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Far right, extreme right, hard right, ultra-right or radical right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or quantitative position a group or person occupies within a political spectrum. The terms far right and far left are often used to imply that someone is an extremist.

Usage

The term far right has been used by different scholars in at least two somewhat conflicting ways: These categories are not universally accepted, and other uses exist, making comparative use of the term complicated.

The terms far right, extreme right or ultra right are used by some scholars to discuss only those right-wing political groups that step outside the boundaries of traditional electoral politics. This generally includes the revolutionary right, racial supremacists, religious extremists, neo-fascists, neo-Nazis, and other ultra-nationalist or reactionary ideologies and movements. In this usage, the terms are distinct from other forms of right-wing politics such as the less-militant right-wing populists.

Reform-oriented right-wing movements or rightist factions of conservative political parties are sometimes called the dissident right, activist right or right-wing populists. These participants are found outside mainstream electoral politics, but they generally produce a movement of reform rather than revolution.

The BBC has called politician Pim Fortuyn's politics (Fortuynism) far right because of his policies on immigration and Muslims. The term far right has been used by some, such as National Public Radio, to describe certain authoritarian governments that promote free market capitalism, such as that of Augusto Pinochet in Chilemarker. Radical left-wing publication New Left Review has called Ronald Reagan's policies "radical right". The term radical right has also been used to refer to "a libertarian movement which places the individual squarely in the center" and has "even attacked such sacred taboos as taxation".

Etymology

The political terms left and right arose during the French Revolution, the term far right originally referred to throne-and-altar monarchists such as Joseph de Maistre and Louis de Bonald. The original French meaning of far right is specific to a Roman Catholic nation, and more specifically to a Gallican society in which church and state were closely tied to one another. In this context, the term can be expanded to include the kind of Caesaropapism that occasionally existed in some Eastern Orthodox kingdoms. This specific interpretation of the term far right lost favour in the decades following the Revolutions of 1848, as a return to the Ancien Régime became increasingly implausible. By the reign of Pope Pius XI, this interpretation of far right had essentially become anachronistic even in conservative Catholic circles.

Alleged far right organizations

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South America



See also



Notes

  1. Betz & Immerfall 1998; Betz 1994; Durham 2000; Durham 2002; Hainsworth 2000; Mudde 2000; Berlet & Lyons, 2000.
  2. http://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&id=YYdTvMmSYpEC&dq=%22far+right%22&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=5Kjou7UerL&sig=K9uamjo6ogLg5lBlPkF7YbrjcJ4&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result
  3. http://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&id=Ual1NR2WPasC&dq=%22far+right%22&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=K5bdSeB96U&sig=RC-_zQR3OGeCIj0c4vJv6EEHgAk&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=5&ct=result#PPR7,M1
  4. http://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&id=sVZ8EUvJjJ4C&dq=%22far+right%22&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=SMPfNA8ixk&sig=c_rZ76IsxCm_Kb959LzCekTHYek&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=8&ct=result#PPR5,M1
  5. http://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&id=JcJ5nr2MZfUC&dq=%22far+right%22&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=Y5MrmJz
  6. Betz & Immerfall 1998; Betz 1994; Durham 2000; Durham 2002; Hainsworth 2000; Mudde 2000
  7. Pim Fortuyn: The far-right Dutch maverick, BBC
  8. Who funds and runs the Politico? - Glenn Greenwald - Salon.com
  9. Alan Wolfe: Sociology, Liberalism, and the Radical Right. New Left Review
  10. The Radical Right, reprinted from The Gargoyle, February 1971
  11. Australia First: reclaiming the agenda, The Age, December 14, 2005.
  12. Fascist Australia, The Age, August 24, 2004.
  13. Minority group in TV hijacking, The Australian, July 14, 2007.
  14. Far-right party shows surprising strength in Austrian vote, CNN, October 3, 1999.
  15. Cynthia M. Frank, The Impact of Electoral Engineering on Nationalist Parties in Post-War States, master's thesis (Georgia State University). Accessed 16 February 2007.
  16. Jasenovac - Donja Gradina: Industry of Death 1941-45
  17. Povijest i program
  18. Ante Pavelic killer file
  19. German Far Right Exploiting Reform Anger | Current Affairs | Deutsche Welle | 10.09.2004
  20. BBC NEWS | Europe | German far right unites for polls
  21. ENF gathers in Athens from the European National Front website.
  22. September 18, 2007, The Guardian
  23. September 18, 2007, The Age quoting Los Angeles Times, Reuters
  24. September 17, 2007, New York Times
  25. September 16, 2007, Washington Post
  26. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/politics/article6457752.ece
  27. Return to (illiberal) diversity? - p. 9
  28. Political parties, Ministry of Foreign Affairs , accessed 23 October 2009.
  29. The Virtual and Global Social Democratic Party - Political Exchange World-wide: List of Extreme Right-wing & Left-wing Parties
  30. Southeast Europe Portal - Serbia: Local Elections 2004 Results
  31. Guardian: Extreme nationalist elected speaker of Serbian parliament
  32. Boston.com news article: Milosevic ally gains key Serbian post
  33. Schweizer Demokraten vor der Auflösung, NZZ Online (2007), "facing dissolution".
  34. British National Party: Nasty, brutish and short-lived?, The Economist, August 5, 2004.
  35. The Rising Threat of the BNP: The Underlying Causes, its Present Nature and Prospects, The Commune (2009), by Dan Jakopovich.


References

  • Arzheimer, Kai and Elisabeth Carter (2006). "Political Opportunity Structures and Right-Wing Extremist Party Success" European Journal of Political Research (45):419-443
  • Betz, Hans-Georg and Stefan Immerfall, eds. 1998. The New Politics of the Right: Neo-Populist Parties and Movements in Established Democracies. New York: St. Martin's Press.
  • Betz, Hans-Georg (1994). Radical Right-wing Populism in Western Europe. New York: St. Martins Press.
  • Durham, Martin (2000). The Christian Right, the Far Right and the Boundaries of American Conservatism. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press.
  • Durham, Martin (2002). "From Imperium to Internet: the National Alliance and the American Extreme Right" Patterns of Prejudice 36(3), (July): 50-61.
  • Hainsworth, Paul (2000). The Politics of the Extreme Right: From the Margins to the Mainstream. London: Pinter.
  • Schoenbaum, David. Hitler's Social Revolution: Class and Status in Nazi Germany,. ISBN
  • Radical conservatism : the right's political religion / Robert Brent Toplin., 2006
  • Radical conservatism and the future of politics / Göran Dahl., 1999
  • Fascists and conservatives : the radical right and the establishment in twentieth-century Europe / Martin Blinkhorn., 1990
  • The Routledge companion to fascism and the far right / Peter Davies., 2002
  • The terrorist next door : the militia movement and the radical right / Daniel Levitas., 2002
  • Right-wing populism in America : too close for comfort / Chip Berlet & Matthew N. Lyons, 2000
  • The extreme right : freedom and security at risk / Aurel Braun., 1997
  • The impact of radical right-wing parties in West European democracies / Michelle Hale Williams., 2006
  • Right-wing extremism in the twenty-first century / Peter Merkl., 2003
  • Extreme right parties in Western Europe / Piero Ignazi., 2003
  • The United States and right-wing dictatorships, 1965-1989 / David Schmitz., 2006
  • The emergence of a Euro-American radical right / Jeffrey Kaplan., 1998
  • The politics of the extreme right : from the margins to the mainstream / Paul Hainsworth., 2000
  • The revival of right-wing extremism in the nineties / Peter Merkl., 1997
  • Shadows over Europe : the development and impact of the extreme right in Western Europe / Martin Schain., 2002
  • Western democracies and the new extreme right challenge / Roger Eatwell., 2004
  • The voice of modern hatred : encounters with Europe's new right / Nicholas Fraser., 2000
  • Extreme right activists in Europe : through the magnifying glass / Bert Klandermans., 2006
  • Preachers of hate : the rise of the far right / Angus Roxburgh., 2002
  • Movements of exclusion : radical right-wing populism in the Western world / Jens Rydgren., 2005


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