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Fārs (pronounced /fɑː(ɹ)s/ (Persian: Fārs, Pārs) (Originally Pars) is one of the 30 provinces of Iranmarker. It is in the south of the country and its center is Shirazmarker. It has an area of 122,400 km². In 2006, this province had a population of 4.34 million people, of which 61.2% were registered as urban dwellers, 38.1% villagers, and 0.7% nomad tribes.

Fars is the original homeland of the Persian people. The native name of the Persian language is Fârsi or Pârsi. Persia and Persian both derive from the Hellenized form Persis of the root word Pârs. The Old Persian word was Pârsâ.

Etymology

The word Fars is derived from Pârsa, the Old Persian name for Persia and its capital, Persepolis. Fars is the Arabized version of Pârs, as Arabic has no [p] phoneme.

History

Persis



The ancient Persiansmarker were present in the region from about the 9th century BC, and became the rulers of a large empire under the Achaemenid dynasty in the 6th century BC. The ruins of Persepolismarker and Pasargadaemarker, two of the four capitals of the Achaemenid Empire, are located in Fars.

The Achaemenid Empire was defeated by Alexander III of Macedon in the fourth century BC. Shortly after this the Seleucid Empire was established. However it never extended its power beyond the main trade routes in Fars, and by reign of Antiochus I or possibly later Persis emerged as an independent state that minted its own coins.

The Seleucid Empire was defeated by the Parthians in 238 BC. By 205 BC Antiochus III had extended his authority into Persis and it ceased to be an independent state.

Babak was the ruler of a small town called Kheir. Babak's efforts in gaining local power at the time escaped the attention of Artabanus IV, the Arsacid Emperor of the time. Babak and his eldest son Shapur managed to expand their power over all of Persis.

The subsequent events are unclear, due to the sketchy nature of the sources. It is however certain that following the death of Babak around 220, Ardashir who at the time was the governor of Darabgird, got involved in a power struggle of his own with his elder brother Shapur. The sources tell us that in 222, Shapur was killed when the roof of a building collapsed on him.

At this point, Ardashir moved his capital further to the south of Persis and founded a capital at Ardashir-Khwarrah (formerly Gur, modern day Firouzabadmarker).

After establishing his rule over Persis, Ardashir I rapidly extended his territory, demanding fealty from the local princes of Fars, and gaining control over the neighboring provinces of Kerman, Isfahan, Susiana, and Mesene.

Artabanus marched a second time against Ardashir I in 224. Their armies clashed at Hormizdeghan, where Artabanus IV was killed. He was crowned in 226 at Ctesiphonmarker as the sole ruler of Persia; bringing the 400-year-old Parthian Empire to an end.

The Sassanids ruled for 425 years, until the Arab armies conquered the empire.

Iran

Fars then passed hand to hand through numerous dynasties, leaving behind numerous historical and ancient monuments; each of which has its own values as a world heritage, reflecting the history of the province, Iranmarker, and western Asia. The ruins of Bishapurmarker, Persepolismarker, and Firouzabadmarker are all reminders of this.

For a better grasp of Iranian history and culture, the serial papers published in Etelaat Newspaper ( in Persian) by Mr. Hamid R. Dolatabadi could be of great help for the scholars.(7)

Administrative divisions

Fars is located in the south of Iranmarker. It neighbours Bushehr Provincemarker to the west, Hormozgān Provincemarker to the south, Kermanmarker and Yazd provincesmarker to the east, Isfahan provincemarker to the north and Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Provincemarker to the northwest. According to the latest divisions, the province contains the following counties:
  1. Estahbanmarker
  2. Abadehmarker
  3. Eqlīd
  4. Bovanat
  5. Jahrummarker
  6. Darabmarker
  7. Sepidanmarker
  8. Shirazmarker
  9. Fasamarker
  10. Firouzabadmarker
  11. Saadat Shahr
  12. Sarvestan
  13. Safashahr
  14. Mohr
  15. Kherameh
  16. Kazeroonmarker
  17. Larmarker
  18. Lamerdmarker
  19. Marvdashtmarker
  20. Mamasani
  21. Khonjmarker
  22. Neyrizmarker
  23. SahedShahr


Fars Province landscape


Climate and wildlife

There are three distinct climatic regions in the Fars Province. First, the mountainous area of the north and northwest with moderate cold winters and mild summers. Secondly, the central regions, with relatively rainy mild winters, and hot dry summers. The third region located in the south and southeast, has moderate winters with very hot summers. The average temperature of Shiraz is 16.8 °C, ranging between 4.7° and 29.2 °C.

The geographical and climatic variation of the province causes varieties of plants; consequently, variation of wildlife has been formed in the province. Additional to the native animals of the province, many kinds of birds migrate to the province every year. Many kinds of ducks, storks and swallows migrate to this province in an annual parade. The main native animals of the province are gazelle, deer, mountain wild goat, ram, ewe and many kinds of birds.

The province of Fars includes many protected wildlife zones. The most important protected zones are as follows:

  • Toot Siah (Black Berry) Hunt Forbidden Zone, which is located at the end of Boanat region.


  • Basiran Hunt Forbidden Zone, which is located 4 kilometers south to Abadeh.


  • Bambo National Park, which is located on the north of Shiraz.


  • Estahban Forest Park ( Parke Jangaly), which is located on the outskirts of Touraj mountain.


  • Hermoodlar Protected Zone, which is located east to larestan.


Arjan Meadow (22 km²) and Lake Parishan (40 km²) are designated Wetlands of International Importance under the Ramsar convention.

Economy

Agriculture is of great importance in Fars. The major products include cereal (wheat and barley), citrus fruits, dates, sugar beets and cotton.

Fars has major petrochemical facilities, along with an oil refinery, a factory for producing tires, a large electronics industry, and a sugar mill.

Tourism is also a large industry in the province. UNESCO has designated an area in the province, called Arjan (known as Dasht e Arjan) as a biosphere reserve.

Demographics

Due to the geographical characteristics of Fars and its proximity to the Persian Gulfmarker, Fars has long been a residing area for various Iranian People and Semites who were under the influence of Persian culture. However, the tribes of Fars including Qashqai Turks, Mamasani Lurs, Khamseh and Kohkiluyeh have kept their native and unique cultures and lifestyles which constitute part of the cultural heritage of Iranmarker attracting many tourists.Shiraz (provincial capital of Fars) has one of the most famous kinds of wine in the world. There used to be a lot of wine factories in this city. After the Islamic revolution in 1979 due to an Islamic law all wine factories were shut down. The province has a population of 4.4 million approximately.

Transportation

Shiraz Airportmarker is the main international airport of the province and the second in the country. The cities of Lar and Lamerd also have airports linking them with Shiraz and Tehran and nearby Persian Gulf countries such as the UAE and Bahrain. Shiraz is along the main route from Tehranmarker to southern Iran.

Colleges and universities

The following major universities are located in Fars:
  1. Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
  2. Shiraz University
  3. Shiraz University of Technology
  4. Islamic Azad University of Abadeh
  5. Islamic Azad University of Arsanjan
  6. Islamic Azad University of Estahban
  7. Islamic Azad University of Eghlid
  8. Islamic Azad University of Jahrom
  9. Islamic Azad University of Sepidan
  10. Islamic Azad University of Shiraz
  11. Islamic Azad University of Fasa
  12. Islamic Azad University of Firouzabad
  13. Islamic Azad University of Kazerun
  14. Islamic Azad University of Larestan
  15. Islamic Azad University of Marvdasht
  16. Fasa University of Medical Sciences
  17. Jahrom University of Medical Sciences
  18. Shiraz University of Applied Science and Technology
  19. Fasa University of Payam Noor
  20. Fasa Institution (Centre) of High Education


Notables from Fars



Fars Province in poetry

Fars: The ancient homeland of Persia.


روی گفتم که در جهان بنهم

گردم از قید بندگی آزاد

که نه بیرون پارس منزل هست

شام و روم و بصره و بغداد

"I decided to travel to the greater world,

So that I could get free from the chains of slavery.

But I found that no place could be my house except Fars,

Not Levant, not Anatolia, not Basra, nor Baghdad."

Saadi


photo gallery

Image:persepolis_recreated.jpg|The Persepolismarker in Fars, Iranmarker


See also

Dialects of Fars7.Dolatabadi, Hamid (1998). Serial articles on the literature and languages of Iran. Etelaat Newspaper.Tehran- Iran

References

  1. The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 3 (1), p. 299
  2. The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 3 (1), p. 302
  3. Iran fars-shiraz
  4. Nezameddin Faghih
  5. Nezameddin Faghih Books


External links







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