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The Fallschirm-Panzer-Division 1. Hermann Göring (1st Paratroop Panzer Division Hermann Goering - abbreviated Fallschirm-Panzer-Div 1 HG) was an élite Germanmarker Luftwaffe armoured division. The HG saw action in North Africa, Sicily, Italymarker and on the Eastern front. The division was the creation of Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring and increased in size throughout the war from an Abteilung (battalion) to a Panzer corps.

Creation and early history

When Adolf Hitler's NSDAP swept to power in Germany in 1933, World War I fighter ace Hermann Göring was appointed as Prussian Minister of the Interior. In this capacity, all Police units in Prussia came under Göring's control.

On 24 February 1933, with the intention of creating a police unit of unswerving loyalty to the NSDAP regime, Göring authorized the creation of Polizeiabteilung z.b.V. Wecke (Police Battalion for special purposes Wecke). The unit was named after its commander, Prussian World War I veteran and early NSDAP member Major der Schutzpolizei Walther Wecke. The abteilung was based in the Berlinmarker-Kreuzbergmarker neighbourhood, and quickly began to build a reputation as a ruthless and brutal Nazi enforcement unit. Working in conjunction with Göring's secret police, the Gestapomarker, the unit was involved in many attacks against Communists and Social democrats, and was responsible for the capture and arrest of many of those opposed to the Nazis.

In June 1933, Göring expanded the Abteilung and transferred control of the unit from the Berlin Polizei to the newly reformed Landespolizei (State Police). The unit was correspondigly renamed Landespolizeigruppe Wecke z.b.V..

In January 1934, under pressure from Hitler and Himmler, Göring gave Himmler's SSmarker control of the Gestapo. To reinforce the position of his remaining unit, Göring increased its size and created the requirement that all members must pass a military training program. The reformed unit was called Landespolizeigruppe General Göring (State Police Group General Goering). When Ernst Röhm's SAmarker began to make demands to the NSDAP leadership, Hitler ordered Göring's LPG Wecke and Himmler's Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler to take action. During the Night of the Long Knives, LPG Wecke and the Leibstandarte executed many major SA leaders, removing the formation as a threat to the NSDAP.

Luftwaffe control - early campaigns

In 1935, Göring was promoted to command of the Luftwaffe. Unwilling to leave his favourite unit behind, he ordered it transferred to the Luftwaffe, renaming the unit Regiment General Göring in September 1935.

The unit was now sent for re-training and re-equipping as a Luftwaffe unit. During this period, the I.Jäger-Bataillon and 15. Pionier-Kompanie were sent to Döberitzmarker for parachute training. These units were separated from the regiment in March 1938 and redesignated I./ Fallschirmjäger-Regiment 1, the first of the Fallschirmjäger (airborne) units.

By early 1936, the regiment was again ready for action. By this time, all organised resistance to the NSDAP had either been crushed or left Germany, and so the regiment was put to work as a personal bodyguard for Göring and providing flak protection for Hitler's Headquarters.

When Germany annexed Austriamarker in the Anschluss of March 1938, the regiment was one of the first units to cross the border. Similarly, during the invasion of the Sudetenland in October 1938 and the occupation of Prague in March 1939, the General Göring was among the first units in the German occupation force.

During the invasion of Poland, only a small part of the regiment was involved in the fighting. The majority of the unit was to stay in Berlin to continue their duties providing flak protection and guards for Göring and the NSDAP leadership. During the invasions of Denmark and Norway, elements of the regiment (a guard battalion, a motorcycle company and a flak component) took part in the campaign and acquitted themselves well.

The main body of the regiment had been moved west to the German-Dutch border using the false designations FlaK-Regiment 101 and FlaK-Regiment 103. During Fall Gelb, this force took part in the invasion of The Netherlandsmarker and Belgiummarker. The imposing fortress Eben Emaelmarker was captured and neutralised by fallschirmjägers, many of whom had previously served in the General Göring.

After the capitulation of the Netherlands, the regiment was broken up into several small Kampfgruppen and these were attached to the Panzer divisions spearheading the advance. The regiment again acquitted itself well, especially the flak troops, who often operated in an anti-armour capacity. In an engagement at Mormal Wood, heavy 8.8 cm FlaK 18s engaged French tanks at ranges of only a few yards. During this battle, the regiment gained a reputation for steadfastness under fire.

After the surrender of France, the regiment was stationed on the Channel coast, before being moved back to Parismarker to provide flak protection for the city. Late in 1940, the regiment was moved back to Berlin to resume its former duties as honour guards and flak protection.

Barbarossa - North Africa

In early 1941, the regiment was reorganized as a motorized regiment. During this time, it was redesignated Regiment (mot) Hermann Göring, as Göring had been promoted to Reichsmarschall. After this restructuring, the regiment was moved east to take part in the invasion of the Soviet Union.

When Mussolini's disastrous invasion of Greece caused the delay of Barbarossa and the German invasion of the Balkans and Greecemarker, the regiment was stationed in the Romanianmarker oilfields near Ploieştimarker to provide flak protection.

Barbarossa got underway on 22 June 1941, and during the campaign, the regiment was attached to the 11.Panzer-Division, a part of Army Group South. The regiment saw action around the areas of Radziechow, Kievmarker and Brjanskmarker, destroying many Soviet tanks with their 8.8 cm flak guns. At the end of 1941, the regiment was returned to Germany for rest and refit, having suffered moderate casualties in the campaign. The Schützen-Bataillon Hermann Göring remained at the front until May 1942.

In July 1942 the regiment was upgraded to brigade status and redesignated Brigade Hermann Göring. In October 1942, while the brigade was still being restructured, it was decided to further upgrade the status of the Hermann Göring to a full division. The division would be organized along the lines of a Heer Panzer division. Göring arranged for veteran Heer panzer crewmen to be transferred to his division, and brought the mechanized infantry component up to strength with the addition of the 5. Fallschirmjäger-Regiment.

While the division was in formation, the Second Battle of El Alameinmarker had forced Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps to retreat from the Egyptianmarker-Libyanmarker border back towards Tunisiamarker. Still not fully formed, the Hermann Göring, under the banner of Kampfgruppe Schmid, under the command of Generalmajor Joseph Schmid, was sent to Tunisia piecemeal in an attempt to bolster Rommel's force. KG Schmid surrendered along with the rest of Panzer Army Afrika. With this action, the division lost all of its combat units and many of its command units. Göring immediately ordered the division to be reformed.

Panzer Division - Sicily - Italy

Several units of the Hermann Göring Division which had been completing training or awaiting transfer to Tunisia were to be used for the basis for a reformed Division. The division was to be designated Panzer-Division Hermann Göring. By mid-June, the new division was ready for combat, and was shipped to Sicily to defend against the expected Allied invasion. When the Allies launched Operation Husky on 10 July 1943, Hermann Göring was in place to defend the island. The division's efforts were hindered by the surrender of the majority of the Italianmarker defenders. The division was engaged at Gelamarker and Priolo Gargallomarker, but heavy Allied air and naval superiority forced the German divisions to retreat to Messinamarker. During Operation Lehrgang, the German evacuation of Sicily, the Hermann Göring formed part of the rearguard, being one of the last units to leave Sicily for the mainland.

When the Italian government surrendered to the Allies, the division took part in the operations to disarm Italian troops. When the Allies landed at Salerno on 9 September, the division, being stationed in the Salerno area, was thrown into the fight. When the German defence began to yield, the division executed a fighting withdrawal towards the Volturnomarker-Termolimarker line. After holding the line for as long as possible, the division fell back to the Gustav Line, where it was finally pulled out of the line for rest and refit.

Art rescue controversy

As the Allies pushed further north, towards the abbey of Monte Cassinomarker, the division's workshop detachment, under the command of Oberstleutnant Julius Schlegel, volunteered their services to the monks to remove the abbey's precious artworks. The monks agreed, and the division's vehicles were used to transfer the irreplaceable works of art, including paintings by Da Vinci, Titian and Raphael and the remains of St. Benedict himself. The cargo was deposited at the Vaticanmarker and was so spared destruction in the Battle of Monte Cassinomarker. Because of the Göring's reputation as a looter of artworks, a detachment of SS military police were sent to the abbey to arrest and execute Schlegel. It was only through the persuasion of the monks and the intervention by the divisional commander on his behalf that Schlegel escaped punishment, and the operation continued. In thanks, the monks of Monte Cassino celebrated a special mass, and presented Schlegel with an illuminated scroll recognizing his efforts. After the war, Schegel was arrested as a suspected war criminal and looter, and it was only after the personal intervention of Britishmarker Field Marshal Harold Alexander that he was released.

When the Allies landed at Anzio in February 1944, the division was rushed to the area and took part in the battles against the invasion force, and for a time was employed opposite the 1st Special Service Force. From February to April 1944, the division saw fighting at Cisterna, on the Rapido River and at Minturnomarker.

Transfer to the east

In April 1944, the division was pulled out of the line to the area around Toscana to be reorganized as Fallschirm-Panzer-Division 1. Hermann Göring (1st Parachute-Panzer-Division Hermann Goering). The change resulted in no major change in the organization of the division, however during this time away from the front the division was refitted and received replacement troops and vehicles, bringing it back up to strength after over 8 months of continual combat. Arrangements were made for the division to be shipped to France to prepare for the expected allied invasion.

The allied offensive towards Romemarker on 12 May meant that these plans were canceled and the Hermann Göring was thrown back into the line. Executing a fighting withdrawal towards Rome, the division held off the allied forces while the last German troops were evacuated, and on 4 June fell back behind the Italian capital, which had been declared an open city to prevent its destruction. The Hermann Göring settled in, defending against allied probing attacks towards Florencemarker. On 15 July the division was ordered out of the line to prepare for transport to the Eastern Front.

During this period, several veteran cadres were drawn from the division for the formation of Fallschirm-Panzergrenadier-Division 2. Hermann Göring, the division's sister formation currently being formed in Radommarker. Also, the majority of the division's supply units were removed, as were many of its staff officers. These units were to go towards the creation of Fallschirm-Panzerkorps Hermann Göring, under which the two Hermann Göring divisions were to operate.

Battle of Radzymin
The division was to be attached to the newly formed Heeresgruppe Weichsel, currently defending the ruins of Warsawmarker turned into a fortress "Festung Warschau" according to German propaganda. The division arrived at the Vistula front in mid-September and was immediately thrown into action, fighting alongside the veteran 5.SS-Panzer-Division Wiking on the Vistula River between Modlin and Warsaw. During heavy fighting, the division, along with the Wiking, effectively destroyed the Red Army's 3rd Tank Corps. The advent of the Warsaw Uprising brought the Sovietmarker offensive to a halt (probably intentionally on Stalin's order for the rising to fail), and relative peace fell on the front line as the underground Armia Krajowa fought itself to extinction.

East Prussia - defeat

The Fallschirm-Panzerkorps Hermann Göring was activated in early October 1944, and the Hermann Göring Panzer division, along with its sister Panzergrenadier division, was transferred to the command of the corps. The Panzerkorps was then transferred to the East Prussia-Kurland region to halt the Soviet offensive which had already achieved the isolation of Army Group North in the Kurland Pocket and was now aimed at the capture of East Prussia. The Panzerkorps was involved in heavy defensive fighting near Gumbinnen, and when the Soviet assault petered out in late November, the Panzerkorps set up static defensive lines.

The massive Soviet Vistula-Oder Offensive trapped the Hermann Göring Panzerkorps in the Heiligenbeil Pocket along with the rest of the 4.Armee. In February, the Heer's élite Panzergrenadier-Division Großdeutschland was attached to the corps.

Despite several breakout attempts, the Panzerkorps had to be evacuated by sea to Swinemündemarker in Pomerania. Upon landing, it was thrown back into combat, defending the Oder-Neisse line against Soviet attacks through mid-March. To bolster the corps' strength, the elite Panzergrenadier-Division Brandenburg was attached to the unit.

In April, the remnants of the Hermann Göring Panzerkorps was sent to Silesia, and in heavy fighting was slowly pushed back into Saxonymarker. On April 22, the Fallschirm-Panzer-Division 1. Hermann Göring was one of two divisions that broke through the inter-army boundary of the Polish 2nd Army (Polish People's Army or LWP) and the Soviet 52nd Army, in an action near Bautzen, destroying parts of their communications and logistics trains and severely damaging the Polish (LWP) 5th Infantry Division and 16th Tank Brigade before being stopped two days later.

By early May, the Panzerkorps was positioned near the Saxon capitol of Dresdenmarker. The remains of the corps began breakout attempts to the west, in order to surrender to the Americans who were currently halted on the Elbe. Despite valiant breakout attempts, the corps was encircled, and although several small groups successfully made it through to the west, the majority of the corps surrendered to the Soviets on 8 May 1945. As Luftwaffe men, along with the Waffen-SS and Polizei units, were seen by the Russians as war criminals, due to their involvement in atrocities committed on Eastern Front, the majority of the survivors of the Panzerkorps would not return from the Gulags of the Soviet Unionmarker.

War crimes

According to a British Government report, the Hermann Göring Division was involved in several reprisal operations during its time in Italymarker . One of these occurred in the surrounding of the village of Civtella in Val di Chianamarker on 6 June 1944 where 250 citizens were killed.

Circa 800 soldiers from the division took part in fighting during the Warsaw Uprising in the Wola district, where mass executions of civilians occurred in connection with Hitler's orders to destroy the city . The units were:
  • II./Fallschirm-Panzer-Regiment "Hermann Göring" (20 PzKpfw IV tanks)
  • III./Fallschirm-Panzergrenadier-Regiment 2. "Hermann Göring"
  • IV./Fallschirm-Panzer-Artillerie-Regiment "Hermann Göring"[110954]


Polish sources claim soldiers of the Herman Goering Division used civilians as human shields against tanks .

Commanders

Fallschirm-Panzer-Korps Hermann Göring
  • Generalleutnant Wilhelm Schmalz (4 Oct 1944 - 8 May 1945)


Unit lineage

  • Polizeiabteilung z.b. V. Wecke
  • Landespolizeigruppe Wecke z.b. V
  • Landespolizeigruppe General Göring
  • Regiment General Göring
  • Regiment (mot) Hermann Göring
  • Brigade Hermann Göring
  • Division Hermann Göring
  • Panzer-Division Hermann Göring
  • Fallschirm-Panzer-Division 1. Hermann Göring
  • Fallschirm-Panzerkorps Hermann Göring


Orders of Battle

Regiment General Göring, 1939

Regimentstab
  • Musikkorps
  • I. (schwere) Flak-Abt.
  • II. (leichte) Flak-Abt.
  • III. Scheinwerfer-Abt.
  • IV. (leichte) Flak-Abt.
  • Wachbataillon
    • Reiterschwadron
    • 9. Kompanie
    • 10. Kompanie
    • 11. Wachkompanie
  • Ersatz- Abteilung
  • (schwere) Eisenbahn Flak-Batterie
  • (leichte) Flak-Batterie


Division Hermann Göring, November 1942

  • Divisionsstab
  • Panzer-Regiment Hermann Göring
  • Panzergrenadier-Regiment 1 Hermann Göring
  • Panzergrenadier-Regiment 2 Hermann Göring
  • Panzer-Aufklärungs- Abt. Hermann Göring
  • Flak-Regiment Hermann Göring
  • Panzer-Artillerie- Regiment Hermann Göring
  • Panzer-Pionier- Btl. Hermann Göring
  • Panzer-Nachrichten- Abt. Hermann Göring
  • Feldersatz-Bataillon Hermann Göring
  • Divisionkampfschule Hermann Göring
  • Nachschub-Abt. Hermann Göring
  • Instandsetzung-Abt. Hermann Göring
  • Verwaltungstruppe Hermann Göring
  • Sanitäts-Abt. Hermann Göring


Fallschirm-Panzer-Division 1 Hermann Göring, May 1944

  • Divisionsstab
  • Stabskompanie
  • Feldgenerarmerietrupp
  • Fallschirm-Panzergrenadier-Regiment 1 Hermann Göring
  • Fallschirm-Panzergrenadier-Regiment 2 Hermann Göring
  • Fallschirm-Panzer-Regiment Hermann Göring
  • Fallschirm-Panzer-Aufklärungs-Abteilung 1 Hermann Göring
  • Fallschirm-Panzer-Füsilier-Bataillon 1 Hermann Göring
  • Fallschirm-Panzer-Artillerie-Regiment 1 Hermann Göring
  • Fallschirm-Panzer-Pionier-Bataillon 1 Hermann Göring
  • Fallschirm-Panzer-Nachrichten-Abteilung 1 Hermann Göring
  • Fallschirm-Panzer-Feldersatz-Bataillon 1 Hermann Göring
  • Feldpostamt 1 Hermann Göring


Fallschirm-Panzerkorps Hermann Göring, November 1944

  • Stab der Korps
    • Feldgendarmeriezug
    • Flugbereitschaft
    • Kriegsberichtertrupp
    • Fallschirm-Flakregiment Hermann Göring
    • Fallschirm-Panzersturmbataillon Hermann Göring
    • Fallschirm-Panzerkorpspionierbataillon Hermann Göring
    • Fallschirm-Panzerkorpsnachrichtenabteilung Hermann Göring
    • Nachschubabteilung Hermann Göring
    • Instandsetzungsabteilung Hermann Göring
    • Verwaltungsbataillon Hermann Göring
    • Sanitätsabteilung Hermann Göring
    • Korpsfeldpostamt Hermann Göring
  • Fallschirm-Panzer-Division 1. Hermann Göring
  • Fallschirm-Panzergrenadier-Division 2. Hermann Göring


See also



Citations



References - External Links




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