The North American
F-100 Super Sabre
was a supersonic jet fighter
that served with the United States Air Force
1954 to 1971 and with the Air
(ANG) until 1979. As the first of the Century Series
collection of USAF jet
fighters, it was capable of supersonic
speed in level flight. The F-100 was originally designed as a
higher performance follow-on to the F-86
air superiority fighter.
Adapted as a fighter bomber, the F-100 would be supplanted by the
Mach 2 class F-105 Thunderchief
for strike missions over North Vietnam. The F-100 flew extensively
over South Vietnam as the Air Force's primary close air support jet
until replaced by the more efficient subsonic A-7 Corsair II
. The F-100 also served
in several NATO air forces
and with other US allies.
In its later life, it was often
referred to as "the Hun," a shortened version of "one
Design and development
The underside of a YF-100 (s/n
The cockpit of an F-100D
In January 1951, North American
delivered an unsolicited proposal for a supersonic day
fighter to the United States Air
. Named Sabre 45
because of its 45° wing
sweep, it represented an evolution of the F-86 Sabre
. The mockup was inspected 7 July 1951
and after over a hundred modifications, the new aircraft was
accepted as the F-100
on 30 November 1951.
Extensive use of titanium
aircraft was notable. On 3 January 1952, the USAF ordered two
prototypes followed by 23 F-100A
s in February and
an additional 250 F-100As in August.
first flew on 25 May 1953, seven
months ahead of schedule. It reached Mach
in spite of being fitted with a de-rated XJ57-P-7
engine. The second
prototype flew on 14 October 1953, followed by the first production
F-100A on 9 October 1953. The USAF operational evaluation from
November 1953 to December 1955 found the new fighter to have
superior performance but declared it not ready for widescale
deployment due to various deficiencies in the design. These
findings were subsequently confirmed during Project Hot
operational suitability tests. Particularly troubling
was the yaw instability in certain regimes of flight which produced
. The aircraft
could develop a sudden yaw and roll which would happen too fast for
the pilot to correct and would quickly overstress the aircraft
structure to disintegration. It was under these conditions that
North American's chief test pilot, George Welch
, was killed while dive
testing an early-production F-100A on 12 October 1954. Another
control problem stemmed from handling characteristics of the
at high angles of attack
. As the aircraft approached
speeds, loss of lift on the
tips of the wings caused a violent pitch-up
. This particular phenomenon (which could
easily be fatal
at low altitude where there
was insufficient time to recover) became known as the "Sabre dance
Nevertheless, delays in the F-84F
program pushed the Tactical Air Command
to order the raw
F-100A into service. TAC also requested that future F-100s should
be fighter-bombers, with the capability of delivering nuclear bombs
The North American F-107
follow-on Mach 2 development of the F-100 with the air intake
moved above and behind the cockpit. It was not developed in favor
of the F-105 Thunderchief
An F-100D showing its oval air
officially entered USAF service on 27 September 1954 with 479th Fighter Wing at George
F-100D of the 50th TFW (Wing
Commander's aircraft), at Toul Air Base, France in 1958
By 10 November 1954, the F-100As
suffered six major accidents due to flight instability, structural
failures, and hydraulic system failures, prompting the Air Force to
ground the entire fleet until February 1955. The 479th finally
became operational in September 1955. Due to ongoing problems, the
Air Force began phasing out the F-100A in 1958, with the last
aircraft leaving active duty in 1961. By that time, 47 aircraft
were lost in major accidents. Escalating tension due to construction of the
Wall in August 1961 forced the USAF to recall the
F-100As into active service in early 1962.
The aircraft was
finally retired in 1970.
request for a fighter-bomber was addressed with the
F-100C which flew in March 1954 and entered
service on 14 July 1955 with the 450th Fighter Wing, Foster AFB, TX.
Operational testing in 1955 revealed
that the F-100C was at best an interim solution, sharing all the
vices of the F-100A. The uprated J57-P-21 engine boosted
performance but continued to suffer from compressor stalls
. On a positive note, the
F-100C was considered an excellent platform for nuclear toss bombing
because of its high top speed. The
inertia coupling problem was more or less addressed with
installation of a yaw damper in the 146th F-100C, later retrofitted
to earlier aircraft. A pitch damper was added starting with the
301st F-100C, at a cost of US$10,000 per aircraft.
The addition of "wet" hardpoints meant the F-100C could carry a
pair of 275 US gal (1,040 l) and a pair of 200 US
gal (770 l) drop tanks. However, the combination caused loss
of directional stability at high speeds and the four tanks were
soon replaced by a pair of 450 US gal (1,730 l) drop
tanks. The 450s proved scarce and expensive and were often replaced
by smaller 335 US gal (1,290 l) tanks. Most troubling to
TAC was the fact, that, as of 1965, only 125 F-100Cs were capable
of utilizing all non-nuclear weapons in the Air Force inventory,
particularly cluster bombs
and AIM-9 Sidewinder
air-to-air missiles. By
the time the F-100C was phased out in June 1970, 85 had been lost
in major accidents.
The definitive F-100D
aimed to address the
offensive shortcomings of the F-100C by being primarily a ground
attack aircraft with secondary fighter capability. To this effect,
the aircraft was fitted with autopilot, upgraded avionics, and,
starting with the 184th production aircraft, the Sidewinder
capability. In 1959, 65 aircraft were modified to also fire the
To further address the dangerous flight characteristics, the wing
span was extended by 26 in (66 cm) and the vertical tail
area was increased by 27%.
The first F-100D (54-2121) flew on 24 January 1956, piloted by
Daniel Darnell. It entered service on 29 September 1956 with
405th Fighter Wing at Langley
The aircraft suffered from reliability
problems with the constant speed drive which provides
constant-frequency current to electrical systems. In fact, the
drive was so unreliable that USAF required it to have its own oil
system to minimize damage in case of failure. Landing gear and
brake parachute malfunctions claimed a number of aircraft, and the
refueling probes had a tendency to break away during high speed
maneuvers. Numerous post-production fixes created such a diversity
of capabilities between individual aircraft that by 1965 around 700
F-100Ds underwent High Wire modifications to standardize the weapon
systems. High Wire modifications took 60 days per aircraft at a
total cost of US$150 million. In 1966, Combat Skyspot program
fitted some F-100Ds with an X band
transmitter to allow for ground-directed bombing in inclement
weather or at night.
In 1961, at England AFB, LA, (401st Tactical Wing), there were four
fighter/bomber squadrons. These were the 412th, 413th, 414th and
the 415th (Fighting Tigers). The 415th aircraft were modified to be
the only self starting fighters in the world. This was accomplished
with the addition of a large canister to the underside of the
aircraft. This canister contained a black powder compound. The
canister was ignited (electro-mechanical) and drove the jet engine
to minimal ignition point. During the Berlin Crisis (approximately
09/61) the 615th was deployed to Rammstein AB, Germany to support
the Germans. At the initial briefing, the 415th personnel were
informed that due to the close proximity of the USSR, if an ICBM
were to be launched, they would only have thirty minutes to launch
the 415th aircraft and retire to the nearest German bunker.
In 1967, the USAF began a structural reinforcement program to
extend the aircraft's service life from the designed 3,000 flying
hours to 7,000. Over 500 F-100Ds were lost, predominantly in
accidents. After one aircraft suffered wing failure, particular
attention was paid to lining the wings with external bracing
strips. During the Vietnam War, combat losses constituted as many
as 50 aircraft per year. On 7 June 1957, an F-100D fitted with an
booster rocket making
150,000 lbf (667.2 kN) of thrust successfully performed a
zero length launch
capability was incorporated into late-production aircraft. After a
major accident, the USAF Thunderbirds reverted from F-105 Thunderchief
to the F-100D which
they operated from 1964 until it was replaced by the F-4 Phantom II
F-100D in trial of zero-length-launch
A USAF KB-50D of the 622d Air
Refueling Squadron carrying out the first triple-point refuelling
operation with three F-100Cs in 1956
The F-100 was the subject of many modification programs over the
course of its service. Many of these were improvements to
electronics, structural strengthening, and projects to improve ease
of maintenance. One of the more interesting of these was the
replacement of the original afterburner of the J-57 engine with the
more advanced afterburners from retired Convair F-102
Delta Dagger interceptors. This modification
changed the appearance of the aft end of the F-100, doing away with
the original "petal-style" exhaust. The afterburner modification
started in the 1970s and solved maintenance problems with the old
type as well as operational problems, including compressor stall
The F-100F two-seat trainer entered service in 1958. It received
many of the same weapons and airframe upgrades as the F-100D,
including the new afterburners. By 1970, 74 F-100Fs were lost in
By 1972, the F-100 was mostly phased out of USAF active service and
turned over to tactical fighter groups and squadrons in the
Air National Guard
. In Air
National Guard units, the F-100 was eventually replaced by the
F-4 Phantom II
, A-7 Corsair II
, and A-10 Thunderbolt II
, with the last F-100
retiring in 1979. In foreign service, Royal Danish Air Force
and Turkish Air Force
F-100s soldiered on
Over the lifetime of its USAF service, a total of 889 F-100
aircraft were destroyed in accidents, involving the deaths of 324
pilots. The deadliest year for F-100 accidents was 1958, with 116
aircraft destroyed, and 47 pilots killed.
Super Sabres were withdrawn from service, a large number were
converted into remote-controlled drones (QF-100) under the USAF
Full Scale Aerial Target (FSAT) program for use as targets for
various anti-aircraft weapons, including missile-carrying fighters
and fighter-interceptors, with FSAT operations being conducted
primarily at Tyndall
AFB, FL. A few F-100s also found their way into
civilian hands, primarily with defense contractors supporting USAF
and NASA flight test activities at Edwards AFB, CA.
Project High Wire
High Wire was a modernization program for selected F-100Cs, Ds and
Fs. It consisted of two modifications:
- Electrical rewiring upgrade
- Heavy maintenance and IRAN upgrade.
Rewiring upgrade operation consisted of replacing old wiring and
harnesses with improved maintainable designs. Heavy maintenance and
IRAN (inspect and repair as necessary) included new kits,
modifications, standardized configurations, repairs, replacements
and complete refurbishment.
This project required all new manuals (TOs) and incremented (i.e.
-85 to -86) block numbers. All later production models, especially
the F models included earlier High Wire mods. New manuals included
colored illustrations. All manuals will have the Roman numeral (I)
added after the aircraft number (i.e. T.O. 1F-100D(I)-1S-120, 12
F-100Ds of the 416th Tactical Fighter
Squadron at Da Nang Air Base, South Vietnam, in 1965
Two USAF F-100Ds over South Vietnam in
April 1961 six Super Sabres were deployed from Clark Air Force
Base in the Philippines to Don Muang Airfield in
Thailand for air defense purposes; the first F-100s to enter combat
in Southeast Asia.
A USAF F-100F of the 416th TFS at Phu
Cat Air Base, South Vietnam
From that date until their redeployment
in 1971, the F-100s would be the longest serving US jet fighter bomber
to fight in the Vietnam War.
Serving as MIGCAP
, MISTY FACs
, and Wild Weasels
over North Vietnam, and then
relegated to close air support and ground attacks within South
On 18 August 1964, the first F-100D to be shot down by ground fire
was piloted by 1st Lt Colin A. Clark, of the 428th TFS
; Clark ejected and
survived. On 4 April 1965 as escorts protecting F-105s
attacking the Thanh Hoa
Bridge, F-100 Super Sabres fought the USAF's first
air-to-air jet combat duel in the Vietnam War, in which an F-100
piloted by Capt Donald W.
Kilgus shot down a North
Vietnamese Air Force MiG-17
using cannon fire, while another fired Sidewinder
missiles. The surviving North
Vietnamese pilot reported 3 of his planes were shot down. Although
recorded by the US as one probable kill, this represented the first
aerial victory by US forces in Vietnam. However, the small force of
4 MiG-17s had evaded the F-100s to claim two F-105s. The F-100 was
soon replaced by the F-4C for Mig CAP which pilots noted suffered
for lacking built-in guns for dogfights.
The Vietnam War was not known for utilizing activated National Guard
or other US Reserve units; but
rather, had a reputation for conscription
) during the course of the war.
During a confirmation hearing before Congress
in 1973, USAF General
George S. Brown
, who had commanded the 7th Air Force
(7 AF) during the war, stated
that five of the best Super Sabre
squadrons in Vietnam were from the Air National Guard
. This included the
120th Tactical Fighter Squadron (120 TFS) of the Colorado Air National Guard
136 TFS of the New York Air
TFS, the 174 TFS of the Iowa Air National Guard
and the 188
TFS of the New Mexico Air
. The fifth unit was a regular AF squadron manned
by mostly Air Guardsmen.
The Air National Guard
Squadrons increased the regular USAF by nearly 100 Super Sabres in
theater, averaging, for the Colorado ANG F-100s, 24 missions a day,
delivering ordnance and munitions with a 99.5% reliability rate.
From May 1968 to April 1969, the ANG Super Sabres flew more than
38,000 combat hours and more than 24,000 sorties. Between them, at
the cost of seven F-100 Guard pilots killed (plus one staff
officer) and the loss of 14 Super Sabres to enemy action, the
squadrons expended over four million rounds of 20mm cannon
, 30 million pounds of
bombs and over 10 million pounds of napalm
against the enemy.
The Hun was also deployed as a two-seat F-100F model which saw
service as a "Fast-FAC" or "Misty-Fac" (forward air controller
) in North
Vietnam, spotting targets for other fighter-bomber aircraft and
conducting SAR (Search and Rescue) missions as part of the
top-secret Commando Sabre or "Misty" Operation based out of Phu Cat
Airbase. It was also the first Wild
(air defense suppression)
aircraft whose specially-trained crews were tasked with locating
and destroying enemy air defenses. Four F-100F Wild Weasel Is were
fitted with an APR-25 vector radar homing and warning (RHAW)
receivers, IR-133 panoramic receivers with greater detection range,
and KA-60 panoramic cameras. The APR-25 could detect early-warning
radars and, more importantly, emissions from SA-2 Guideline
tracking and guidance systems.
aircraft deployed to Korat Royal Thai Air Force
Base, Thailand in November 1965, and began flying combat missions
with the 388th Tactical
Fighter Wing in December.
They were joined by three more
aircraft in February 1966. All Wild Weasel F-100Fs were eventually
modified to fire the AGM-45 Shrike
By war's end, 242 F-100 Super Sabres had been lost in Vietnam, as
the F-100 was progressively replaced by the F-4 Phantom II
and the F-105 Thunderchief
. The Hun
logged 360,283 combat sorties during the war and its wartime
operations came to end on 31 July 1971.
French Air Force Super Sabres flew combat missions, with strikes
flown from bases within France against targets in Algeria.
Turkish Air Force F-100 units were used during the invasion to
Cyprus in 1974. Together with F-104G Starfighters, they provided
close air support to Turkish ground troops and bombed targets
- The first operational aircraft in United States Air Force inventory
capable of exceeding the speed of
sound in level flight.
- On 29 October 1953, the first YF-100A prototype set a world
speed record of 755.149 mph (656.207 kn,
1,215.295 km/h) at low altitude.
- On 20 August 1955, an F-100C set the first supersonic world
speed record of 822.135 mph (714.416 kn,
- On 4 September 1955, an F-100C won the Bendix Trophy, covering 2,235 mi
(2,020 nmi, 3,745 km) at an average speed of
610.726 mph (530.706 kn, 982.868 km/h).
- On 26 December 1956, two F-100Ds became the first-ever aircraft
to successfully perform buddy refueling.
- On 13
May 1957, three F-100Cs set a new world distance record for
single-engine aircraft by covering the 6,710 mi
(5,835 nmi, 10,805 km) distance from London to Los Angeles in 14 hours and 4 minutes. The flight was
accomplished using inflight refueling.
- On 7
August 1959, two F-100Fs became the first-ever jet fighters to fly
over the North
- On 16 April 1961, the first USAF combat
jets to enter the Vietnam War.
- On 4 April 1965, the first USAF aircraft to
engage in aerial jet combat during the Vietnam War, while escorting F-105 Thunderchiefs to target.
- The U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds operated
the F-100C from 1956 until 1964. After briefly converting to the
F-105 Thunderchief, the team flew
F-100Ds from July 1964 until November 1968, before converting to
the F-4E Phantom II.
The costs are in contemporary United States dollars
and have not been
adjusted for inflation.
||23.2 million for the program or 10,134 prorated per
|Additional modification costs
|Cost per flying hour
|Maintenance cost per flying hour
Prototype YF-100A (Serial number:
F-100A with the original short tail
A QF-100D over Tyndall Air Force Base,
Florida (USA), in 1981
- Prototype, Model NA-180 two built, s/n 52-5754 and 5755.
- 9 test unmanned drone version: 2 D-models, 1 YQF-100F
F-model,see DF-100F, and six other test versions.
- Single-seat day fighter; 203 built, Model NA-192.
- RF-100A (Slick Chick)
- F-100A modified for photo reconnaissance, six modified in 1954.
Unarmed, with camera installations in lower fuselage bay. Retired
from USAF service in 1958. Four transferred to Republic of China Air Force,
retired in 1960.
- See North American
- Proposed interceptor version of F-100B, did not advance beyond
- Seventy Model NA-214 and 381 Model NA-217. Additional fuel
tanks in the wings, fighter-bomber capability, probe-and-drogue refueling capability,
uprated J57-P-21 engine on late production aircraft. First flight:
March 1954; 476 built.
- One F-100C converted into a two-seat training aircraft.
- Single-seat fighter-bomber, more advanced avionics, larger wing
and tail fin, landing flaps. First flight: 24 January 1956; 1,274
- Two-seat training version, armament decreased from four to two
cannon. First flight: 7 March 1957; 339 built.
- This designation was given to one F-100F that was used as drone
- Three F-100Fs used for test purposes, the prefix N
indicates that modifications prevented return to regular
- Specific Danish designation given to 14
F-100Fs exported to Denmark in 1974, in order to distinguish these from the 10
F-100Fs delivered 1959-1961.
- Another 209 D and F models were ordered and converted to
unmanned radio-controled FSAT (Full Scale Aerial Target) drone and
drone directors for testing and destruction by modern air-to-air
missiles used by current Air Force fighter jets.
- Unbuilt all-weather export version for Japan.
- Unbuilt variant with a J57-P-55 engine.
- Unbuilt version with simplified avionics.
- Proposed French-built F-100F with Rolls-Royce Spey turbofan engine.
- It was the only allied air force to operate the F-100A model.
The first F-100 was delivered in October 1958. It was followed by
15 F-100As in 1959, and by 65 more F-100As in 1960. In 1961, four
unarmed RF-100As were delivered. Additionally, 38 ex-ANG F-100As
were delivered later, to bring total strength to 118 F-100As and
four RF-100As. F-100As were retrofitted with the F-100D vertical
tail with its AN/APS-54 tail-warning radar and equipped to launch
Sidewinder air-to-air missiles. Several were lost in intelligence
missions over the People's Republic of China.
Retired Danish F-100F Super
- It operated total 72 aircraft. 48 F-100Ds and 24 Fs were
delivered to Denmark from 1959 to 1974. The last Danish F-100s were
retired from service in 1982. The F-100s were replaced by Saab F-35 Draken and Lockheed Martin F-16s. Some Danish
F-100s were transferred to Turkey (21 F-100Ds and two
- The Armee de l'Air was the first Allied air force to
receive the F-100 Super Sabre. The first aircraft arrived in France
on 1 May 1958. A total of 100 aircraft (85 F-100Ds and 15 F-100Fs)
were supplied to France, and assigned to the NATO 4th Allied
Tactical Air Force. They were stationed at German French bases.
French F-100s were used on combat missions flying from bases in
France against targets in Algeria. In 1967 France left NATO, and
German-based F-100s were transferred to France, using bases
recently vacated by the USAF.
- The Turk Hava Kuvvetleri received about 206 F-100C, D
and F Super Sabres. Most came from US stocks, and 21 F-100Ds and
two F-100Fs were supplied by Denmark. Turkish F-100s saw extensive
action during the 1974 invasion of Cyprus.
- List of F-100
Units of the United States Air Force
- On display
- French Air Force F-100D 42185 is
displayed at the Schwäbisches Bauern Technical Museum, Eschach-Seifertshofen, Germany
- French Air Force F-100D 42136 is displayed at the
Schwäbisches Bauern Technical Museum, Eschach-Seifertshofen,
- F-100F 56-3944 of the USAF is on display at the The
Virtual Museum, Flugausstellung Leo Junior, Hermeskeil,
- On display
- On display
- On display
- On display
- On display
- F-100D 54-2174 Midland Air Museum, Coventry,
- F-100D 54-2613 Dumfries and Galloway
Aviation Museum, Dumfries, Scotland
- F-100D 54-2165 Imperial War
Museum, Duxford, England
- F-100D 54-2223 Newark Air Museum, Newark, England
- F-100D 54-2196 Norfolk and Suffolk Aviation
Museum, Bungay, England
- F-100F 63938 formerly of the French
Air Force was on display at the Lashenden Air Warfare Museum,
Ashford, England, an aircraft accident at the museum damaged
938 and the remains will be shipped to USAF Museum,
A CH-54 an F-100A on its last flight
at Hill Air Force Base, Utah (USA), prior to being placed on static
display, in 1979.
- On display
- F-100A 52-5761 is on display at the
- F-100C 53-1709 is displayed as
F-100D 55-2789, Castle
Air Museum (former Castle AFB), Atwater, California.
- F-100C 54-1823 is on display at the
& Space Museum, Tucson, Arizona in the markings of the 4510th
Combat Crew Training Wing, Luke AFB, Arizona, 1968
- F-100C 54-1851 is on display at the
- F-100C 54-1986 is on display at the
Armament Museum, Eglin
AFB, Florida - displayed as F-100C 54-1954 as flown by
local northwest Florida resident and Medal of Honor recipient, Colonel George Bud Day, USAF
- F-100D 56-2992 is on display at the
Aviation Museum, Charlotte, North Carolina.
- F-100F 56-3837 is on dislay at the
National Museum of the United States Air
Force, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio
- F-100D 54-2299 is on display at the
Joe Davies Heritage
Airpark, Air Force
Plant 42, Palmdale, California
- A F-100D is on display at the Air Power Park, Hampton,
- A F-100D or F is displayed at the Selfridge Air (National Guard
Force Base) Museum, near Mount Clemens, Michigan, reports a
two-seat trainer in their collection.
F-100C is on static display at the Duncan Legion Park in Duncan,
An F-100D of the 308th TFS, being
loaded with Mk 117 750 lb bombs at Tuy Hoa, South Vietnam, in early
- FAS.org F-100: "Designed originally to destroy
enemy aircraft in aerial combat"
- Global Security A-7: "The aging low-payload
F-100 was the Air Force's primary air-to-ground CAS airplane at the
- Boeing Co. F-100 History
- Martin Caidin's book Thunderbirds was written while
the team flew F-100s. He was the only journalist to ever fly with
- Official USAF F-100 accident rate table (PDF)
- USAF F-100 Super Sabre - Flight Manual - Technical Order:
1F-100D(I)-1S-120; 12 January 1970)
- Anderton 1987, p. 57.
- Anderton 1987, p. 71.
- Anderton 1987, p. 136.
- Anderton 1987, p. 144.
- Anderton 1987, pp. 136, 145.
- Hobson 2002
- Thompson 2008, pp. 73–74.
- Thompson 1999, p. 64.
- Baugher's: QF-100 Drone
- HaseGray: FSAT
- Baugher's: RF-100As in ROC-TW
- "F-100F on Display." Das Virtuelle
Luftfahrtmuseum. Retrieved: 4 September 2009.
- Wilberg, Thomas. "North American F 100 Super Sabre." The Aircraft
Museum. Retrieved: 4 September 2009.
- Newark Air Museum: Aircraft list
- " North American F100F Super Sabre 563938
11-MU." Lashendene Air Warfre Museum. Retrieved: 4
- "North American F-100C Super Sabre." Pima
Air & Space Museum. Retrieved: 4 September 2009.
- Carolinas Aviation Museum: F-100D in
- Anderton, David A. North American F-100 Super Sabre.
London: Osprey Publishing Limited, 1987. ISBN 0-85045-622-2.
- Davies, Peter E. North American F-100 Super Sabre.
Ramsbury, Wiltshire, UK: Crowood Press, 2003. ISBN
- Drendel, Lou. Century Series in Color (Fighting
Colors). Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1980.
- Green, William. The World's Fighting Planes. London:
- Gunston, Bill. Fighters of the Fifties. Osceola,
Wisconsin: Specialty Press Publishers & Wholesalers, Inc.,
1981. ISBN 0-933424-32-9.
- Hobson, Chris. Vietnam Air Losses: United States Air Force,
Navy and Marine Corps Fixed-Wing Aircraft Losses in Southeast Asia,
1961-1973. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 2002.
- Pace, Steve. X-Fighters: USAF Experimental and Prototype
Fighters, XP-59 to YF-23. Oscela, Wisconsin: Motorbooks
International, 1991. ISBN 0-87938-540-5.
- Thompson, Kevin F. "North American NA-180>NA-262
YF-100A/F-100A/C/D/F Super Sabre." North American: Aircraft
1934-1999 - Volume 2. Santa Ana, CA: Johnathan Thompson,
Greens, Inc., 1999. ISBN 0-913322-06-7.
- Thompson, Warren E. "Centuries Series: F-100 Super Sabre."
Combat Aircraft, Volume 9, Issue 3, June–July 2008,
London: Ian Allan Publishing.