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Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. It stretches from the seaward edge of the state's territorial sea out to 200 nautical miles from its coast. In casual use, the term may include the territorial sea and even the continental shelf beyond the 200 mile limit.

Definition

The World's EEZs, shown as a white extension of land territory
Generally a state's EEZ extends to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370 km) out from its coastal baseline. The exception to this rule occurs when EEZs would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual boundary. Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the most proximate state.

A state's Exclusive Economic Zone starts at the seaward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance from the baseline. Thus, the EEZ includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed of the continental shelf up to from the coastal baseline, where this extends beyond the EEZ, but this does not form part of their EEZ.

Origin of EEZ

This concept of allotting nations EEZs to give better control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century.

Originally, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nautical miles (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times traditionally, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nmi beyond the shore. In the early 1970s, Ecuadormarker claimed territorial waters extending to 200 nautical miles. They began seizing U.S.marker tuna-fishing boats and charging heavy fines (that the U.S. government paid). Eventually the U.S. agreed to submit the issue to the International Court of Justice at The Hague. This eventually led to the recognition of 12 nmi as normal for the territorial sea/waters and binding international recognition of the 200 mile Exclusive Economic Zone by the Third United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1982.

Part V, Article 55 of the Convention states:

:Specific legal regime of the Exclusive Economic Zone
The Exclusive Economic Zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, subject to the specific legal regime established in this Part, under which the rights and jurisdiction of the coastal State and the rights and freedoms of other States are governed by the relevant provisions of this Convention.




EEZ disputes

Disputes over the exact extent of Exclusive Economic Zones are a common source of conflict between states over marine waters.

Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also sources of potential dispute.

Transboundary stocks

Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the FAO, provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control.Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. They can be contrasted with straddling stocks, which range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.

By country

Argentina

Argentina's Exclusive Economic Zones
1,159,063 km2

Australia

Australia's Exclusive Economic Zones
Brazil's EEZ.


Australia has the third largest Exclusive Economic Zone, behind the United Statesmarker and Francemarker, but ahead of Russiamarker, with the total area actually exceeding that of its land territory. As per UN convention, Australia's EEZ generally extends 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.

The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ. Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, an EEZ of 200 nautical miles (370 km) from its Antarctic Territory but has requested it not be acted upon at this time, in accordance with the spirit of cooperation embodied in the Antarctic Treaty. Nevertheless, Australia maintains the right to explore and exploit the seabed and water column within its EEZ.

See also: Australian Whale Sanctuary

EEZ Area (km2)
Heard and McDonald Islandsmarker 410,722
463,371
325,021
428,618
Macquarie Islandmarker 471,837
6,048,681
TOTAL 8,148,250


Brazil

Brazilmarker's Exclusive Economic Zone covers 3,660,995 km2.

In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf to extend its maritime continental margin.

Canada

Canada's Exclusive Economic Zone and territorial waters
Canadamarker is unusual in that its Exclusive Economic Zone, covering 2,755,564 km2, is slightly smaller than its territorial waters. The latter generally extend only from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Baymarker (about across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrencemarker and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelagomarker.

Chile

Chile's Exclusive Economic Zones
Chile's EEZ includes areas around the Juan Fernández Islandsmarker, the Desventuradas Islandsmarker and Easter Islandmarker.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
Mainland 2 017 717 755 757 2 773 474
Disventuradas 443 907
Easter 713 465 164 713 629
Juan Fernandez 500 190
Total 3 675 279 756 102 4 431 381


People's Republic of China

China's Exclusive Economic Zones
  • 877,019 km2
+
  • 3,000,000 km2
total:3,877,019

Denmark

The Exclusive Economic Zone and territorial waters of the Kingdom of Denmark
The Kingdom of Denmark includes the two autonomous provinces of Greenlandmarker and the Faroe Islandsmarker. The EEZs of the latter two do not form part of the EEZ of the European Union.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
105 989 42 506 149 083
260 995 1 399 262 394
2 184 254 2 166 086 4 350 340
Total 2 551 238 2 210 579 4 761 817


European Union

See also Common Fisheries Policy

The EEZ of the European Union is shared, so vessels or a national from one country can fish in another country's EEZ. The combined zone amounts to 25 million km2, making it larger than the United States' zone, the largest of any single country.

France

The EEZ of France across the world.
Due to its numerous overseas départements and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the second-largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,035,000 km2 (4,260,000 mi2), just behind the EEZ of the United Statesmarker (11,351,000 km2 / 4,383,000 mi2), but ahead of the EEZ of Australia (10,648,250 km2 / 4,111,312 mi2). According to a different calculation cited by the Pew Research Center, the EEZ of France would be 10,084,201 km2 (3,893,532 mi2), behind the United Statesmarker (12,174,629 km2 / 4,700,651 mi2) and Australia (10,648,250 km2 / 4,111,312 mi2), but ahead of Russiamarker (7,566,673 km2 / 2,921,508 mi2).

The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of the Earth.

Greece

Greecemarker has not yet claimed an exclusive economic zone, although it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law. The reason for its inaction is the direct Turkishmarker threat of casus belli.

Turkey's declaration of casus belli is not related to the EEZ issue. Turkey claims that the Aegean Sea's status as a semi-closed sea affords it a special nature (unlike other semi-closed seas as the Adriaticmarker or even fully enclosed seas as the Black Seamarker). Moreover, Turkey is not among the signatories of UNCLOS which allows countries to expand the width of their territorial waters up to . Even though Turkey is a persistent objector to the relevant article of UNCLOS, it has expanded its own territorial waters in the Black Sea to . In 1995, just after Greece's ratification of UNCLOS, Turkey declared that if Greece expands the width of her territorial waters over , Turkey would conceive this action as a containment attempt and a direct offence to her sovereignty. So, the Turkish Parliament decided that if Greece attempts to expand the width of her territorial waters it would be a cause of war (casus belli).

Poland

The Polish EEZ covers the area of 30,533 km2. within the Baltic Seamarker.

Portugal

  • 327,667 km2
  • 953,633 km2
  • 446,108 km2
  • total : 1,727,408 km2


Portugalmarker has the 3rd largest Exclusive Economic Zone of the EU and the 11th in the world.

The boundary between the EEZs of Portugal and Spainmarker is disputed. Spain maintains that the southernmost EEZ border between Spain and Portugal should consist on an equidistant line drawn halfway between Madeiramarker and the Canary Islandsmarker. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islandsmarker (a small archipelago north of the Canaries), and claims this pushes the EEZ border further south. Spain objects on the basis that the Savage Islands do not have a separate continental shelf, according to the article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea:
"Rocks which cannot sustain human habitation or economic life of their own shall have no exclusive economic zone or continental shelf."


Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over 1.2 million square kilometres of the neighbouring continental shelf in May 2009.

United Kingdom

  • : 764,071 km (incl. Rockallmarker (disputed))2
  • Ascension Islandmarker (UK): 443,844 km2
  • (UK): 636,600 km2
  • Channel Islands (UK): 6,517 km2
  • (UK): 331 km2
  • (UK): 8,247 km2
  • (UK): 837,221 km2
  • (UK): 446,616 km2
  • (UK): 749,612 km2
  • (UK): 80,701 km2
  • total: 3,973,760 km2


India

India's Exclusive Economic Zones


Indonesia

  • 6 159 032 km2


Japan

Japan's Exclusive Economic Zones:


Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (Russia, South Koreamarker, PRCmarker and ROCmarker). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Mexico

Mexicomarker's Exclusive Economic Zones comprise a total surface area of 5,144,295 km2, and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world.

New Zealand

New Zealandmarker's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km2, according to the Sea Around Us Project, which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2. These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency).

Norway

Norway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819 620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbardmarker and Jan Mayenmarker . The fact that the European Union shares its economic zones was a big reason why Norway did not enter the EU as a member.

In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of shelf in the Barents Sea.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
Mainland 1 273 482 323 802 1 597 284
Svalbardmarker 402 574 61 002 463 576
Jan Mayenmarker 273 118 373 273 491
Bouvet 436 004 49 436 053
Total 2 385 178 385 226 2 770 404


Pakistan

  • 201,520 km2


Philippines

Philippines' Exclusive Economic Zone claim shown in the lighter blue shade.
Philippinesmarker' EEZ covers 1,590,780 (272,921) km2 according to this website.

Russia

Russia's Exclusive Economic Zones
  • Asia: 6,
  • Baltic: 24,549
  • Barents Sea: 1,159,594
  • total 7,566,673 km2
Source

South Africa

South Africa's Exclusive Economic Zones
South Africa's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands, totalling 1 535 538 km2.
  • Mainland 1 068 659 km2
  • Prince Edward islands 466 879 km2


South Korea

S.
Korean Exclusive Economic Zones:
Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2

United States

The United States' exclusive economic zone is the largest in the world, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located not only along the eastern and western seaboards and Gulf of Mexico-bordering region of the continental United States, but are also located in the Caribbean Sea, Pacific Ocean and Arctic Ocean.



Rankings by area

This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited teritories), but does not include claims on Antarticamarker. EEZ+TA is Exclusive Economic Zone plus total internal area.

Country EEZ km2 Shelf km2 EEZ+TA km2
12,174,629 2,193,526 21,814,306
10,084,201 389,422 10,755,724
8,505,348 2,194,008 16,197,464
7,566,673 3,817,843 24,664,915
6,682,503 277,610 6,953,478
6,159,032 2,039,381 8,019,392
5,599,077 2,644,795 15,583,747
5,453,428 722,891 5,714,564
4,479,388 454,976 4,857,318
3,675,279 252,947 4,431,381
3,660,955 774,563 12,175,832
3,441,810 7,523 3,442,536
3,177,593 419,102 5,141,968
2,996,419 19,403 2,997,121
2,551,238 495,657 4,761,811
2,402,288 191,256 2,865,128
2,385,178 434,020 2,770,404
2,305,143 402,996 5,592,406
1,990,530 18,411 1,990,711
1,727,408 26,902 1,819,498
1,590,780 272,921 1,890,780
1,589,477 36,282 1,618,373
1,535,538 156,337 2,756,575
1,336,559 39,063 1,337,014
1,284,997 29,061 1,287,037
1,282,978 47,705 1,301,250
1,225,259 101,505 1,812,300
1,159,063 856,346 3,939,463
1,077,231 41,034 1,333,600
1,039,233 77,920 1,545,225
923,322 34,538 923,622
879,666 831,340 10,520,487
825,052 55,895 1,462,709
815,915 82,000 2,101,131
808,158 53,691 1,949,906
800,561 5,591 804,594
751,345 108,015 854,345
749,790 3,575 749,816
663,251 11,483 675,440
659,558 8,517 660,305
654,715 106,323 668,658
603,978 2,837 604,437
578,986 94,212 1,380,576
574,725 19,585 625,825
564,748 86,698 1,388,864
552,669 59,229 1,080,637
541,915 116,834 843,251
533,180 59,071 842,680
532,775 220,332 1,209,353
532,619 32,453 598,229
518,433 48,092 1,765,133
505,572 81,451 637,529
470,666 107,759 1,382,716
417,663 365,198 748,875
410,310 139,935 480,583
351,589 64,763 2,111,129
350,751 61,525 460,637
335,646 53,404 411,163
334,671 323,412 665,474
308,480 41 308,501
303,509 7,820 331,560
300,851 225,214 400,529
299,397 230,063 812,517
279,863 57,395 545,863
274,577 53,746 721,127
263,451 61,591 1,265,451
261,654 56,093 1,045,216
258,137 9,802 269,128
255,898 10,738 304,569
249,734 17,715 361,103
249,542 68,718 362,034
241,888 25,611 1,186,975
235,999 51,383 1,117,911
235,349 22,502 473,888
228,633 107,249 2,378,323
217,313 42,285 1,141,081
215,611 28,625 287,351
202,790 35,020 470,458
186,898 426 187,328
176,254 10,175 498,717
168,718 118,693 1,797,468
165,338 31,662 1,190,858
163,752 1,526 165,987
160,885 154,604 602,255
158,861 23,092 355,583
154,011 77,246 192,345
147,318 79,142 750,818
142,166 75,327 318,381
137,765 50,578 352,734
132,826 54,566 253,364
131,397 1,902 132,361
127,950 2,087 130,781
127,772 53,631 291,592
126,760 6,683 154,510
126,353 9,985 2,508,094
123,881 70,874 254,254
123,725 39,339 159,850
116,942 11,073 697,309
114,170 14,422 223,059
110,089 4,128 110,531
101,857 67,126 265,467
98,707 4,042 107,958
90,962 16,852 112,003
87,171 85,109 425,590
86,392 66,438 230,390
83,231 43,016 119,419
77,728 61,817 195,328
74,199 25,284 79,329
70,326 25,648 85,200
68,148 19,827 2,573,961
62,515 62,515 243,550
59,426 44,755 305,283
59,032 50,277 115,626
58,218 57,474 141,818
57,485 57,485 414,599
54,823 5,301 55,139
36,992 36,992 82,219
36,302 1,561 36,691
35,351 13,178 58,317
34,307 10,426 145,186
33,221 2,721 145,843
31,590 31,590 43,176
31,017 7,982 373,017
29,797 29,797 342,482
28,985 659 29,736
28,452 27,772 93,011
27,426 2,237 27,770
26,352 3,745 48,424
23,627 19,303 262,018
23,112 5,581 34,407
21,946 3,243 91,646
19,516 1,067 29,968
16,547 11,420 491,989
15,617 544 16,156
13,691 6,979 42,439
12,045 1,265 68,830
11,026 11,026 28,844
10,503 1,085 195,683
10,225 10,225 10,975
10,090 8,509 15,855
9,974 653 10,235
7,745 3,896 21,557
7,459 3,187 30,659
7,031 7,031 72,331
3,447 3,447 33,975
1,606 1,593 2,346,464
1,067 1,067 1,772
771 771 439,088
288 290
256 256 6,276
220 220 20,493
166 59 89,508
50 50 51,259
652,090
468
29,743
83,871
86,600
207,600
38,394
1,098,581
582,000
274,222
27,834
622,984
1,284,000
78,867
1,104,300
93,028
2,724,900
10,887
199,951
236,800
30,355
160
2,586
118,484
1,240,192
33,846
1,564,100
147,181
1,267,000
406,752
25,713
26,338
61
77,474
49,035
17,364
41,284
143,100
488,100
241,038
447,400
0.44
752,612
390,757


See also



References

  1. William R. Slomanson, 2006. Fundamental Perspectives on International Law, 5th edn. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth, 294.
  2. UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
  3. Article 55, 1982 UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
  4. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,909806,00.html
  5. The Legal Status of Ice in the Antarctic Region
  6. FAO: The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2006 Part3: highlights of Special studies Rome. ISBN 978-92-5-105568-7
  7. FAO (2007) Report of the FAO workshop on vulnerable ecosystems and destructive fishing in deep sea fisheries Rome, Fisheries Report No. 829.
  8. Geoscience Australia. 2005. Maritime Boundary Definitions.
  9. UN confirms Australia’s rights over extra 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed. Minister for Resources and Energy, The Hon Martin Ferguson AM MP, Media Release, 21 April 2008.
  10. Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea. Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, Submission by Australia
  11. Geoscience Australia, Australian Maritime Boundaries Information System 2001. Area of the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone
  12. UN Continental Shelf and UNCLOS Article 76: Brazilian Submission
  13. Wildlife Habitat Canada. Canada's Marine Waters: Integrating the Boundaries of Politics and Nature.
  14. Danish foreign ministry
  15. About the Common Fisheries Policy
  16. EU Glossary europa.eu
  17. EXPLORATION AND EXTRACTION OF SAND AND GRAVEL RESOURCES IN THE POLISH EXCLUSIVE ECONOMICAL ZONE OF THE BALTIC SEA, European marine sand and gravel – shaping the future, EMSAGG Conference 20-21 February 2003, Delft University, The Netherlands
  18. Ingenium, p. 32.
  19. Lacleta Muñoz, José Manuel: "Las fronteras de España en el mar". Documentos de trabajo 34-2004, Real Instituto Elcano
  20. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Part VIII, Article 121
  21. Portugal Applies To UN To Extend Its Continental Shelf Zone, Dow Jones Newswires, 8 May 2009. Accessed 13 May 2009.
  22. Japan (main islands) The Sea Around Us Project
  23. Japan (outer islands) The Sea Around Us Project
  24. Geographic location
  25. New Zealand Sea Around Us Project
  26. Kermadec Islands (New Zealand) The Sea Around Us Project
  27. New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (2007). Improving Regulation of Environmental Effects in New Zealand’s Exclusive Economic Zone: Discussion Paper - Introduction. Published August 2007, Publication number ME824. ISBN 0978478301601. Accessed 2006-01-07.
  28. Statistisk årbok 2007 Accessed January 2008
  29. UN backs Norway claim to Arctic seabed extension, Canwest News Service, 15 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
  30. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems — Marine Jurisdictions Accessed 1 November 2006
  31. Sea around us project
  32. http://www.seaaroundus.org/eez/eez.aspx


External links




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