Tower Bible
& Tract Society, 1917, Page 64. Page 177
- This was acknowledged by W.F. Hudgings (a member of the Board
of Directors for the Watch Tower Society) in a speech in 1919:
"There is no more reason why we should reject the Seventh Volume
because of some statements there about the ending of the war in
October, 1917, which did not come true, than there is that we
should throw Volume Two away because we weren't all glorified in
- The Finished Mystery, 1917 edition, p.258. 258. (This date is changed in later
- Page 89 from Google Book Version
- Millions Now Living Will Never Die, 1920, page
97.|"Based upon the argument heretofore set forth, then, that the
old order of things, the old world, is ending and is therefore
passing away, and that the new order is coming in, and that 1925
shall mark the resurrection of the faithful worthies of old and the
beginning of reconstruction, it is reasonable to conclude that
millions of people now on the earth will be still on the earth in
1925. Then, based upon the promises set forth in the divine Word,
we must reach the positive and indisputable conclusion that
millions now living will never die."
- The Marion Star, Marion, Ohio, April 9, 1921. The
Bridgeport Telegram, Bridgeport, Connecticut, December 4,
1920. Scans available at News Clippings from the "Millions Now Living Will
Never Die" Campaign (1919-1925)
- Watch Tower, September 1, 1922, p. 262|"The date 1925
is even more distinctly indicated by the Scriptures than
- Watch Tower May 15, 1922, p. 147, 150|"We have no
doubt whatever in regard to the chronology relating to the dates of
1874, 1914, 1918, and 1925 ... There can be no more question about
1925 than there was about 1914."
- The Way to Paradise, published 1924, pp.
215-254 The book was announced in the January 1, 1924 Watch
Tower and was written by W.E. Van Amburgh, a member of the
Watch Tower magazine's editorial committee, with an
introduction by J.F. Rutherford.
- |"During the World War millions were maimed and disfigured in
various ways, and many deprived of one or both arms or legs.
Because the Lord is now present, putting his kingdom into
operation, it is to be expected that many of these crippled and
maimed ones will be among the first to receive the restoration
blessings. As they come to a knowledge of the fact that the Lord is
giving these blessings, and render themselves in obedience to his
righteous rule, they will be thus blessed." This book was reissued
in 1928 as The Harp of God.
- Watch Tower, May 15, 1922, p. 150.|"Noting the date
marked so prominently, it is very easy for the finite mind to
conclude that all the work to be done must center about it, and
thus many are inclined to anticipate more than has been really
foretold. Thus it was in 1844, in 1874, in 1878 as well as in 1914
and 1918. Looking back we can now easily see that those dates were
clearly indicated in Scripture and doubtless intended by the Lord
to encourage his people, as they did, as well as to be a means of
testing and sifting when all that some expected did not come to
pass. That all that some expect to see in 1925 may not transpire
that year will not alter the date one whit more than in the other
- Annual Memorial attendances were 17,961 (1919), 32,661 (1922),
42,000 (1923) 62,696 (1924), 90,434 (1925), 89,278 (1926) and
17,380 (1928). There are no published statistics from 1929-1934. In
1935, Memorial attendance had increased again to 63,146. See also
Statistics were also published each year in the Watch
Tower up until 1926.
- |"There was a measure of disappointment on the part of
Jehovah’s faithful ones on earth concerning the years 1914, 1918,
and 1925, which disappointment lasted for a time. Later the
faithful learned that these dates were definitely fixed in the
Scriptures; and they also learned to quit fixing dates for the
future and predicting what would come to pass on a certain date,
but to rely (and they do rely) upon the Word of God as to the
events that must come to pass."
- Governing Body member Karl Klein wrote that Rutherford admitted
his mistake about 1925 to the headquarters staff: "Regarding his
misguided statements as to what we could expect in 1925, he once
confessed to us at Bethel, 'I made an ass of myself.'
- |"There is no promise that anyone will survive the battle of
the great day of God Almighty except those who are in the
organization of Jehovah under Christ, and who remain faithful and
true to the Lord."
- . Ibid., p. 320. Joseph Seiss’ book A Miracle in Stone was also influential for
- Photo Drama of Creation, p. 25. Video of Russell discussing the Great Pyramid
- Google Books Version
- Program of the 1921 Annual Meeting of the Watch Tower Bible
and Tract Society. The program explains: "The Pyramid monument
erected at the grave of Brother Russell was sketched by Brother
J.A. Bohnet and approved by Brother Russell several years ago. It
was his desire that such a monument be erected on this lot and he
set about to procure the materials before his death. After Brother
Russell's death, Brother Rutherford, learning that Brother Russell
had ordered the erection of this monument asked Brother Bohnet to
proceed at once to get the material and let the contract for its
construction and erection." See also pp. 6-7 of the 1919 Bible Student Convention Souvenir
- Pictures of the pyramid at Russell's gravesite can be viewed at
- The Edgars’ 2 volume work Great Pyramid Passages and Chambers
was advertised and sold in the Watch Tower ( August 1, 1910 Watch Tower, Reprints,
p. 4658; October 15, 1913 Watch Tower, page
306, Reprints p. 5336). Research by the Edgars on the Great Pyramid
was published in the November 15, 1904 Watch Tower,
Reprints, p. 3459, the June 15, 1905 Watch Tower,
Reprints, p. 3574 and the June 1, 1910 Watch Tower,
Reprints, p. 4621. John Edgar was named to be on the editorial
committee for the Watch Tower magazine in the December 1,
1916 Watch Tower, (Reprints p. 5999), but had died before
Russell. Research by Morton Edgar was published in the August 15,
1923 Watch Tower, pp. 253-254, the December 31, 1924
Golden Age, pp. 209-211 and on pp. 163, 355, 357 of the
1923 Watch Tower. Morton Edgar explained the spiritual
meaning of the Great Pyramid in "God's Plan of Salvation in the
Great Pyramid," a lecture which was published in the 1911 Bible Students Convention
- Thy Kingdom Come (1904 edition — Millennial Dawn, vol 3)
- Thy Kingdom Come (copyright 1891) (1910 edition -- Studies In
The Scriptures, vol. 3) p.342
- In Volume 2 of Great Pyramid Passages and Chambers
(1913) they said: “Professor C. Piazzi Smyth very properly says,
`no two human measures ever agree exactly.'” (Ibid p.1) According
to the Edgars, Professor Smyth (from whom Russell gained his
information) had not personally measured this passage since it was
blocked. It had been roughly measured in 1837 by Col Howard Vyse,
but the Edgars personally measured “the length of this passage
seven times” and ended up with seven different measurements, though
within a few inches. (Ibid p.8 ) In answering a question about
different measurements of the pyramid, The Watchtower
stated “that Prof. Smyth's interest centered in the upper chambers
of the Pyramid ... Much less care and precision [were] manifested
in his dealings with all other parts”. ( The Watchtower November 1904 p. 326 “The
Great Pyramid Measurements”)
- |"For many years students of the Word believed that the
foretold destruction of "Babylon the Great" would begin in 1914-
1915 AD., the date marked by the upper terminal of the Grand
Gallery. Nor have their expectations been disappointed; for
although the "Great Time of Trouble" covers a longer period than
was thought possible, this trouble which is to end Christendom is
manifestly now in progress; and it began precisely at the date
expected. Beginning with 1914 A.D. in the great World War in which
most of the mightiest 'Christian' nations were actively engaged,
Christendom, called in the Scriptures Babylon the Great, received a
blow from which it can never recover. The old evil order began to
pass away in 1914 A.D." See also .
- Morton Edgar, on page 151 of the 1924 edition of the second
volume of Great Pyramid Passages, refers to
Judge Rutherford's booklet Millions Now Living Will Never
Die as a "wonderful message of life."
- The last favorable reference to the Great Pyramid in Watch
Tower publications can be found in the April 15, 1928
Watchtower, p. 125. Pyramidology was first rejected in the
November 15, 1928 Watchtower: "It is more reasonable to
conclude that the great pyramid of Gizeh, as well as the other
pyramids thereabout, also the sphinx, were built by the rulers of
Egypt and under the direction of Satan the Devil...The Devil, by
the use of the descendants of Ham, set up Egypt, or the land of
Ham, as the first great world power. Then Satan put his knowledge
in dead stone, which may be called Satan’s Bible, and not God’s
stone witness. In erecting the pyramid, of course, Satan would put
in it some truth, because that is his method of practising fraud
and deceit." (November 15, 1928 Watch Tower, p. 344)
- Jehovah's Witnesses — Proclaimers of God's Kingdom,
Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1993, pp. 138-9.
- The Harp of God (both the 1921 and 1927 editions)
affirmed on page 231 that "the Lord’s second presence dates from
1874." The March 1, 1922 Watch Tower and pages 65-66 of
the book Prophecy (published in 1928) reiterated this
position. However, by 1930 some vagueness can be seen. For example,
the October 15, 1930 Watch Tower, page 308, says the
"second advent of the Lord Jesus Christ dates from about A.D.
1875." The November 1, 1932 Watch Tower, page 325 is even
less precise, stating that from "approximately 1875 forward" Christ
was preparing the way.
- Watch Tower, December 1 1933, p. 362.
- Golden Age, March 14, 1934, p. 380.
- Light, Book One, Watch Tower Bible & Tract
Society, 1930, p. 78.|"In June, 1927, the Watch Tower published the
proof from the Scriptures that those who thus died faithful were
asleep in death until the coming of the Lord to his temple in
- Light, Book One, Watch Tower Bible & Tract
Society, p. 333.
- Light, Book One, p. 318-319.
- Watchtower, September 1, 1969 Watchtower, p.
- Time magazine, March 31, 1930, p. 60. Scan of article.
- July 25, 1931 Messenger, pages
- Google Maps Street View of Beth Sarim
- The title deed to Beth Sarim was published in the March 19,
1930 Golden Age, pages 496- 497Interview with Rutherford about Beth Sarim, from
the San Diego Sun newspaper, March 1930. http://www.bibletopics.com/biblestudy/89a.htm
- Jehovah's Witnesses in the Divine Purpose, Watch Tower
Bible & Tract Society, 1959, p. 252.
- Universal War Near, Watch Tower Bible & Tract
Society, 1935.|"Universal war is absolutely certain to come and
that soon, and no power can stop it ... during the few remaining
months until the breaking of that universal cataclysm."
- Watchtower 15 September 1941 p. 288.
- Watchtower, April 1942, p.139.
- November 1 1938 Watchtower, p. 323.|"If in obedience
to the divine command the Jonadabs or great multitude will marry
and rear children after Armageddon, would it not be Scripturally
proper for them to begin doing so immediately before Armageddon?
and should the Jonadabs now be encouraged to marry and rear
children? No, is the answer, supported by the Scriptures."
- |"There are now on earth Jonadabs devoted to the Lord and who
doubtless will prove faithful. Would it be Scripturally proper for
them to now marry and to begin to rear children? No, is the answer,
which is supported by the Scriptures."
- 1943 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, Daily Texts and
Comments for November 7. The fictional sweethearts of
Children, John and Eunice, defer marriage "until lasting
peace comes to the earth" while hoping "that within a few years our
marriage may be consummated."
- |"Since the carrying out of the command to 'be fruitful,
multiply, fill the earth' waits until after Armageddon, does that
mean that those who now marry and rear children are violating God’s
laws? No, for the Scriptures show that 'marriage is honourable in
- and .
- Public Address by District Overseer Charles Sunutko in Spring
1967 in Sheboygan, Wisconsin. Mp3 of Lecture by Sinutko
- The Approaching Peace of a Thousand Years. The
booklet's beginning emphasizes the nearness of these blessings:
"Undisturbed peace with health, happiness and freedom from fear
is on the divine program for humankind on earth. Reliable evidences
indicate that it will begin within this generation! We do not want
to keep this gladsome information to ourselves, and so in this
booklet we pass it on to you."
- Awake!, May 22, 1969, p.15|"You also need to face the
fact that you will never grow old in this present system of things
... All the evidence in fulfillment of Bible prophecy indicates
that this corrupt system is due to end in a few years ...
Therefore, as a young person, you will never fulfill any career
that this system offers. If you are in high school and thinking
about a college education, it means at least four, perhaps even six
or eight more years to graduate into a specialized career. But
where will this system of things be by that time? It will be well
on the way towards its finish, if not actually gone! This is why
parents who base their lives on God's prophetic Word find it much
more practical to direct their young ones into trades that do not
require such long periods of additional schooling."
- http://www.jwfiles.com/scans/KM5-1974p3.htm "How Are You
Using Your Life?", Our Kingdom Ministry, May 1974
- Sound clip of lecture "What is the Significance of 1975?" by
Governing Body Member Fred Franz. http://www.freeminds.org/media/fredfranz75an.html.
Mp3 of complete lecture
- Crisis of Conscience, Raymond Franz p. 249. Scan
available at http://web.archive.org/web/20031209184316/http://users.volja.net/izobcenec4/coc/9.pdf
- Time magazine archive "Witnessing the End", July
18, 1969 Time Scan of article|"The Witnesses have what they believe
is Scriptural proof that the end is coming. For one thing, their
interpretation of Biblical chronology reveals that Adam and Eve
were created in the autumn of 4026 B.C., or 5994 years ago. Linking
6000 years to the six days of God's creation, they believe it
fitting that there be a sabbath-like rest thereafter, beginning in
1975—though Witnesses cautiously avoid a flat prediction linked to
that year." See also The Arizona Republic August 24, 1969
and the July 11, 1977 Time
- Watchtower, July 15, 1976, p.441
- 1980 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, p. 30
- "Defectors Feel 'Witness' Wrath: Critics say Baptism Rise Gives
False Picture of Growth" by John Dart, Los Angeles Times,
January 30, 1982, p. B4)
- Watchtower, May 1, 1985, p.4.
- Watchtower, May 15, 1984
- |“A generation, according to Psalm 90:10, is from seventy to
eighty years. The generation that witnessed the end of the Gentile
Times in 1914 does not have many more years left.”
- |“The expression 'this generation' was used by Jesus to mark a
very limited period of time, the life-span of members of a
generation of people living during the time that certain
epoch-making events occurred. According to Psalm 90:10, that
life-span could be of seventy years or even of eighty years.”
- |"'Truly I say to you that this generation will by no means
pass away until all these things occur.' (Matt. 24:34, NW) The
actual meaning of these words is, beyond question, that which takes
a 'generation' in the ordinary sense, as at Mark 8:12 and Acts
13:36, or for those who are living at the given period ... This
therefore means that from 1914 a generation shall not pass till all
is fulfilled, and amidst a great time of trouble."
- Watchtower, May 1, 1985, p.7.
- Crisis of Conscience, Raymond Franz p. 262. Scan
available at http://web.archive.org/web/20031210004130/users.volja.net/izobcenec4/coc/10.pdf
accessed January 27, 2006.
- "Saved From a 'Wicked Generation'", The Watchtower
(November 1) 1995, pp. 10-15.
- "A Time To Keep Awake", The Watchtower, November 1,
1995, p. 19 par. 12, and p. 20 par. 15.
- Watchtower, February 15, 2008, pages 23-24|"As a class, these
anointed ones make up the modern-day "generation" of contemporaries
that will not pass away "until all these things occur."* This
suggests that some who are Christ's anointed brothers will still be
alive on earth when the foretold great tribulation begins."
- Pay Attention to Daniel's Prophecy! chap. 6 par.
- Edmond C. Gruss, Jehovah's Witnesses and Prophetic
Speculation, Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co, 1972,
ISBN 0875523064 Page 42.
- The Gentile Times Reconsidered: Chronology &
Christ's Return by Carl O. Jonsson. ISBN 0-914675-06-0
Publisher: Commentary Press (July, 1998, Fourth edition 2004)
- Assyrian, Babylonian, Egyptian, and Persian Chronology Compared
with the Chronology of the Bible, Volume 1: Persian Chronology and
the Length of the Babylonian Exile of the Jews (2003) ISBN
- Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 28:5
, p. 42-43
Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses
James Penton, professor emeritus in the Department of History at
the University of Lethbridge and former Jehovah's Witness ISBN