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 ( ) is a city located in the province of Punjabmarker, Pakistanmarker. It was formerly known as Lyallpur. Faisalabad is the third largest city in Pakistanmarker after Karachimarker and Lahoremarker. Before the foundation of the city in 1880, the area was very thinly populated. The population has risen from 9,171 in 1901 to 179,000 in 1951 and to 2,009,000 in 1998. The larger Faisalabad district had a population of about 5.4 million in 1998.


It is an important industrial centre located in the Punjabmarker province, west of Lahoremarker. The city-district of Faisalabad is bound on the north by the districts of Gujranwalamarker and Sheikhupura, on the east by Sahiwalmarker, on the south by Toba Tek Singh and on the west by Jhangmarker. Its located from Karachimarker, from Lahoremarker, from Islamabadmarker/Rawalpindimarker, from Burewalamarker and from Jhangmarker.

The city is at a road and railway junction, which has played an influential role in the development of Faisalabad's trade and economy. The surrounding countryside, irrigated by the Lower Chenab Rivermarker, has seen expanded production of cotton, wheat, vegetables, and fruits, which form 25% of Pakistan’s exports. The city is also an industrial centre with major railway repair yards, engineering works, and mills that process sugar, flour, and oil seed. Produce includes super phosphates, cotton and silk textiles, hosiery, dyes, agricultural equipment, and ghee (clarified butter). Faisalabad is also the site of the prestigious University of Agriculture, founded in 1909.

Faisalabad, a city synonymous with success and growing metropolis pulsating with life, is fast evolving into the financial hub of the country. It is the largest industrial city of Pakistan and specializes in export oriented manufactured goods and the textile capital of the country.

History

Faisalabad was once part of ancient district of Jhangmarker and Sandalbar, a part mainly consisted of thick forests and wild tribes. The tract from Shahdara to Shorekot, Sangla Hillmarker to Toba Tek Singhmarker, was traditionally called Sandalbar.

In 1880, a colonial officer called Captain Poham Young proposed a new town, with a design based on the Union Jack, with eight roads radiating from a large clock towermarker in the centre. The eight roads developed into eight separate bazaars. The construction of various artificial canals allowed the surrounding areas to be irrigated. After the founding of the town, there was rapid growth as people were invited with promises of land.

In 1895, the rail link between Wazirabadmarker and Lyallpur was completed. In 1896, Lyallpur was given the status of a tehsil of the Jhang Districtmarker and its administration were carried on in tents on the old Theh (Mound) of Pucca Mari near Tariqabad. The majestic Clock Tower was constructed out of the funds raised by the Sikh land owners, who collected it at a rate of Rs. 18 per square of land. The fund thus raised was handed over to the Town Committee which undertook to complete the project.

By 1902, the population of the town had exceeded 4,000. A considerable number of houses and shops had been constructed to cater the ordinary needs of the population. In 1903, a decision to have an agricultural college was made. In 1904, the new district of Lyallpur was constituted composed of the tehsils of Lyallpur, Samundrimarker and Toba Tek Singh with a subtehsil at Jaranwalamarker which later became a full tehsil. By 1906, the district headquarters began to function in Lyallpur and all the bazaars and settlements within the bounds of a ring road were nearing completion. The city began to spread outside the circular road. The Town Committee was upgraded to a Municipal Committee in 1909 and the Deputy Commissioner was appointed as the first chairman. In 1916, the grain market saw its shops surging with customers. In the same year the civil hospital was expanded. With the advent of World War II, there was an increase in political awareness across the city. Revolutionary meetings were held, fiery speeches were made, and slogans were written on walls.

In 1943, Mohammed Ali Jinnah came to Lyallpur and addressed a gathering of over 2 million in Dhobi Ghat Grounds. On March 3, 1947, when the creation of Pakistanmarker was approved, the Muslims of Lyallpur held special prayers and distributed sweets and food among the poor.

After independence, the city of Lyallpur enjoyed considerable development, and became a major commercial and industrial centre. The population grew quickly past one million. There was an expansion of the provision of health and education in the city. In 1977, the name of the city was changed to "Faisalabad", in honour of the late King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, who was held in high regard in Pakistan. In 1985, the district was upgraded to a division with the new districts of Faisalabad, Jhang and Toba Tek Singh.

Geography and climate

Faisalabad is located in the rolling flat plains of northeast Punjabmarker, between longitude 73°74 East, latitude 30°31.5 North, with an elevation of above sea level. The city proper covers an area of approximately , while the district covers .

There are no natural boundaries between Faisalabad and adjoining districts. The Chenab Rivermarker flows about to the north west while the River Ravimarker meanders about south east of the city. The lower Chenab canal is the main source of irrigation water, which meets the requirements of 80% of cultivated land. The soil of Faisalabad comprises alluvial deposits mixed with loess having calcareous characteristics, making the soil very fertile.

The climate of the district can see extremes, with the maximum temperature in summer reaching and a winter temperature of . The mean maximum and minimum temperature in summer are and respectively. In winter it peaks at around and respectively. The summer season starts from April and continues till October. May, June and July are the hottest months. The winter season, on the other hand, starts from November and continues till March. December, January and February are the coldest months. The average rainfall is about , sufficient to keep the soil very fertile.

Temperatures (1948-2006) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
Highest maximum (°C) 19.4 22.4 27.4 34.2 39.7 41.0 37.7 36.5 36.6 33.9 28.2 22.1 31.6
Lowest minimum (°C) 4.8 7.6 12.6 18.3 24.1 27.6 27.9 27.2 24.5 17.7 10.4 6.1 17.4


Economy

Agricultural exports form an important part of Faisalabad's economy


A PricewaterhouseCoopers study released in 2007, that surveyed the 2005 GDP of the top cities in the world, calculated Faisalabad’s GDP (PPP) to be $27 billion. The city was third behind Karachi ($55 billion) and Lahore ($28 billion). Faisalabad's GDP is projected to rise to $54 billion in 2020 at a growth rate of 6.0%, higher than the growth rates of 5.8% and 5.9% predicted for Karachi and Lahore.

Faisalabad has a strong industrial base including textiles, jewelry, home furniture, and pharmaceuticals, assisted by the expanding transport network which includes newly-built motorway and highways to Lahoremarker, Multanmarker, Sargodhamarker and Islamabadmarker/Rawalpindimarker. Faisalabad is one of the three planned cities of the country. The eight bazaars of the city each have different types of markets and goods.

Before independence, there were only five industrial units in Faisalabad, but now there are numerous textile mills, engineering units and chemical and food processing units. Other industries include hosiery, carpet and rugs, nawar and lace, printing and publishing and pharmaceutical products etc. There are also several thousand household industries, including some 60,000 power loom factories. The richest man of Pakistan and the owner of MCB also belongs to this city. City have numerous rich businessman such as Sitara group, Manno group(rafhan foods), Crescent group, Ibrahim group(owner of Allied bank). Karachi and Faisalabad have highest population growth rate in Pakistan.

The textile industry of Faisalabad constitutes more than 70% of the textile export market of Pakistan which have a share of 68% in total exports from Pakistan. This makes Faisalabad’s share of total exports from Pakistan to be more than 45%.

Shopping malls are springing up in the city to meet the needs of a trendier generation
The district is unparalleled for its agricultural productivity. The area grew in importance as the grain belt of the Punjab during the wake of colonisation. This lead to economic development of towns and villages within the district. Crops that have become major exports out of Faisalabad include the Kharif crops which include maize, rice, sugarcane and bajra as well as the Rabi crops which include wheat, barley, gram and barseen. In addition to these, there are also Zaid Kharif and Zaid Rabi crops. Zaid Kharif crops are toria, raiya, sarsoon and Zaid Rabi crop is tobacco. The use of tractors is becoming popular and is fast replacing the conventional ploughs. Improved variety of seeds, fertilizers and pesticides have greatly increased per acre yield and with that the prosperity of the peasant community which has toiled for three generations to transform a barren land into verdant fields. Faisalabad district is famous for its fruit production. The important fruits are oranges, bananas, apples, sugarcanes, tangerines, fruiter, mangos, guava and Faalsa. The total area under fruit orchards is .

The rise of the middle class as a result of economic boom in the past decade has led to the construction of major malls and shopping plazas amid investment from the United Arab Emiratesmarker as well as many European firms. The projects currently under construction include Motorway Citymarker, Kohinoor Onemarker, Doburg, Gateway Towers, Paradise Innmarker, MediaCom City, Centre Point, FDA Citymarker and Rehman Heights. Faisalabad is also called as "Manchester of Pakistan" because it has a major impact on the economy of Pakistan. The city also generates 25% revenue for the trade and commerce activity of Pakistan.

Government

Faisalabad district formerly comprised six sub-divisions; Faisalabad City, Faisalabad Sadr, Chak Jhumra, Jaranwala, Samundri, and Tandlianwala. In 2005, Faisalabad was reorganised as a City-District composed of eight autonomous towns:

  1. Lyallpur Town
  2. Madina Town
  3. Jinnah Town
  4. Iqbal Town
  5. Chak Jhumra Townmarker
  6. Jaranwala Townmarker
  7. Samundri Townmarker
  8. Tandlianwala Town


Twin city

Faisalabad has a friendship agreement with Manchestermarker, Englandmarker and Kobe, Japanmarker which was established in 1997 & 2000 respectively, driven by the Pakistani community in Manchestermarker and Kobe to build and maintain cultural and community links.

Demographics

The city of Faisalabad carried out a census in March 1981 which showed the population of Faisalabad city as 1,092,000, which indicates that growth rate of Faisalabad city is only 3.37 percent per annum. In April 1981 the survey was carried out again which recorded the population to 1,232,000 which made the growth rate approximately 4.6%. Given this growth rate the population at the end of 1981 was estimated to be 1,240,000.

The emergence of Faisalabad as a major agriculture and industrial center created a phenomenal increase in the city’s population. From a population of 69,930 in the year 1941, it shot up to 179,000 in the year 1951, an increase of 152.2%. The population rose to a future figure of 425,248 in the year 1961, an increase of 137.4%. Faisalabad became a record in the demographic history for Pakistanmarker by registering an overall population increase of 508.1% between the years of 1941 to 1961. A record that has never been achieved by the largest city of Pakistanmarker. In 1998 census, the city population was recorded to be 2,009,000 growing at a rate of 21.3% per annum. According to the World Gazetteer, the estimate of the city is expected to have reached 2,793,721 in 2009.Punjabi is the most widely spoken language.Urdu and Saraiki are also spoken.

Flora and fauna

The Ravi Rivermarker flows on the eastern and the Chenab Rivermarker on the western boundary of the district. No other river passes through it. Floods are caused by the over flow of Ravi on account of heavy rains in its catchment areas during the Monsoon. Floods are usually a recurrent feature since the rivers cannot hold the vast amount of water flowing from the northern areas to the south of the country. These floods cause extensive damage to crops and villages periodically. The provincial government is proposing dams and barrages to control the flow of water in the future. However, local settlements are not to keen on the issue.

The wildlife of the district includes a range of animals since the district is very vast. Animals such as foxes, boars, jackals and wild cats are normally seen. Among the birds there are usually partridges, pigeons, doves, tilliars, lal menas, bias, parrots, quails, pochards, mallards and teals.

Culture

A new mall currently in development on Sitiana Road
The McDonalds branch near D Ground


Faisalabad is generally referred to as the "Manchester of Pakistan". Compared to its more tourist-attractive provincial capital, Lahore, Faisalabad is basically an industrial and agricultural city. It is the second largest business city in Punjab and it is a region for investment and economic prosperity. Textiles generate the best business in this city. There are a selection of sites and tourist attractions; however, even with such fast growth the country lacks historical significance since it was developed mostly in the last hundred years. The Faisalabad Clock Towermarker, locally called "Ghenta Ghar", was one of the first main market of Faisalabad and it is also the oldest area of the city. Here you can also find the remains of buildings which mainly belonged to the British Raj. Interestingly, this market has eight bazaars, forming a "Union Jack" (British flag), which can be seen from above. There are still structures from previous settlements such as Zoroastrian Temples, Buddhist Monasteries, Hindu mandirs and Sikh gurudwaras still visible, however, since the mass migration these have been converted into schools and museums. "D Ground" is the second most important market after Ghenta Ghar. The area has been continually developing into a shopping area with many brands from all over the world. It is seen most busiest at night when local people come out for an outing. There are many local and western restaurants ranging from Namwah Chinese, Bundu Khan, KFC, Al Maida, McDonalds, Pizza Hut, Olive Garden, Sardines, Yummy 36, Cube and many open-air barbecues.

The Jinnah Gardenmarker is most probably the most famous park in Faisalabad. It is locally known as "Company Baagh". The tomb of H.E Sir Charles James Lyall, is situated here. He was the founder of this city and the city was first named Lyallpur in his honour. There are many food outlets, walking paths, cycling lanes and a huge fountain structure. The park is often used by the local council for holding rallies, concerts, shows and melas. Getwala Park is a small park situated just at the corner of Faisalabad. It is an excellent place for family picnics and relaxing. Canal Park is located at the west bank of Rakh Branch Canal. It is also a good place for families.

Happy Land Water Park is a beautiful amusement park built up to international standard, a complete entertainment centre for families. It has the biggest water slides in Pakistan. It is also equipped with amazing swings for both children and adults. Getwala Swimming Pool is another water park which has a huge swimming pool, attracting many local Faisalabadis. Aqua Land Water Park is the latest water park to open in Faisalabad that is located on Canal Road and draws many expatriates and families. Sindbadmarker is an amusement park located near the Iqbal Stadiummarker that is used for national and international cricket matches. It has an indoor bumper cars, flume rides, train rides as well as large gaming arcade room to suit all ages.

Rex City is a huge computer shopping mall dealing with everything computer related. Here you can find a computer at low prices. There are service shops, as well as CD and mobile shops and computer software and hardware experts. There are also internet services from well known companies such as "Cyber net", "Wolnet", "dancom", "Nexlinx" and "Satcom" which provide high speed internet. Kohinoor Onemarker is a newly constructed shopping mall located on Jaranwala Road which has many retail outlets, restaurants, clothing outlets and home furniture stores. Am Tex Waterfall is located at Am Tex Squire, Abdullah Pur. It is the biggest artificial waterfall in Asia.

The majestic "Chenab Clubmarker" is a social club. It was the first such club established in Faisalabad. It still exists today and is used by the elite society of Faisalabad. It is located in the beautiful surroundings of "Jinnah Garden". The club is situated in the heart of the city, just a short walk from Railway Station and within walking distance of Clock Tower. There are also a few monuments still fully erect in many parts of Faisalabad such as Gumti Water Fountainmarker, Qaisery Gatemarker (Entrance to the Eight Bazaars), Ghenta Gharmarker and various Sikh Gurudwaras and Hindu Mandirs still visible in the older part of the city.

Faisalabadi cuisine is very much Punjabi cuisine. The samosas of Faisalabad are the best in Pakistan. A chock is dedicated to them, named Samosa chock. These samosas are different from any others because here you can get the chatani variety. The very famous name Chacha Samosay Wala is also in the D Ground. Dahi Bhale, these are also delicious. The best Dahi Bhale is being prepared by a Thele Wala at Jinnah Coloney, near Chatri Wala Ground. Gohl Gappay are also these are really tasty. They are basically made with flour into a ball shape, and they are filled with black grams, onions, potatoes and other supplements. The most famous is a person who sells gole gappe on tehla in the start of the AminPur bazaar. A sour drink called "khatta" is served with them. Biryani & pulao (special cooked rice) are also very popular. Jehangir's Murgh Pulao is most popular in the country. It was first started by Mr. Jehangir about 60 years ago. English and Continental Foods - are also easily available in Faisalabad. You can access Mcdonald's, KFC, Food Rally, Pizza Hut, Dynasty, Lasania, Shehryar's, Exotica Cafe, Hameed's, Sam's, Al-Aziz, Al hamd, Khayyam restaurant, Lahore Chatkhara, Hawali Restaurant, Oriental Restautant and some other fast food restaurants. Pakistani fast foods & BBQ - is also hot favourite here. Chinese Food - also popular among the people. The best Chinese restaurants are Qulim, Exotica Cafe, Namwah, Pearl Garden and China City. All are operated by Chinese personnel. Bar Be Ques (BBQs) are best quality. Karachi's famous BBQ "Bundu Khan" has also opened an outlet and one may find that at D Ground in People's Colony. There are also some Punjabi drinks like rabri, lassi, limo pani and sugar cane rusk.

Sport

Cricket, being pretty much a national sport within Pakistan is also the most popular sport in the city. It is played pretty much anywhere a city dweller will find a large piece of land. This is known as Bat aur Gendh. It is played in the narrow by-lanes of the city. Night time cricket can be seen at weekends when people play brightly lit night matches on less traversed city streets, disused construction sites, parks and several grounds within the district. The oldest and only venue for international cricket matches within the city is Iqbal Stadiummarker. The Faisalabad Wolves, Faisalabad's local team, is based at this venue and often regional matches are played throughout the spring season which draws in plenty of crowds such as Twenty-20 Cup. The ground also hosted matches for the 1987 Cricket World Cup as well as the 1996 Cricket World Cup.

Other popular sports in the city are hockey, Weightlifting, association football, Kabaddi, table tennis, billiards and snooker, squash, and horse racing. Sports like badminton, volleyball and basketball have also started to gain popularity as western influences have affected the locals. Faisalabad also has its own team, called the PMC FC who take part in the Pakistan Premier League. The Punjab Medical Collegemarker has its own stadium built within its campus to train and host matches for the sport.

The city also has facilities for hockey. The Faisalabad Hockey Stadiummarker is located on Susan Road and mostly hosts field hockey matches for most national and some international matches. The stadium also has plenty of shops and restaurants which bring out a lot of life to the area. A new sports complex is also being planned to host athletic and gymnastic matches as well as Olympic training for future Pakistan participation.

PMC Club Athletico Faisalabad is the city's only participant in the Pakistani Premier Football League. Athletico's city rival Panther FC plays in the 2nd Division of Pakistani Football pyramid.

Education

University of Agriculture, one of the oldest and most prestigious university’s of Pakistan
Punjab Medical College, Faisalabad Campus
The people of Faisalabad have a very low literacy rate of approximately 40%, which has hampered the economic development of the city. Several institutions of higher education and several research centres including:



Transport

Faisalabad International Airportmarker is approximately from the city centre, and is a major transit point for exporting goods to other parts of Pakistan and abroad. Passenger flights are run by the national flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines (PIA). Airblue, Aero Asia International and Shaheen Air used to also operate from the airport however, all three have currently suspended operations from Faisalabad.

There are many roads in Faisalabad which connect the city with many other localities as well as neighbouring towns and villages. The National Highway Authority has rebuilt and improved the standards of roads to meet international standards and improve logistical networks for freight companies. There is also a public bus network as well as private coaches within the city and many privately operated auto-rickshaws and taxis to get around the city. Rental cars are also available from many areas of the city, however, people who are not used to the roads and speeds are advised not to hire.

There are many highways under the control of the National Highway Authority, linking Faisalabad with other cities of the country. The M3marker access-controlled motorway connects Faisalabad with the motorway M2marker near Pindi Bhattian which furthermore connects with Rawalpindimarker/Islamabadmarker, Lahoremarker and Multanmarker. There is an expressway which connects Faisalabad with Lahore, Sheikhupura and Mananwala. City is also connected with Sargodha with a highway known as Sargodha-Faisalabad road. Furthermore, motorway M4 is also under construction which will connect Faisalabad with Multan. The newly furnished Grand Trunk Road, otherwise known as GT Road, is a popular highway that links most parts of Pakistan as well as neighbouring countries. There are also several bus operators that offer quick services to the provincial capital, Lahore as well as Islamabad, Jhang, Multan, Peshawar, Karachi and several smaller localities. The Daewoo Express, Ravi Express, Kohistan Coaches,khan brothers,nadir flying coach, Airport Limousines and Niazi Coach are some of the well known services.

The main railway stationmarker was built in the nineteenth century by the British Empire. Today there are connections available to all parts of Pakistan including Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Quetta, Peshawar.

Media

The Daily Express is the only national newspaper published from Faisalabad (previously the Daily Asas used to publish from Faisalabad but it is now published elsewhere). It is the product of Express Media Group largely circulated in the Faisalabad Divisionmarker. The Daily Express started publishing in Faisalabad on 17th of September 2002. There are also other popular Urdu Faisalabadi newspapers including: Daily Gareeb, Daily Shelter, Daily Awam, Daily Aman, Daily Tajarti Rahber, Daily Paygaam, Daily Business Report, Daily Report and the Daily Surrat-E-Haal.

Cinemas have fallen in number in the city since the ban on most Bollywood films. The lack of interest in English and Lollywood related films has caused many cinema halls to close down and many owners to invest in other forms of entertainment. Punjabi stage dramas are still quite popular among Faisalabadis and there are still some theatres still running quite successfully till this date. There are many stars in Lollywood that hail from Faisalabad which draws in the crowds from far and wide. Shows usually take place at night and involve a range of day to day topics as well as dances to many types of music from female artists.

The radio industry has expanded with a number of private and government-owned FM channels being introduced. The FM radio channels that broadcast in the city include the government-owned Radio Pakistan, Mast FM103, FM 90 Hum Awaz, FM 101 and Dawn Media Group; City FM 89. State-owned Pakistan Television (PTV) transmits five terrestrial and cable television channels. There also a number of private television channels that have offices in Faisalabad including Express News, Geo TV, Apna Channel and Punjab TV.

Notable people

See also



References

External links




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