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The eschatology of Jehovah's Witnesses is central to their religious beliefs. They believe that Jesus Christ has been ruling in heaven as king since 1914 (a date they believe was prophesied in Scripture), and that after that time a period of cleansing occurred, resulting in God's selection of the Bible Students associated with Charles Taze Russell to be his people in 1919. They also believe the destruction of those who reject their message and thus willfully refuse to obey God will shortly take place at Armageddon, ensuring that the beginning of the new earthly society will be composed of willing subjects of that kingdom.

The religion's doctrines surrounding 1914 are the legacy of a series of emphatic claims regarding the years 1799, 1874, 1878, 1914, 1918 and 1925 made by Watch Tower Society founder Charles Taze Russell and the organization's publications between 1879 and 1924. Claims by the religion about the significance of those years, including the presence of Jesus Christ, the beginning of the "last days", the destruction of worldly governments and the earthly resurrection of Jewish patriarchs, were successively abandoned when it became apparent the dates were wrong. The Watchtower had described its chronology as "of divine origin and divinely corroborated ... absolutely and unqualifiedly correct" and that a repudiation of Russell's teachings was "equivalent to a repudiation of the Lord". The Watch Tower Society has admitted its early leaders promoted "incomplete, even inaccurate concepts".

Current beliefs

Jehovah's Witnesses teach the imminent end of this current world society, or "system of things" by God's judgment, leading to deliverance for the saved. This judgment will begin with false religion, which they identify as the “harlot,” Babylon the Great, referred to in the Book of Revelation. They apply this designation to all other religions.Jehovah's Witnesses are told not to put their expectations to one given date, and that various events will lead up to the end of this "system of things", culminating in Armageddon. Armageddon is understood to include the destruction of all earthly governments by God. After Armageddon, God will extend his heavenly kingdom to include earth.

After Armageddon, based on scriptures such as John 5:28, 29, they believe people in the graves will gradually be resurrected to a "day of judgment" lasting for the thousand years referred to in Revelation 20. This judgment will be based on their actions after resurrection, not on past deeds. At the end of the thousand years a final test will take place when Satan is brought back to mislead perfect mankind. The end result will be a fully tested, glorified human race.

Presence of Christ Jesus

Watch Tower Society publications currently teach that Christ Jesus returned invisibly and began to rule in heaven as king in October 1914. They claim the beginning of Christ's heavenly rule would seem worse initially for mankind because it starts with the casting out of Satan from heaven to the earth, which according to Revelation 12, would bring a brief period of "woe" to mankind. But this woe will be reversed when Christ finally comes to destroy Satan's earthly organization, throwing Satan into the abyss and extend God's Kingdom rule over the earth in which Jesus reigns as God's appointed king. They believe the Greek word parousia (usually translated as "coming") is more accurately understood as "presence," perceived only by a series of "signs". Thus this Second Coming would be an invisible presence, lasting for an extended time.

Witnesses base their beliefs about the significance of 1914 on the Watch Tower Society's interpretation of biblical chronology. They believe this to be reinforced by world events since 1914, which they see as fulfillment of the "sign" of Christ's presence for all to see. An example of this sign is said to be the world wars which they say fulfills Christ's statement in answer to a request for a sign. They believe that their preaching is part of that sign. To support this they point to Matthew 24:14, which says "And this gospel of the kingdom shall be proclaimed in all the world as a witness to all nations. And then the end shall come." (MKJV)

Their interpretation of Bible chronology is hinged on their assertion that the Babylonian captivity and destruction of Jerusalem occurred in 607 BCE. Secular historians date the event of Jerualem's destruction to within a year of 587 BC. The Witnesses alternative chronology produces a 20-year gap somewhere between the reigns of Neo-Babylonian Kings Amel-Marduk (rule ended 560BC) and Nabonidus (rule began 555BC) in addition to the intervening reigns of Neriglissar and Labashi-Marduk, despite the availability of contiguous cuneiform records.

They believe that Daniel chapter 4 prophesied a period of 2,520 years starting with 607 BCE and ending at 1914 CE. Non-Witness sources date Jerusalem's destruction to 587/586 BCE, some 20 years later. They equate this period with the "Gentile Times" or "the appointed times of the nations," a phrase taken from Luke 21:24. They believe that when the Babylonians conquered Jerusalem, the line of kings descended from David was interrupted, and that God's throne was "trampled on" from then until Jesus began ruling in October 1914.

They claim that after the war of Armageddon, Jesus will rule as Earth's king for 1000 years after which he hands all authority back to Jehovah.

Sign of Last Days

Jehovah's Witnesses teach that since October 1914, humanity has been living in a period of intense increased trouble known as "the last days," marked by war, disease, famine, earthquakes, lack of love, the progressive degeneration of morality worldwide, and the preaching work done by Jehovah's Witnesses. They claim that various calamities in the modern world constitute proof of these beliefs, such as the fighting of World War I in August 1914, the outbreak of Spanish flu in May 1918, the onset of World War II in 1939, and more recently, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.

Judgment of Religion and Selection of True Followers

Jehovah's Witnesses believe 1918 to be the time when Christ Jesus judged all world religions claiming to be Christian.Watch Tower Society publications teach that after a period of 18 months, among all groups and religions claiming to represent Christ, only the "Bible Students" (who became known as Jehovah's Witnesses in 1931) met God's approval.Watch Tower Society publications claim that the world's religions in general have misrepresented God, and filled the world with hatred. They identify "Babylon The Great" and the "mother of the harlots," referred to in Revelation 17:3-6 as the "world empire of false religion"

During the final great tribulation, all the world's religions, except the "true" one, will be destroyed by "crazed" member governments of the United Nations, acting under the direction of Jehovah. Witness publications identify the United Nations as the "beast" to whom the "ten kings" of Revelation 17:12,13 give their "power and authority."

History of eschatology

From the earliest writings of Charles Taze Russell, Watch Tower eschatology has undergone changes, mostly surrounding the dates 1874, 1914, 1918, and 1925. Although publications assured readers the interpretations were based on Scripture and were therefore reliable, they have also renounced any claim to infallibility with regard to their interpretations. Watch Tower publications have admitted their interpretations have at times been wrong and needed correction.

Early Expectations 1871-1881

The Second Adventists affiliated with Nelson H. Barbour expected a visible and dramatic return of Christ in 1873, and later in 1874. They agreed with other Adventist groups that the "time of the end" (also called the "last days") had started in 1799. Soon after the 1874 disappointment, Barbour's group decided Christ had returned to the earth in 1874, but invisibly. Writing in his journal The Herald of the Morning in 1875, Barbour outlined his eschatological views and connected the years 1874, 1878, 1881, and 1914. The "harvest" was to run from 1874 to the spring of 1878, concluding with "the translation of the living saints into the air". 1881 would mark when the Jews would be restored to Palestine and the time from 1881 until 1914 would see the set-up of the Kingdom of God on earth. Barbour wrote:

Charles Taze Russell entered fellowship with Barbour in 1876 and accepted Barbour's eschatological understanding. In 1877, Barbour and Russell jointly issued the book The Three Worlds, which reiterated Barbour's earlier teachings. It proclaimed Christ's invisible return in 1874, the resurrection of the saints in 1875, and predicted the end of the "harvest" and a rapture of the saints to heaven for 1878 and thefinal end of "the day of wrath" in 1914. 1874 was considered the end of 6000 years of human history and the beginning of judgment by Christ.

When none of the events predicted for 1878 took place, Russell admitted they "felt somewhat disappointed; yet we did not for a moment feel cast down". The 1878 date had been based on a 3½-year parallel time period from the autumn of 1874 to the spring of 1878, which was viewed as the "Harvest". Russell explained that they now realized there would be an additional 3½-year period "making the harvest seven years long". Successive issues of The Herald of the Morning identified the autumn of 1881 as the end of the "Harvest" and the likely time for the translation of the Church to heaven. A theological disagreement over the nature of the Atonement prompted Russell to break fellowship with Barbour and begin publishing Zion's Watch Tower in July, 1879. Initially, the Watch Tower held to the 1881 date as the probable time for the Church's translation – with the "saints" remaining on earth with visible bodies, living as materialized spirit bodies – but by May 1881 Russell was claiming he had never predicted the rapture to take place that year; the expectations were now only that the opportunity to be part of the Bride of Christ would end about October 2, 1881.

"The Time Is At Hand" 1881-1918

Early Watch Tower publications cited "the testimony of the Great Pyramid" for expectations for 1910 and 1914.
Barbour's basic eschatology was retained by Russell after they parted company, with some minor refinements. Basing his interpretations on a concept of parallel "dispensations," Russell taught that while Jesus was invisibly present here on earth he was also made its King in 1878. He claimed God had rejected the "nominal Church" (considered to be "Babylon the Great") in 1878. Russell also taught that in 1878 Christ resurrected all the "dead in Christ" as spirit beings to be with him on earth awaiting a future glorification to heaven. (As each of the remainder of the 144,000 would die after 1878, Christ would resurrect them as spirit beings to join those already resurrected.) Together with Christ on earth, these invisible resurrected spirit beings were said to be engaged in directing a harvest work (running from 1874-1914) gathering the remainder of those with the heavenly calling. Russell later moderated his view about the significance of 1881, stating that the "door" for the gathering of the Bride of Christ "stands ajar."

He wrote that the culmination of Armageddon would occur in 1914, preceded by the gathering of all the saints (both resurrected and living) to heaven. Based on measurements from the Great Pyramid of Gizehmarker, this "passing beyond the vail" or rapture was expected "before the close of A.D. 1910." Russell enumerated seven expectations for 1914 in The Time is at Hand, providing biblical evidence that the "lease of dominion" over earth by Gentiles would end in 1914, "and that date will be the farthest limit of the rule of imperfect men. He wrote that:

(1) In 1914 the Kingdom of God would obtain full, universal control over earth "on the ruins of present institutions";

(2) Christ would then be present as earth’s new Ruler;

(3) Some time before the end of 1914 the last member of the "royal priesthood, the body of Christ" would be glorified with Christ;

(4) Fom 1914 Jerusalem would no longer "be trodden down by the Gentiles";

(5) From that date, "Israel’s blindness will begin to be turned away";

(6) In 1914 the great "time of trouble" would reach its culmination in a worldwide reign of anarchy;

(7) Before that date God’s Kingdom would "smite and crush the Gentile image - and fully consume the power of these kings".

At first the hopes for 1914 were stretched to "near the end of A.D. 1915." A few months before his death in October 1916, Russell wrote: "We believe that the dates have proven to be quite right. We believe that Gentile Times have ended...The Lord did not say that the Church would all be glorified by 1914. We merely inferred it, and, evidently, erred." He expected the war in Europe to be the beginning of Armageddon and the destruction of the "nominal Church" to take place in April 1918.

Following Russell's lead, the book The Finished Mystery emphasized events for 1918. The destruction of the churches of Christendom and the deaths of "church members by the millions" was expected in 1918.
The Finished Mystery proposed the spring of 1918 for the glorification of the Church and suggested the day of this "deliverance" as possibly being Passover day of 1918. First printings of The Finished Mystery predicted the end of the World War "some time about October 1, 1917," but this was changed in subsequent editions. It also predicted the destruction of governments in 1920.

"Millions Now Living Will Never Die!" 1918-1925

The "Millions" booklet written by Judge Rutherford in 1920
The predictions for 1920 were discarded even before that year arrived in favor of a new chronology. In 1918-1919, Joseph Franklin Rutherford, second president of the Watch Tower Society, inaugurated a worldwide lecture series entitled "Millions Now Living Will Never Die." The lecture was produced in booklet form and translated into 31 languages, with 3.3 million copies distributed in its first year of publication. Its basic message was a re-interpretation of the significance of the year 1914 (now seen as the beginning of the "great tribulation") and new predictions for 1925. Expected by 1925 was the resurrection of the biblical patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and other Old Testament personages (referred to as "princes") and the beginnings of a new world where death would cease and the dead would be resurrected to an earthly paradise.

With the return of these "princes" a new order would begin. This would mean that millions of people alive at that time would be able to live forever. Newspaper advertisements for the "Millions" lecture localized the claim, with a typical declaration in a Marion, Ohiomarker newspaper reading: "It will be conclusively proved...that thousands now living in Marion and vicinity will never die."

The Watch Tower described the evidence for the chronology surrounding 1925 as stronger than that for 1914 and was emphasized strongly in the children's book The Way to Paradise. The 1921 book The Harp of God: Proof Conclusive That Millions Now Living Will Never Die predicted that "maimed and disfigured" victims of World War I would be among the "first to receive restoration blessings." Though claiming that 1925 would be among the dates "stamped with God's approval", the Watch Tower acknowledged earlier disappointments surrounding predictions for 1874, 1878, 1914 and 1918 and cautioned that "all that some expect to see in 1925 may not transpire that year". It said the expectations could be "a means of testing and sifting."

When 1925 also passed uneventfully, meeting attendance among the Bible Students dropped dramatically in some congregations in France and Switzerland. Attendance at the annual Memorial, which had been steadily increasing since 1919, also plummeted, dropping from 90,434 in 1925 to 17,380 in 1928.

As late as 1931 it was claimed 1925 was a year "fixed in the Scriptures", but by 1936 the idea that millions of the general populace would survive Armageddon to be educated in a new world was discarded and replaced with the view that only members of God's "organization" would survive God's final war.

Great Pyramid of Giza 1876-1928

John Edgar measuring the portal between the Subterranean Chamber and the Descending Corridor in the Great Pyramid of Egypt in 1909
Influenced by the Pyramidology theories of John Taylor and Charles Piazzi Smyth, both Nelson Barbour and Charles Russell taught that the Great Pyramid of Gizamarker contained prophetic measurements in "pyramid inches" that pointed to both 1874 and 1914. Russell viewed the Great Pyramid as "God's Stone Witness and Prophet". Smyth reviewed Russell’s manuscript on the Great Pyramid before publication and Russell credited him and Scottish writer Robert Menzies for the view “that the Great Pyramid is Jehovah's ‘Witness,’ and that it was as important a witness to divine truth as to natural science.” Prophetic dates derived from the measurements inside the Great Pyramid were seen as complementary to biblical interpretations. Russell included the Great Pyramid as part of his film and color slide production The Photo-Drama of Creation in 1914, suggesting that the Great Pyramid was built by the Old Testament king-priest Melchizedek. A special edition of the first volume of Studies in the Scriptures was also published, which was re-titled The Divine Plan of the Ages and the Corroborative Testimony of the Great Pyramid. In accordance with Russell's wishes, a high replica of a pyramid was erected at his gravesite in Pittsburghmarker, Pennsylvaniamarker with its capstone "patterned after the capstone of the Great Pyramid of Egypt, symbolic of the Christ."

Russell’s interpretations of the Great Pyramid were supported by the writings of John and Morton Edgar who were prominent members of his movement. Russell had first published that the date 1874 was derived from a measurement of 3416 pyramid inches, but the measurement was revised in the 1910 edition to to point to 1915. The Edgars explained the revision in measurement and change in date was a result of errors made by Smyth.
In the early 1920s, the significance of the Pyramid predictions for 1914 were re-interpreted to mean that "the old evil order began to pass away in 1914". A 1924 issue of Golden Age referred to the Great Pyramid as "the Scientific Bible" and added that measurements on the Grand Gallery inside the Great Pyramid confirmed the dates 1874, 1914 and 1925. Similarly, the 1924 publication The Way to Paradise refers to the Great Pyramid as "the Bible in Stone" and concludes:

The idea that the Great Pyramid contained a prophetic blueprint of biblical chronology was rejected in 1928 with the Great Pyramid being seen as built "under the direction of Satan the Devil."

"Armageddon Immediately Before Us" 1925-1966

1925-1933, the Watch Tower Society, under Rutherford's leadership, radically changed much of its chronologies after the failure of these eschatological expectations. In March 1925, the Watch Tower declared that Christ had been enthroned as King in heaven in 1914, not 1878; 1874 remained the date of Christ's invisible return until this, too, was abandoned in the early 1930s. Christ's Second Advent was newly explained as a "turning of attention" to the earth, with Christ remaining in heaven – a departure from the earlier teaching of a literal return to earth. By 1933, it was clearly taught that Christ had returned invisibly in 1914 and the "last days" had also begun then. A 1927 Watch Tower had already transferred the timing of the resurrection of the "saints" from 1878 to 1918, explaining that they would be raised as spirit creatures to heavenly life to be with Christ there. The judgment on Babylon changed from 1878 to 1919 with the publication of the book Light in 1930. The idea that the "great tribulation" had begun in 1914 and was "cut short" in 1918 to be resumed at Armageddon was dropped in 1969.

In 1930, Rutherford took up residence in a "Spanish mansion" in California which he called Beth Sarimmarker, meaning, "House of the Princes". It was held in trust for the ancient biblical "princes" who were expected to be resurrected immediately prior to Armageddon. Rutherford spent the winter months at Beth Sarim and died there in January, 1942. The belief that those Old Testament "princes" would be resurrected before Armageddon was abandoned in 1950.

In the mid-1930s and early 1940s, Watch Tower publications placed emphasis on the imminence of Armageddon, said to be "months" away and "immediately before us". Publications also urged converts to remain single and childless because it was "immediately before Armageddon" Young Witnesses were counselled in 1943: "It is better and wiser for those of the Lord's 'other sheep' who hope to survive Armageddon and be given the divine mandate to fill the earth with a righteous offspring to defer matters until after the tribulation and destruction of Armageddon is past." This view was discarded in 1950.

"Looking Forward to 1975" 1966-1975

Convention badge from Circuit Assembly, circa 1970
During the 1960s and early 1970s, many Witnesses were stimulated by articles in their literature and further encouraged by speakers at their assemblies to believe that Armageddon and Christ's thousand-year millennial reign could begin by 1975. Strong statements for 1975 appeared, only sometimes accompanied with cautionary remarks. The booklet The Approaching Peace of a Thousand Years, which was the text of the keynote address to major assemblies of Jehovah's Witnesses throughout the world in 1969, stated enthusiastically about that promised reign (which would begin at "God's fixed time"):

In 1968, a Watchtower article asked: "Why Are You Looking Forward to 1975?":

Young Witnesses were advised in 1969 to avoid careers requiring lengthy periods of schooling and a 1974 issue of the Kingdom Ministry newsletter commended Witnesses who had sold their homes and property to engage in fulltime preaching, adding: "Certainly this is a fine way to spend the short time remaining before the wicked world's end."

In a lecture in early 1975 then Vice-President Fred Franz pinpointed after sundown on September 5, 1975 as the end of 6000 years, but cautioned that although all the prophecies "could happen" by then, it looked improbable. After 1975 passed without any sign of the expected paradise, the Watchtower described as "unwise" the actions of some Witnesses who had made radical changes in their lives, commenting: "It may be that some who have been serving God have planned their lives according to a mistaken view of just what was to happen on a certain date or in a certain year. They may have, for this reason, put off or neglected things that they otherwise would have cared for ... But it is not advisable for us to set our sights on a certain date, neglecting everyday things we would ordinarily care for as Christians, such as things that we and our families really need." In 1979, in a lecture entitled "Choosing the Best Way of Life", the Watch Tower Society acknowledged responsibility for much of the disappointment around 1975 and the following year a Watchtower article admitted the leaders of Jehovah's Witnesses had erred in "setting dates for the desired liberation from the suffering and troubles that are the lot of persons throughout the earth". It admitted statements in the Life Everlasting book (1966) had led to "considerable expectation" for 1975, with subsequent statements "that implied that such realization of hopes by that year was more of a probability than a mere possibility. It is to be regretted that these latter statements apparently overshadowed the cautionary ones and contributed to a buildup of the expectation already initiated".

Baptism statistics compared with the number of those reporting preaching for 1976-1980 showed that many became inactive during that period.

The "generation of 1914", 1976-

After the passing of 1975, the Watch Tower Society continued to emphasize the teaching that God would execute his judgment on humankind before the generation of people who had witnessed the events of 1914 had all died. This teaching was based on an interpretation of Matthew 24:34 ("Truly I say to you that this generation will by no means pass away until all these things occur"), with the term "a generation" said to refer "beyond question" to a generation living in a given period.

The term had been used with regard to the nearness of Armageddon from the 1940s, when the view was that "a generation" covered a period of about 30 to 40 years. As the 40-year deadline passed without Armageddon occurring, the definition of "a generation" underwent a series of changes: in 1952 it was said for the first time to mean an entire lifetime, possibly 80 years or more; in 1968 it was applied to those who had been at least 15 years old in 1914 and therefore "old enough to witness with understanding what took place when the 'last days' began" (italics theirs); in 1980 the starting date for that "generation" was brought into the 20th century when the term was applied to those who had been born in 1904 and therefore aged 10 and able simply "to observe" when World War I had begun. The Watchtower commented: "The fact that their number is dwindling is one more indication that “the conclusion of the system of things” is moving fast toward its end."

From 1982 to 1995 the inside cover of every Awake! magazine included in its statement of purpose a reference to the “generation of 1914” belief, acknowledging “the Creator’s promise ... of a peaceful and secure new world before the generation that saw the events of 1914 passes away". In 1985 Witnesses were reminded: "The 1914 generation is well into the evening of its existence, thus allowing only little time for this prophecy yet to be fulfilled." .

Even as they taught it, however, members of the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses debated replacing the doctrine with a markedly different interpretation. In 1980 Albert Schroeder, Karl Klein and Grant Suiter proposed moving the beginning of the "generation" to the year 1957, to coincide with the year Sputnik was launched. The proposal was rejected by the rest of the Governing Body.

Despite its earlier description as being "beyond question", the "generation of 1914" teaching was discarded in 1995. Rather than being a literal lifespan of 70 to 80 years, the definition of a "generation" was changed to “contemporary people of a certain historical period, with their identifying characteristics” and thus considered to be an unspecified amount of time. This class of persons was described as "the peoples of earth who see the sign of Christ's presence but fail to mend their ways". All reference to 1914 was dropped from the stated purpose of Awake! magazine from the November 8, 1995 issue, with a new paragraph explaining: "This magazine builds confidence in the Creator’s promise of a peaceful and secure new world that is about to replace the present, wicked, lawless system of things." The Watchtower insisted, however, that Armageddon was still imminent, asking: "Does our more precise viewpoint on 'this generation' mean that Armageddon is further away than we had thought? Not at all!"

In 2008 the "generation" teaching was discarded yet again and the term now refers to the "anointed" believers, some of whom will still be alive on earth when the great tribulation begins.


Fall of Jerusalem

Jehovah's Witnesses assert that Jerusalem was destroyed by the Babylonians in 607 BC and completely uninhabited for exactly 70 years. This date is critical to their selection of October 1914 for the arrival of Christ in kingly power – 2520 years after 607 BC. Non-Witness scholars do not support 607 BC for the event; most scholars date the destruction to within a year of 587 BC, 20 years later. Jehovah's Witnesses believe that periods of 70 years mentioned in the books of Jeremiah and Daniel refer to the Jewish exile.

In The Gentile Times Reconsidered: Chronology & Christ's Return, Carl O. Jonsson, a former Witness himself, presents 18 lines of evidence to support the traditional view of neo-Babylonian chronology. He accuses the Watch Tower Society of deliberately misquoting sources in an effort to bolster their position.

Rolf Furuli, a Jehovah's Witness and a lecturer in Semitic languages, presents a detailed study of 607 BC in support of the Witnesses' conclusions in Assyrian, Babylonian, Egyptian, and Persian Chronology Compared with the Chronology of the Bible, Volume 1: Persian Chronology and the Length of the Babylonian Exile of the Jews. Of Furuli's study, Lester L. Grabbe, professor of theology at the University of Hull, responded: "Once again we have an amateur who wants to rewrite scholarship. ... F. shows little evidence of having put his theories to the test with specialists in Mesopotamian astronomy and Persian history."


  1. “You Can Live Forever in Paradise on Earth”, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1989, p. 155.
  2. “Revelation—Its Grand Climax at Hand!”, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1988, p. 6.
  3. "The Strong Cable of Chronology", Watch Tower, July 15, 1922.
  4. Watchtower, May 1, 1922.
  5. A full examination of these dates and claims, including copies of the Watchtower articles, are contained in chapters 7 and 8 of Crisis of Conscience (Commentary Press, fourth edition, 2007) by former Governing Body member Raymond Franz. A brief coverage is contained in chapters 5 and 10 of Jehovah's Witnesses – Proclaimers of God's Kingdom (Watch Tower Society, 1993).
  6. Jehovah's Witnesses – Proclaimers of God's Kingdom (Watch Tower Society, 1993), chapter 10.
  7. “Revelation – Its Grand Climax at Hand” –1988 | 235-236 pars. 2-3 “Judging the Infamous Harlot” | . © Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania
  8. “Revelation – Its Grand Climax at Hand”, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1988, pp. 205-206.
  9. Watchtower, September 1, 1959, pp. 530-531 par. 15.
  10. Armageddon—A Happy Beginning Jehovah's Witnesses Official Web Site
  11. Watchtower, May 15, 2006, p 6.
  12. Insight on the Scriptures, Vol. 2, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1988,p. 788.
  13. Watchtower, May 1, 2005, p. 20.
  14. Watchtower, August 15, 2006, p. 31
  15. Watchtower, February 1, 1996, p6.
  16. Pay Attention to Daniel’s Prophecy!, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1999, p. 62.
  17. "Jesus’ Coming or Jesus’ Presence—Which?", Watchtower, August 15, 1996, p. 12.
  18. All Scripture is Inspired of God, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1990, pp. 278-284
  19. ”Why do Jehovah’s Witnesses say that God’s Kingdom was established in 1914?”, Reasoning From the Scriptures, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1989, p. 95-96.
  20. The Truth That Leads to Eternal Life, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1981, pg 86.
  21. True Peace and Security- How Can You Find It?, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1986, pp 81-84.
  22. Matthew 24:3 ... And what shall be the sign of Your coming, and of the end of the world?" (MKJV).
  23. Mat 24:14 And this gospel of the kingdom shall be proclaimed in all the world as a witness to all nations. And then the end shall come.
  24. Watchtower, October 15, 2000, p11.
  25. Awake!, October 22, 1993, p. 11.
  26. What Does the Bible Really Teach?, page 216, Watchtower Bible & Tract Society
  27. Let Your Kingdom Come", Appendix, page 187: "Business tablets: Thousands of contemporary Neo-Babylonian cuneiform tablets have been found that record simple business transactions, stating the year of the Babylonian king when the transaction occurred. Tablets of this sort have been found for all the years of reign for the known Neo-Babylonian kings in the accepted chronology of the period.", Watchtower Bible & Tract Society
  28. Let Your Kingdom Come, Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania, 1981, pp. 186-189 Appendix to Chapter 14.
  29. What Does The Bible Really Teach?, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 2005, pp. 217-218.
  30. Watchtower w04 1/15 p. 16
  31. Pay Attention to Daniel’s Prophecy!, Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania, 2006, pp. 94,95.
  32. "Do You Recognize the Sign of Jesus’ Presence?", Watchtower Society website.
  33. "A Century of Violence", Awake!, May 8, 2002, p. 8.
  34. Revelation—Its Grand Climax at Hand!, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1988, p. 56.
  35. Revelation—Its Grand Climax at Hand!, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1988, pp. 259-260.
  36. Watchtower, January 15, 2008, p. 24.
  37. "Babylon the Great Indicted", Watchtower, April 15, 1989, page 23.
  38. “What Does The Bible Really Teach?”, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 2005, page 220.
  39. "Babylon the Great—Fallen and Judged", Watchtower, May 1, 1989, pages 3-7.
  40. “Revelation—Its Grand Climax at Hand!”, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1988, page 256 par. 17.
  41. “No Peace for the False Messengers!” Watchtower, May 1, 1997, pp. 17-18 par. 17|"Shortly, 'crazed' members of the UN will be maneuvered by Jehovah to turn on false religion, as described at Revelation 17:16 ... This will mark the start of the great tribulation”
  42. “Deliverance at the Revelation of Jesus Christ”, Watchtower, May 1, 1993, p. 24.
  43. Millennial Dawn (later retitled Studies in the Scriptures), Volume 2, The Time is at Hand! p. 99: "In view of this strong Bible evidence concerning the Times of the Gentiles, we consider it an established truth..." The Watchtower, July 15, 1894, p. 1677|"We see no reason for changing the figures — nor could we change them if we would. They are, we believe, God’s dates, not ours. But bear in mind that the end of 1914 is not the date for the beginning, but for the end of the time of trouble."
  44. Zion’s Watch Tower and Herald of Christ’s Presence, January 1908.|>“We do not even aver that there is no mistake in our interpretation of prophesy and our calculations of chronology. We have merely laid these before you, leaving it for each to exercise his own faith or doubt in respect to them."
  45. Jehovah's Witnesses: Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1993, p.631-632
  46. The Watchtower, February 15, 1981, p. 19
  47. Evidences for the Coming of the Lord in 1873: or the Midnight Cry, N.H. Barbour (1871). Available online at:
  48. The Midnight Cry and Herald of the Morning, March 1874. See Section under "Our Faith."
  49. Present Truth, Or Meat in Due Season by Jonas Wendell, pp. 34-35
  50. |"The writer, among many others now interested, was sound asleep, in profound ignorance of the cry, etc., until 1876, when being awakened he trimmed his lamp (for it is still very early in the morning.) It showed him clearly that the Bridegroom had come and that he is living "in the days of the Son of Man."
  51. Russell explained how he accepted the idea of an invisible return of Christ from N.H. Barbour in "Harvest Gatherings and Siftings" in the July 15, 1906 Watch Tower, Reprints page 3822.
  52. The Three Worlds and The Harvest of This World by N.H. Barbour and C.T. Russell (1877). Text available online at: Scan of book in PDF format
  53. The Three Worlds, p. 175
  54. The Three Worlds, pp. 104-108
  55. See pages 68, 89-93, 124, 125-126, 143 of The Three Worlds.
  56. The year 1914 was seen as the final end of the "day of wrath": "...the 'times of the Gentiles,' reach from B.C. 606 to A.D. 1914, or forty years beyond 1874. And the time of trouble, conquest of the nations, and events connected with the day of wrath, have only ample time, during the balance of this forty years, for their fulfillment." The Three Worlds, p. 189.
  57. In 1935, the idea that the 6,000 years ran out in 1874 was moved forward 100 years. .
  58. .
  59. |"...showing that we are now in the last half of the 'harvest' of the gospel age; and that it will terminate in A.D. 1881."
  60. |"Hence, the 'real rising again of Israel' can not begin until the autumn of 1881, at which date, the presumption is, that the gospel church will be taken away to meet the Lord."
  61. |"And from that time, or the autumn of 1881, the 91st Ps[alm]: 'He shall give his angels charge over thee,' etc., will begin to have its fulfillment. From that time onward, we believe no one of the company of the overcomers need die, even though they reach that point tottering, as it were on the verge of the grave."
  62. |"Soon, probably by, probably before, the fall of 1881, we shall be changed--born of the spirit [of which we are now begotten] into the glorious likeness of our Head."
  63. |"The Watch Tower never claimed that the body of Christ will be changed to spiritual beings during this year. There is such a change due sometime. We have not attempted to say when, but have repeatedly said that it could not take place before the fall of 1881...We have no desire to dogmatize nor to keep any one out, but we believe (and therefore speak) that the favor which ends this fall, is that of entering the Bride company ... To our understanding it will be due at any time after October 2nd, 1881."
  64. . See also The Time is At Hand!, p. 235
  65. "This spuing out, or casting off, of the nominal church as an organization in 1878, we then understood, and still proclaim, to be the date of the commencement of Babylon's fall..."—Zion's Watch Tower, April 1883. Reprints pp. 474-5
  66. Detailed in Thy Kingdom Come (1890), Volume 3 of Millennial Dawn, later retitled Studies in the Scriptures, p. 305-308.
  67. "Our understanding is that the open or general 'call' of this age to kingdom honors ceased in October, 1881....we make a distinction between the end of the 'call' and the closing of the 'door'; and believe that the door into the kingdom class is not yet closed; that it stands ajar for a time..."
  68. Thy Kingdom Come, p. 364|"...this date, 1910, indicated by the pyramid ... we may accept as correct the testimony of the great pyramid, that the last members of the body or bride’ of Christ will have been tested and accepted and will have passed beyond the vail before the close of A.D. 1910."
  69. The New Creation, p.579|"According to our expectations the stress of the great time of trouble will be on us soon, somewhere between 1910 and 1912 — culminating with the end of the 'Times of the Gentiles,' October, 1914." (Later editions may read differently)
  70. The Time is at Hand, pages 76-78. Post 1914 editions read differently-- 1917 edition.
  71. The Time is at Hand, 1915 ed., p. 99|"In view of this strong Bible evidence concerning the Times of the Gentiles, we consider it an established truth, that the final end of the kingdoms of this world, and the full establishment of the Kingdom of God, will be accomplished near the end of A.D. 1915. Then the prayer of the church, ever since her Lord took his departure - 'Thy kingdom come' - will be answered; and under that wise and just administration, the whole earth will be filled with the glory of the Lord" (Later editions have 1914 instead of 1915)
  72. Watch Tower, September 1, 1916|"Our eyes of understanding should discern clearly the Battle of the Great Day of God Almighty now in progress."
  73. September 1, 1916 Watch Tower, pages 264-265
  74. The Finished Mystery from Google Book Search. Published in 1917 by the Watch Tower Society. It was considered to be volume 7 of Studies in the Scriptures. PDF version of The Finished Mystery. Later editions read differently.
  75. The Finished Mystery, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1917, Page 485|"Also, in the year 1918, when God destroys the churches wholesale and the church members by millions, it shall be that any that escape shall come to the works of Pastor Russell to learn the meaning of the downfall of 'Christianity.'"
  76. The Finished Mystery, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1917,Pages 398-9|"The people who are the strength of Christendom shall be cut off in the brief but terribly eventful period beginning in 1918 A.D. A third part are 'burned with fire in the midst of the city.' Fire symbolizes destruction ... After 1918 the people supporting churchianity will cease to be its supporters, be destroyed as adherents, by the spiritual pestilence of errors abroad, and by the famine of the Word of God among them."
  77. See also the chart on page 594 and 595|"Entire destruction of nominal Christendom, accomplished in 40 years after being cast off...A.D. 1918."
  78. The Finished Mystery, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1917, Page 64. Page 177
  79. This was acknowledged by W.F. Hudgings (a member of the Board of Directors for the Watch Tower Society) in a speech in 1919: "There is no more reason why we should reject the Seventh Volume because of some statements there about the ending of the war in October, 1917, which did not come true, than there is that we should throw Volume Two away because we weren't all glorified in October, 1914."
  80. The Finished Mystery, 1917 edition, p.258. 258. (This date is changed in later editions.)
  81. Page 89 from Google Book Version
  82. Millions Now Living Will Never Die, 1920, page 97.|"Based upon the argument heretofore set forth, then, that the old order of things, the old world, is ending and is therefore passing away, and that the new order is coming in, and that 1925 shall mark the resurrection of the faithful worthies of old and the beginning of reconstruction, it is reasonable to conclude that millions of people now on the earth will be still on the earth in 1925. Then, based upon the promises set forth in the divine Word, we must reach the positive and indisputable conclusion that millions now living will never die."
  83. The Marion Star, Marion, Ohio, April 9, 1921. The Bridgeport Telegram, Bridgeport, Connecticut, December 4, 1920. Scans available at News Clippings from the "Millions Now Living Will Never Die" Campaign (1919-1925)
  84. Watch Tower, September 1, 1922, p. 262|"The date 1925 is even more distinctly indicated by the Scriptures than 1914."
  85. Watch Tower May 15, 1922, p. 147, 150|"We have no doubt whatever in regard to the chronology relating to the dates of 1874, 1914, 1918, and 1925 ... There can be no more question about 1925 than there was about 1914."
  86. The Way to Paradise, published 1924, pp. 215-254 The book was announced in the January 1, 1924 Watch Tower and was written by W.E. Van Amburgh, a member of the Watch Tower magazine's editorial committee, with an introduction by J.F. Rutherford.
  87. |"During the World War millions were maimed and disfigured in various ways, and many deprived of one or both arms or legs. Because the Lord is now present, putting his kingdom into operation, it is to be expected that many of these crippled and maimed ones will be among the first to receive the restoration blessings. As they come to a knowledge of the fact that the Lord is giving these blessings, and render themselves in obedience to his righteous rule, they will be thus blessed." This book was reissued in 1928 as The Harp of God.
  88. Watch Tower, May 15, 1922, p. 150.|"Noting the date marked so prominently, it is very easy for the finite mind to conclude that all the work to be done must center about it, and thus many are inclined to anticipate more than has been really foretold. Thus it was in 1844, in 1874, in 1878 as well as in 1914 and 1918. Looking back we can now easily see that those dates were clearly indicated in Scripture and doubtless intended by the Lord to encourage his people, as they did, as well as to be a means of testing and sifting when all that some expected did not come to pass. That all that some expect to see in 1925 may not transpire that year will not alter the date one whit more than in the other cases."
  89. Annual Memorial attendances were 17,961 (1919), 32,661 (1922), 42,000 (1923) 62,696 (1924), 90,434 (1925), 89,278 (1926) and 17,380 (1928). There are no published statistics from 1929-1934. In 1935, Memorial attendance had increased again to 63,146. See also Statistics were also published each year in the Watch Tower up until 1926.
  90. |"There was a measure of disappointment on the part of Jehovah’s faithful ones on earth concerning the years 1914, 1918, and 1925, which disappointment lasted for a time. Later the faithful learned that these dates were definitely fixed in the Scriptures; and they also learned to quit fixing dates for the future and predicting what would come to pass on a certain date, but to rely (and they do rely) upon the Word of God as to the events that must come to pass."
  91. Governing Body member Karl Klein wrote that Rutherford admitted his mistake about 1925 to the headquarters staff: "Regarding his misguided statements as to what we could expect in 1925, he once confessed to us at Bethel, 'I made an ass of myself.'
  92. |"There is no promise that anyone will survive the battle of the great day of God Almighty except those who are in the organization of Jehovah under Christ, and who remain faithful and true to the Lord."
  93. . Ibid., p. 320. Joseph Seiss’ book A Miracle in Stone was also influential for Russell.
  94. Photo Drama of Creation, p. 25. Video of Russell discussing the Great Pyramid
  95. Google Books Version
  96. Program of the 1921 Annual Meeting of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. The program explains: "The Pyramid monument erected at the grave of Brother Russell was sketched by Brother J.A. Bohnet and approved by Brother Russell several years ago. It was his desire that such a monument be erected on this lot and he set about to procure the materials before his death. After Brother Russell's death, Brother Rutherford, learning that Brother Russell had ordered the erection of this monument asked Brother Bohnet to proceed at once to get the material and let the contract for its construction and erection." See also pp. 6-7 of the 1919 Bible Student Convention Souvenir Booklet.
  97. Pictures of the pyramid at Russell's gravesite can be viewed at [1].
  98. The Edgars’ 2 volume work Great Pyramid Passages and Chambers was advertised and sold in the Watch Tower ( August 1, 1910 Watch Tower, Reprints, p. 4658; October 15, 1913 Watch Tower, page 306, Reprints p. 5336). Research by the Edgars on the Great Pyramid was published in the November 15, 1904 Watch Tower, Reprints, p. 3459, the June 15, 1905 Watch Tower, Reprints, p. 3574 and the June 1, 1910 Watch Tower, Reprints, p. 4621. John Edgar was named to be on the editorial committee for the Watch Tower magazine in the December 1, 1916 Watch Tower, (Reprints p. 5999), but had died before Russell. Research by Morton Edgar was published in the August 15, 1923 Watch Tower, pp. 253-254, the December 31, 1924 Golden Age, pp. 209-211 and on pp. 163, 355, 357 of the 1923 Watch Tower. Morton Edgar explained the spiritual meaning of the Great Pyramid in "God's Plan of Salvation in the Great Pyramid," a lecture which was published in the 1911 Bible Students Convention Report
  99. Thy Kingdom Come (1904 edition — Millennial Dawn, vol 3) p.342
  100. Thy Kingdom Come (copyright 1891) (1910 edition -- Studies In The Scriptures, vol. 3) p.342
  101. In Volume 2 of Great Pyramid Passages and Chambers (1913) they said: “Professor C. Piazzi Smyth very properly says, `no two human measures ever agree exactly.'” (Ibid p.1) According to the Edgars, Professor Smyth (from whom Russell gained his information) had not personally measured this passage since it was blocked. It had been roughly measured in 1837 by Col Howard Vyse, but the Edgars personally measured “the length of this passage seven times” and ended up with seven different measurements, though within a few inches. (Ibid p.8 ) In answering a question about different measurements of the pyramid, The Watchtower stated “that Prof. Smyth's interest centered in the upper chambers of the Pyramid ... Much less care and precision [were] manifested in his dealings with all other parts”. ( The Watchtower November 1904 p. 326 “The Great Pyramid Measurements”)
  102. |"For many years students of the Word believed that the foretold destruction of "Babylon the Great" would begin in 1914- 1915 AD., the date marked by the upper terminal of the Grand Gallery. Nor have their expectations been disappointed; for although the "Great Time of Trouble" covers a longer period than was thought possible, this trouble which is to end Christendom is manifestly now in progress; and it began precisely at the date expected. Beginning with 1914 A.D. in the great World War in which most of the mightiest 'Christian' nations were actively engaged, Christendom, called in the Scriptures Babylon the Great, received a blow from which it can never recover. The old evil order began to pass away in 1914 A.D." See also .
  103. Morton Edgar, on page 151 of the 1924 edition of the second volume of Great Pyramid Passages, refers to Judge Rutherford's booklet Millions Now Living Will Never Die as a "wonderful message of life."
  104. The last favorable reference to the Great Pyramid in Watch Tower publications can be found in the April 15, 1928 Watchtower, p. 125. Pyramidology was first rejected in the November 15, 1928 Watchtower: "It is more reasonable to conclude that the great pyramid of Gizeh, as well as the other pyramids thereabout, also the sphinx, were built by the rulers of Egypt and under the direction of Satan the Devil...The Devil, by the use of the descendants of Ham, set up Egypt, or the land of Ham, as the first great world power. Then Satan put his knowledge in dead stone, which may be called Satan’s Bible, and not God’s stone witness. In erecting the pyramid, of course, Satan would put in it some truth, because that is his method of practising fraud and deceit." (November 15, 1928 Watch Tower, p. 344)
  105. Jehovah's Witnesses — Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1993, pp. 138-9.
  106. The Harp of God (both the 1921 and 1927 editions) affirmed on page 231 that "the Lord’s second presence dates from 1874." The March 1, 1922 Watch Tower and pages 65-66 of the book Prophecy (published in 1928) reiterated this position. However, by 1930 some vagueness can be seen. For example, the October 15, 1930 Watch Tower, page 308, says the "second advent of the Lord Jesus Christ dates from about A.D. 1875." The November 1, 1932 Watch Tower, page 325 is even less precise, stating that from "approximately 1875 forward" Christ was preparing the way.
  107. Watch Tower, December 1 1933, p. 362.
  108. Golden Age, March 14, 1934, p. 380.
  109. Light, Book One, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1930, p. 78.|"In June, 1927, the Watch Tower published the proof from the Scriptures that those who thus died faithful were asleep in death until the coming of the Lord to his temple in 1918."
  110. Light, Book One, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, p. 333.
  111. Light, Book One, p. 318-319.
  112. Watchtower, September 1, 1969 Watchtower, p. 521.
  113. Time magazine, March 31, 1930, p. 60. Scan of article.
  114. July 25, 1931 Messenger, pages 6,8.
  115. Google Maps Street View of Beth Sarim
  116. The title deed to Beth Sarim was published in the March 19, 1930 Golden Age, pages 496- 497Interview with Rutherford about Beth Sarim, from the San Diego Sun newspaper, March 1930.
  117. Jehovah's Witnesses in the Divine Purpose, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1959, p. 252.
  118. Universal War Near, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1935.|"Universal war is absolutely certain to come and that soon, and no power can stop it ... during the few remaining months until the breaking of that universal cataclysm."
  119. Watchtower 15 September 1941 p. 288.
  120. Watchtower, April 1942, p.139.
  121. November 1 1938 Watchtower, p. 323.|"If in obedience to the divine command the Jonadabs or great multitude will marry and rear children after Armageddon, would it not be Scripturally proper for them to begin doing so immediately before Armageddon? and should the Jonadabs now be encouraged to marry and rear children? No, is the answer, supported by the Scriptures."
  122. |"There are now on earth Jonadabs devoted to the Lord and who doubtless will prove faithful. Would it be Scripturally proper for them to now marry and to begin to rear children? No, is the answer, which is supported by the Scriptures."
  123. 1943 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, Daily Texts and Comments for November 7. The fictional sweethearts of Children, John and Eunice, defer marriage "until lasting peace comes to the earth" while hoping "that within a few years our marriage may be consummated."
  124. |"Since the carrying out of the command to 'be fruitful, multiply, fill the earth' waits until after Armageddon, does that mean that those who now marry and rear children are violating God’s laws? No, for the Scriptures show that 'marriage is honourable in all'--Hebrews 13:4."
  125. and .
  126. Public Address by District Overseer Charles Sunutko in Spring 1967 in Sheboygan, Wisconsin. Mp3 of Lecture by Sinutko
  127. The Approaching Peace of a Thousand Years. The booklet's beginning emphasizes the nearness of these blessings: "Undisturbed peace with health, happiness and freedom from fear is on the divine program for humankind on earth. Reliable evidences indicate that it will begin within this generation! We do not want to keep this gladsome information to ourselves, and so in this booklet we pass it on to you."
  128. Awake!, May 22, 1969, p.15|"You also need to face the fact that you will never grow old in this present system of things ... All the evidence in fulfillment of Bible prophecy indicates that this corrupt system is due to end in a few years ... Therefore, as a young person, you will never fulfill any career that this system offers. If you are in high school and thinking about a college education, it means at least four, perhaps even six or eight more years to graduate into a specialized career. But where will this system of things be by that time? It will be well on the way towards its finish, if not actually gone! This is why parents who base their lives on God's prophetic Word find it much more practical to direct their young ones into trades that do not require such long periods of additional schooling."
  129. "How Are You Using Your Life?", Our Kingdom Ministry, May 1974 p.3.
  130. Sound clip of lecture "What is the Significance of 1975?" by Governing Body Member Fred Franz. Mp3 of complete lecture
  131. Crisis of Conscience, Raymond Franz p. 249. Scan available at
  132. Time magazine archive "Witnessing the End", July 18, 1969 Time Scan of article|"The Witnesses have what they believe is Scriptural proof that the end is coming. For one thing, their interpretation of Biblical chronology reveals that Adam and Eve were created in the autumn of 4026 B.C., or 5994 years ago. Linking 6000 years to the six days of God's creation, they believe it fitting that there be a sabbath-like rest thereafter, beginning in 1975—though Witnesses cautiously avoid a flat prediction linked to that year." See also The Arizona Republic August 24, 1969 and the July 11, 1977 Time
  133. Watchtower, July 15, 1976, p.441
  134. 1980 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, p. 30
  135. "Defectors Feel 'Witness' Wrath: Critics say Baptism Rise Gives False Picture of Growth" by John Dart, Los Angeles Times, January 30, 1982, p. B4)
  136. Watchtower, May 1, 1985, p.4.
  137. Watchtower, May 15, 1984
  138. |“A generation, according to Psalm 90:10, is from seventy to eighty years. The generation that witnessed the end of the Gentile Times in 1914 does not have many more years left.”
  139. |“The expression 'this generation' was used by Jesus to mark a very limited period of time, the life-span of members of a generation of people living during the time that certain epoch-making events occurred. According to Psalm 90:10, that life-span could be of seventy years or even of eighty years.”
  140. |"'Truly I say to you that this generation will by no means pass away until all these things occur.' (Matt. 24:34, NW) The actual meaning of these words is, beyond question, that which takes a 'generation' in the ordinary sense, as at Mark 8:12 and Acts 13:36, or for those who are living at the given period ... This therefore means that from 1914 a generation shall not pass till all is fulfilled, and amidst a great time of trouble."
  141. Watchtower, May 1, 1985, p.7.
  142. Crisis of Conscience, Raymond Franz p. 262. Scan available at accessed January 27, 2006.
  143. "Saved From a 'Wicked Generation'", The Watchtower (November 1) 1995, pp. 10-15.
  144. "A Time To Keep Awake", The Watchtower, November 1, 1995, p. 19 par. 12, and p. 20 par. 15.
  145. Watchtower, February 15, 2008, pages 23-24|"As a class, these anointed ones make up the modern-day "generation" of contemporaries that will not pass away "until all these things occur."* This suggests that some who are Christ's anointed brothers will still be alive on earth when the foretold great tribulation begins."
  146. Pay Attention to Daniel's Prophecy! chap. 6 par. 25-29
  147. Edmond C. Gruss, Jehovah's Witnesses and Prophetic Speculation, Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co, 1972, ISBN 0875523064 Page 42.
  148. The Gentile Times Reconsidered: Chronology & Christ's Return by Carl O. Jonsson. ISBN 0-914675-06-0 Publisher: Commentary Press (July, 1998, Fourth edition 2004)
  149. Assyrian, Babylonian, Egyptian, and Persian Chronology Compared with the Chronology of the Bible, Volume 1: Persian Chronology and the Length of the Babylonian Exile of the Jews (2003) ISBN 82-994633-3-5
  150. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 28:5 [2004], p. 42-43


Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses by M. James Penton, professor emeritus in the Department of History at the University of Lethbridge and former Jehovah's Witness ISBN 978-0802079732

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