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Arthur Evelyn St. John Waugh ( ) (28 October 1903 – 10 April 1966) was an English writer, best known for such darkly humorous and satirical novels as Decline and Fall, Vile Bodies, Scoop, A Handful of Dust, and The Loved One, as well as for serious works, such as Brideshead Revisited and the Sword of Honour trilogy that clearly manifest his Catholic background. Many of Waugh's novels depict British aristocracy and high society, which he satirises but to which he was also strongly attracted. In addition, he wrote short stories, three biographies, and the first volume of an unfinished autobiography. His travel literature and his extensive diaries and correspondence have also been published.

Waugh's works were very successful with the reading public and he was widely admired as a humorist and as a prose stylist, but as his social conservatism and religiosity became more overt, his works grew more controversial with critics. In his notes for an unpublished review of Brideshead Revisited, George Orwell declared that Waugh was "about as good a novelist as one can be while holding untenable opinions." Martin Amis found that the snobbery of Brideshead was "a failure of imagination, an artistic failure." On the other hand, Americanmarker literary critic Edmund Wilson pronounced Waugh "the only first-rate comic genius that has appeared in English since Bernard Shaw." Time magazine, in a 1966 obituary, summarised his oeuvre by claiming that Waugh had "developed a wickedly hilarious yet fundamentally religious assault on a century that, in his opinion, had ripped up the nourishing taproot of tradition and let wither all the dear things of the world."


Early life

Born in London, Evelyn Waugh was the second son of noted editor and publisher Arthur Waugh. He was brought up in upper middle class circumstances, although his parents' address in Golders Greenmarker embarrassed him. He attended Heath Mount Schoolmarker. His only sibling was his older brother Alec, who also became a writer. Both his father and his brother had been educated at Sherbornemarker, an English public school, but Alec had been asked to leave during his final and he had then published a controversial novel, The Loom of Youth, which touched on the matter of homosexual relationships among students and which was otherwise deemed injurious to Sherborne's reputation. The school therefore refused to take Evelyn, and his father sent him to Lancing College, an institution of lesser social prestige with a strong High Church Anglican character. This circumstance would rankle with the status-conscious Evelyn for the rest of his life but may have contributed to his interest in religion, even though at Lancing he lost his childhood faith and became an agnostic.

After Lancing, he attended Hertford College, Oxfordmarker as a history scholar. There, Waugh neglected academic work and was known as much for his artwork as for his writing. He also threw himself into a vigorous social scene populated by aesthetes such as Harold Acton, Brian Howard and David Talbot Rice, and members of the British aristocracy and the upper classes. His social life at Oxford would provide the background for some of his most characteristic later writing. Asked if he had competed in any sport for his college, Waugh famously replied "I drank for Hertford."

It has been claimed through diary entries and letters that he had relationships with other men during his college years, but may have ultimately been bisexual. (In his diary Waugh refers in retrospect to "my first homosexual love".) During what has been described as an "acute homosexual phase" between 1921 and 1924, at least three relationships have been suggested, with Richard Pares, Alistair Graham and Hugh Patrick Lygon. These may have helped shape his future works .

Waugh's final exam results qualified him only for a third-class degree. He was prevented from remaining in residence for the extra term that would have been required of him and he left Oxford in 1924 without taking his degree. In 1925 he taught at a private school in Walesmarker. In his autobiography, Waugh claims that he attempted suicide at the time by swimming out to sea, only to turn back after being stung by jellyfish. He was later dismissed from another teaching post for attempting to seduce the matron, telling his father he had been dismissed for "inebriation".

He was briefly apprenticed to a cabinet-maker and afterwards maintained an interest in marquetry, to which his novels have been compared in their intricate inlaid subplots. Waugh also provided the artwork for many of his books having been greatly inspired by a chance meeting with Pablo Picasso and Salvador Dali at the Slade School of Fine Artmarker in Bloomsbury. According to Picasso, Waugh attempted to remove Dali's trademark moustache, suspecting it a surrealist joke. Dali was furious and never spoke to Waugh again; Waugh took his revenge by caricaturing the artist in a later novel (Brideshead Revisited, where he portrayed him as Catelli, 'a gauche Spanish artisan ... with a less than attractive limp'.)

Waugh also worked as a journalist before he published his first novel in 1928, Decline and Fall. The title is from Gibbon, but whereas the Georgian historian charted the bankruptcy and dissolution of the Roman Empire, Waugh's was a witty account of quite a different sort of dissolution, following the career of the harmless Paul Pennyfeather, a student of divinity, as he is accidentally expelled from Oxford for indecency ("I expect you'll be becoming a schoolmaster, sir," says the College porter to Paul, "That's what most of the gentlemen does, sir, that gets sent down for indecent behaviour") and enters into the worlds of schoolmastering, high society, and the white slave trade. Other novels about England's "bright young things" followed, and all were well received by both critics and the general public.

Waugh entered into a brief, unhappy marriage in 1928 to the Hon. Evelyn Florence Margaret Winifred Gardner, youngest daughter of Lord Burghclere and Lady Winifred Herbert. Their friends called them "He-Evelyn" and "She-Evelyn." Gardner's infidelity would provide the background for Waugh's novel A Handful of Dust, but her husband had made little effort to make her happy, choosing to spend much time on his own. The marriage ended in divorce in 1930.

Waugh converted to Catholicism and, after his marriage was annulled by the Church, he married Laura Herbert, a Catholic, daughter of Aubrey Herbert, and a cousin of his first wife (they were both granddaughters of Henry Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon). This marriage was successful, lasting the rest of his life, producing seven children, one of whom, Mary, died in infancy. His son Auberon, named after Laura's brother, followed in his footsteps as a writer and journalist.

The 1930s

Waugh's fame continued to grow between the wars, based on his satires of contemporary upper class English society, written in prose that was seductively simple and elegant. His style was often inventive (a chapter, for example, would be written entirely in the form of a dialogue of telephone calls). His conversion to Roman Catholicism in 1930 was a watershed in his life and his writing. It elevated Catholic themes in his work, and aspects of his deep and sincere faith, both implicit and explicit, can be found in all of his later work.

Waugh's conversion to Catholicism was widely discussed in London society and newspapers in September 1930. In response to the gossip, Waugh made his own contribution in article entitled, "Converted to Rome: Why It Has Happened to Me." It wasn't about ritual, said Waugh, nor about submission to the views of others. The essential issue, he believed, was making a choice between Christianity or chaos. Waugh saw in Europe's increasing materialism a major decline in what he felt created Western Civilization in the first place. "It is no longer possible ... ," he wrote, "to accept the benefits of civilization and at the same time deny the supernatural basis upon which it is based." He added that Catholicism was the "most complete and vital form" of Christianity. His faith and his conviction persisted throughout all the chapters of his life.

At the same time (and perhaps because it integrated both his beliefs and his natural "dark humour"), Black Mischief and A Handful of Dust contain episodes of the most savage farce. In some of his fiction Waugh derives comedy from the cruelty of mischance; ingenuous characters are subject to bizarre calamities in a universe that seems to lack a shaping and protecting God, or any other source of order and comfort. The period between the wars also saw extensive travels around the Mediterraneanmarker and Red Seamarker, Spitsbergenmarker, Africa (most famously Ethiopia) and South America. Sections of the numerous travel books which resulted are often cited as among the best writing in this genre. A compendium of Waugh's favourite travel writing has been issued under the title When The Going Was Good.

Second World War

With the advent of the Second World War, Waugh used "friends in high places", such as Randolph Churchill — son of Winston — to find him a service commission. Though 36 years old with poor eyesight, he was commissioned in the Royal Marines in 1940. Few can have been less suited to command troops. He lacked the common touch. Though personally brave, he did not suffer fools gladly. There was some concern that the men under his command might shoot him instead of the enemy. Promoted to captain, Waugh found life in the Marines dull.

Waugh participated in the failed attempt to take Dakarmarker from the Vichy French in late 1940. Following a joint exercise with No. 3 Commando (Army), he applied to join them and was accepted. Waugh took part in an ill-fated commando raid on the coast of Libyamarker. As special assistant to the famed commando leader Robert Laycock, Waugh showed conspicuous bravery during the fighting in Crete in 1941, supervising the evacuation of troops while under attack by Stuka dive bombers.

Later, Waugh was placed on extended leave and later reassigned to the Royal Horse Guards. In the preface to the revised edition of Brideshead Revisited he writes,

"In December 1943 I had the good fortune when parachuting to incur a minor injury which afforded me a rest from military service.

This was extended by a sympathetic commanding officer, who let me remain unemployed until June 1944 when the book was finished.

—Waugh, Preface to Brideshead Revisited, Combe Florey 1959

He was recalled for a military/diplomatic mission to Yugoslavia in 1944 at the request of his old friend Randolph Churchill. He and Churchill narrowly escaped capture or death when the Germans undertook Operation Rösselsprung, and paratroops and glider-borne storm troops attacked the partisans' headquarters where they were staying. During his time in Yugoslavia Waugh produced a formidable report detailing Tito's persecution of Catholics and the clergy. It was "buried" by Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden as being largely irrelevant.

Some of Waugh's best-loved and best-known novels come from this period. Brideshead Revisited (1945) is an evocation of a vanished pre-war England. It's an extraordinary work which in many ways has come to define Waugh and his view of his world. It not only painted a rich picture of life in England and at Oxford University at a time (before World War II) which Waugh himself loved and embellished in the novel, but it allowed him to share his feelings about his Catholic faith, principally through the actions of his characters. The book was applauded by his friends, not just for an evocation of a time now — and then — long gone, but also for its examination of the manifold pressures within a traditional Catholic family. It was a huge success in Britain and in the United States. Decades later a television adaptation (1981) achieved popularity and acclaim in both countries, and around the world; a film adaptation has been released in 2008. Waugh revised the novel in the late 1950s, saying that he wrote the novel during the grey privations of the latter war years and later found parts of it "distasteful on a full stomach".

Much of Waugh's wartime experience is reflected in the Sword of Honour trilogy. It consists of three novels, Men at Arms (1952), Officers and Gentlemen (1955) and Unconditional Surrender (1961), which loosely parallel his wartime experiences. Critics felt that these were some of the best books written about the Second World War. Many of his portraits are unforgettable, and often show striking resemblances to noted real personalities. Waugh biographer Christopher Sykes, felt that the fire-eating officer in the Sword of Honour trilogy, Brigadier Ben Ritchie-Hook, "...bears a very strong resemblance to..." Lieutenant-General Sir Adrian Carton de Wiart VC, a friend of the author's father-in-law. Waugh was familiar with Carton de Wiart through the club to which he belonged. The fictional commando leader, Tommy Blackhouse, is based on Major-General Sir Robert Laycock, a real-life commando leader and friend of Waugh's, whom he greatly admired.

Later years

The period after the war saw Waugh living with his family in the West Country, first at Piers Court, and from 1956 onwards, at Combe Floreymarker, Somersetmarker, where he enjoyed the life of a country gentleman and continued to write. (Combe Florey was bought from his widow by their son Auberon.) Waugh was highly critical of Vatican II's 1960s changes to his beloved Tridentine liturgy, which he in part loved for what he saw as its timelessness. (Cf. Bitter Trial by Waugh and ed. by S. Reid)

For a base in London, he was a member of White'smarker and the St James's Club in Piccadillymarker.

The Ordeal of Gilbert Pinfold (1957) is a thinly-veiled fictionalisation of Waugh's own real-life experience of alcoholic hallucinosis. This short but disturbing malady was almost certainly caused by alcoholism but Waugh preferred to blame the interaction between alcohol and sleeping medications. Unlike delirium tremens, this condition induces auditory hallucinations rather than visual ones, which in turn led Waugh to acute paranoia. The illness was remedied once medication had been stopped and alcohol intake ceased or became moderate. During this period he wrote Helena (1953), a fictional account of the Empress Helena and the finding of the True Cross, which he regarded as his best work.

Waugh's health declined in later life. He put on weight, and the sleeping draughts he continued to take, combined with alcohol, cigars and little exercise, weakened his health. His productivity also declined, and his output was uneven. His last published work, Basil Seal Rides Again, revisiting the characters of his earliest satirical works, did not meet critical or popular approval, but is still read today. At the same time, he continued as a journalist and was well received.

He appeared in two television interviews with the BBC in the early 1960s, the only time his appearance was recorded publicly, during which the interviewers sought to corner him as an anachronistic figure. He overcame them, particularly in the second interview with novelist Elizabeth Jane Howard on the Monitor programme in 1964. (The other interview was on John Freeman's Face to Face series broadcast on 18 June 1960.) An earlier radio interview on the BBC Home Service in 1953 was somewhat less convivial.

Waugh's diaries, published in the 1970s, were widely acclaimed. His correspondence with lifelong friends, such as Nancy Mitford, is still published today. He is a fruitful source for biographers; three major works have been produced since Christopher Sykes's friendly and familiar account of Waugh's life was published in the 1970s.

Evelyn Waugh died, aged 62, on 10 April 1966, after attending a Latin Mass on Easter Sunday. He suffered a heart attack at his home, Combe Florey. His estate at probate was valued at £20,068. This did not include the value of his lucrative copyrights, which Waugh put in a trust (humorously named the 'Save the Children Fund') for his children. He is buried at Combe Florey, Somerset.

Critical reception

The American conservative commentator William F. Buckley, Jr. found in Waugh "the greatest English novelist of the century" (though Waugh was dismissive of Buckley), while Buckley's liberal counterpart Gore Vidal called him "our time's first satirist." Even the "overt racism" of his African writings has been forgiven by Ethiopian luminaries because his humour, satire, cruelty and wit were spread even-handedly, attacking the foibles of his own country at least as vigorously as those of foreigners. In Cultural Amnesia, the critic Clive James called him "the supreme writer of English prose in the twentieth century, even though so many of the wrong people said so."

List of works


Short Story Collections

  • Mr Loveday's Little Outing: And Other Sad Stories (1936)
  • Work Suspended: And Other Stories (1943)
  • The Ordeal of Gilbert Pinfold (1957)
  • Selected Works (1977)
  • Charles Ryder's Schooldays: And Other Stories (1982)
  • The Complete Short Stories (1997)
  • The Complete Stories of Evelyn Waugh (1998)

Travel writing

  • Labels (1930): An account of Waugh's cruise around the Mediterranean.
  • Remote People (1931): Waugh's journey to Addis Ababa at the time of the coronation of Haile Selassie.
  • Ninety-Two Days (1934): Waugh's journey through British Guiana.
  • Waugh In Abyssinia (1936): Waugh's second travel book in Africa.
  • Robbery Under Law (1939): Waugh's travels around Mexico in 1938.
  • When The Going Was Good (1946): A selection of Waugh's earlier travel works.
  • A Tourist In Africa (1960).


Autobiography and memoirs

  • A Little Learning (1964)
  • The diaries of Evelyn Waugh (1976) - edited by Michael Davie.
  • The Letters of Evelyn Waugh by Evelyn Waugh and Mark Amory (Editor), London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson; 1st edition (4 Sep 1980), ISBN 0297776576

Biographies of Waugh


  2. Quoted in Christopher Hitchens, "The Permanent Adolescent," The Atlantic Monthly, May 2003
  3. Quoted in Jim Holt, "On Writers and Writing; Decline and Fall and Rise Again," New York Times, 31 Aug. 2003,
  4. " 'Never Apologize, Never Explain', The Art of Evelyn Waugh," The New Yorker, 4 March 1944, reprinted in Classics and Commercials, A Literary Chronicle of the Forties, by Edmund Wilson, page 140, Vintage Books, New York, 1962
  5. Evelyn Waugh (1903–1966): The Beauty of his Malice, obituary in Time, Apr. 22, 1966
  6. What would Evelyn Waugh and George Orwell think?, Christine Odone, The Times, 5 August 2008 (accessed 15 May 2009)
  7. Heath Mount School website
  8. The Waughs: Fathers and Sons in BBC Four Documentaries online (accessed 22 March 2008)
  9. Paula Byrne, 'Mad World: Evelyn Waugh And The Secrets of Brideshead', 2009
  10. Evelyn Waugh, Christopher Sykes
  11. Auberon Waugh, Will this do?, p206 Century/random house, London 1991
  12. WAUGH, Evelyn Arthur St John in Who Was Who 1897–2006 online (accessed 10 January 2008)
  13. The Oxford Companion to British Literature
  14. "It's the best written; the most interesting theme." Evelyn Waugh, appearing on the BBC television "Face to Face" interview with John Freeman, 18 June 1960.
  15. "Evelyn Waugh in his own Words - Waugh’s interview with Elizabeth Jane Howard", Partial transcript of the Monitor programme 1964.
  16. Mark Brown "Waugh at the BBC: 'the most ill-natured interview ever' on CD after 55 years", The Guardian, 15 April 2008. Retrieved on 15 April 2008.
  17. "Evelyn Waugh, R.I.P.", National Review, May 3, 1966 [1]
  18. "Evelyn Waugh," New York Times Book Review, 7 January 1962, reprinted in Rocking the Boat, by Gore Vidal, pages 235-243, Little Brown, Boston, 1962
  19. [2] BBC World Service "Anniversary Waugh of words" 23 April 2003

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