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"Eboue" redirects here, for the Arsenal F.C. player see Emmanuel Eboue.

Governor-General Éboué welcomes Charles de Gaulle to Chad.

Félix Adolphe Éboué (26 December 1884 - 17 March 1944) was a Black Frenchmarker (French Guiananmarker-born) colonial administrator and Free French leader.


Born in Cayennemarker, the grandson of slaves, he was the fourth of a family of five brothers. His father, Yves Urbain Éboué, was an orator and his mother, Marie Josephine Aurélie Leveillé, was a shop owner born in Rouramarker. She raised her sons in the guiana creole tradition. Éboué was a brilliant scholar who won a scholarship to study at secondary school in Bordeauxmarker. Éboué was also a keen footballer, captaining his school team when they travelled to games in both Belgiummarker and Englandmarker.

After graduating in law from the École coloniale in Parismarker, he served in Oubangui-Charimarker for twenty years and then in Martiniquemarker. In 1936 he was made governor of Guadeloupemarker, the first Black man to be appointed to such a senior post anywhere in the French colonies.

Two years later, with conflict on the horizon, he was transferred to Chadmarker, arriving in Fort Lamymarker on 4 January 1939. He was instrumental in developing Chadian support for the Free French in 1940, an action which ultimately gave Charles de Gaulle's faction control of the rest of French Equatorial Africa. As governor of the whole area during 1940-1944, Éboué acted to improve the status of Africans, classifying 200 educated Africans as notable évolué and reducing their taxes, as well as placing some Gabonesemarker civil servants into positions of authority. He also took an interest in the careers of individuals who would later become significant in their own right, including Jean-Hilaire Aubame and Jean Rémy Ayouné.

Although a Francophile who promoted the French language in Africa, his circular La nouvelle politique indigène ("New Native Policy"), put out 8 November 1941, advocated the preservation of traditional African institutions.

He died of a heart attack while in Cairomarker; after his death, the French colonies in Africa brought out a joint stamp issue honouring his memory. An Officer of the Legion of Honour, decorated in 1941 with the Cross of the Liberation, and a member of the Council of the Order of the Liberation, his ashes are in the Panthéonmarker, the first Black man to be so honoured.

Place Félix-Éboué is in 12th arrondissement of Paris as is Paris Métro station Daumesnil marker which also honours Félix Éboué. He also has a small street in his name near La Défense.

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