Fenway Park is a baseball park near Kenmore
Square in Boston, Massachusetts.
Located at 4 Yawkey Way, it has served as
the home ballpark of the Boston Red
club since it opened in
1912, and is the oldest Major
League Baseball stadium
use. It is
the only one of the original standards ballparks (Comiskey Park, Forbes
Field, Yankee Stadium, and the Polo Grounds) that is still in use.
Because of the ballpark's age and constrained location in an urban
neighborhood next to Boston University's large campus, the park has
had many renovations and additions over the years not initially
envisioned, resulting in unique, quirky features, including "the
Triangle", "Pesky's Pole", and most notably the famous Green Monster
in left field. Fenway Park is
renowned for hosting dedicated Red Sox fans, collectively called
"Red Sox Nation
". Every Red Sox home
game since May 15, 2003, has sold out; in 2008, the park sold out
its 456th consecutive Red Sox game, breaking a Major League
record.Fenway Park has also been the site of many other sporting
and cultural events, including professional football games for the
and the Boston Patriots
, concerts, and political
Sox moved to Fenway Park from the old Huntington
Avenue Baseball Grounds.
Fenway Park in 1914
In 1911, owner John I. Taylor
sold the team at the same time he developed land bordered by
Brookline Avenue, Jersey Street, Van Ness Street and Lansdowne
Street into a larger baseball stadium.
Former owner John I. Taylor
claimed the name Fenway Park came from
its location in the Fenway district
of Boston, which was partially created late in the nineteenth
century by filling in marshland or "fens
However, given that Taylor's family also owned the Fenway Realty
Company, the promotional value of the naming at the time has been
cited as well. Like many classic ballparks, Fenway Park was
constructed on an asymmetrical block, with consequent asymmetry in
its field dimensions.
Attendance at the park has not always been great, and reached its
low point late in the 1965 season with two games having paid
attendance under 500 spectators. Its fortunes have risen since the Red Sox'
1967 "Impossible Dream"
season, and on September 8, 2008 with a game versus the Tampa Bay Rays, Fenway Park broke the
all-time Major League record with its 456th consecutive sellout,
surpassing the previous record held by Jacobs Field (now Progressive
Field) in Cleveland, Ohio.
On Wednesday, June 17,
2009 the park celebrated its 500th consecutive Red Sox sellout.
According to WBZ-TV, the team joined three NBA teams which achieved
500 consecutive home sellouts; one of those teams was the Larry Bird
of the 1980s. Former pitcher Bill Lee
has called Fenway
Park "a shrine
Changes to Fenway Park
The old wooden seats of Fenway's
Some of the changes include:
- In 1934, the scoreboard was added, with what was then
considered high technology lights representing balls and strikes.
The score is still updated by hand today from behind the wall
(except the National League scores which need to be changed out on
1946, upper deck seats were installed; Fenway Park is essentially
the first double-tiered ballpark in Boston since the South End
Grounds of the 1880s.
- In 1947, arc lights were installed at Fenway Park. The Boston
Red Sox were the third-to-last team out of 16 major league teams to
have lights in their home park.
- In 1976, metric distances were added to the
conventionally-stated distances because it was thought that the
United States would
adopt the metric system. Today, few American ballparks have
metric distances posted. Fenway Park retained the metric
measurement until mid-season 2002, when they were painted over.
Also, Fenway's first message board was added over the center field
- In 1999 the auxiliary press boxes were added atop the roof
boxes along the first and third base sides.
- Before the 2003 season, seats were added to the Green Monster.
- Before the 2004 season, seats were added to the right field
roof, above the retired numbers, called the Budweiser Right Field Roof.
- Before the 2005 season, a new drainage system was installed on
the field. The system, along with new sod, was installed to prevent
the field from becoming too wet to play on during light to medium
rains, and to reduce the time needed to dry the field adequately.
Work on the field was completed only weeks prior to spring
- After the 2005 season, the Red Sox completed their plans for
the .406 Club area, which became the EMC Club. The construction
resulted in 852 pavilion club seats, 745 pavilion box seats, and
approximately 200 pavilion standing-room seats along the left- and
right-field lines, resulting in approximately 1300 additional
- The winter of renovations focused on renovating the luxury
boxes as well as adding a new food concourse area and renovated
bathrooms behind the third base grandstands.
- Before the 2008 season, the temporary luxury boxes installed
for the 1999 All-Star Game were removed and permanent ones were
added to the State Street Pavilion level. Seats were also added
down the left field line called the Coca-Cola Party-Deck. 100 standing-room tickets
were also added to the pavilion increasing capacity to just under
40,000 people. The Coke bottles, installed in 1997, were also
removed to return the light towers to their original state. All
bleacher seats were replaced and the seating bowl water-proofed as
- Before the 2009 season, the right field roofbox seating area
was renovated and expanded and the original 1912 seating bowl was
water-proofed and seats replaced.
Proposed new Fenway Park
On May 15, 1999 then Red Sox CEO John Harrington announced plans
for a new Fenway Park to be built near the existing structure. It
was to have the same dimensions on the field, include a new
, basically be a replica
of the current park, but be modernized to replace some of the old
features of Fenway Park. Some sections of the old Fenway Park were
to be preserved (mainly the original Green Monster and the third
base side of the park) as part of the overall new layout. Most of
the old park was to be demolished to make room for new development,
with one section remaining to house a baseball museum and public
park. This was a highly controversial idea, as most Boston area
sports fans consider Fenway Park to be sacred ground, and
demolishing the old park would have caused a significant outcry.
Several groups sprang up, such as "Save Fenway Park" to try and
block the move.
All involved parties wrangled for several years on the details of
the new stadium. One plan even involved building a "Sports
Megaplex" in South Boston, where a new Fenway would be located next
to a new stadium for the New
. The Patriots ultimately built a new
stadium in Foxboro, and that plan was abandoned.
several more rounds of deliberations, the Red Sox could not reach
an agreement with the city of Boston for a new stadium. In 2005,
the Red Sox ownership group announced that the team would stay in
the current Fenway Park indefinitely.
A view of Fenway Park and the
Its location in the Kenmore Square area includes many buildings of
similar height and architecture, causing it to blend in well with
its surroundings. This results in the park appearing smaller and
less imposing than other major outdoor sports venues in the
country. When pitcher Roger
Clemens arrived in Boston for the first time in 1984, he took a
taxi from Logan
Airport and was sure the driver had misunderstood his
directions when he announced their arrival at the park.
Clemens recalled telling the driver "No, Fenway Park, it's a
baseball stadium ... this is a warehouse." Only when the
driver told Clemens to look up and he saw the light towers did he
realize he was in the right place.
Park is one of the two remaining classic parks still in use in
major league baseball (the other being Wrigley Field), and both have a significant number of obstructed
view seats, due to pillars supporting the upper deck.
are sold as such, and are a reminder of the architectural
limitations of older ballparks.
Map showing Fenway Park in 1917.
As discussed by George Will
(MacMillan, 1990), Fenway Park is a "hitters'
ballpark", with its short right-field fence (302 feet), narrow
foul ground, and generally closer-than-normal outfield fences. By
Rule 1.04, Note(a), all parks built after 1958 have been required
to have foul lines at least 325 feet long and a center-field
fence at least 400 feet from home plate. Regarding the narrow
foul territory, Will writes (p. 175):
The narrow foul territory in Fenway Park probably adds
5 to 7 points onto batting
Since World War II, the Red Sox have had 18 batting
champions (through 1989)...
Five to 7 points are a lot, given that there may be
only a 15- or 20-point spread between a good hitting team and a
poor hitting team.
Some observers might feel that these unique aspects of Fenway give
the Red Sox an advantage over their opponents, given that the Red
Sox hitters play 81 games at the home stadium, while each opponent
plays only a handful (9 for AL East teams, 6 for some AL teams, and
only 3 for other AL teams and the NL teams which play at Fenway for
interleague games). Will does not share this view
Will's book pre-dates the smaller retro ballparks and the home run
barrage that began in the early/mid-1990s, as well as the Red Sox
World Series wins of 2004 and 2007.
Historically, Fenway Park has been decidedly unfriendly to
left-handed pitchers, Babe Ruth
of the few southpaw
started his career as a pitcher (mostly during the "dead-ball era
"), and had a career record of 94
wins, 46 losses (.671 winning percentage). Ruth also set a World Series
record by pitching 29⅔ scoreless
innings, a record that lasted until broken by Whitey Ford
of the New York Yankees
Fenway Park had the smallest seating capacity in the major leagues
for a number of years, but that is no longer the case. A number of
the classic ballparks had seating capacities under 40,000, and some
were smaller than Fenway. Montreal's Jarry Park was smallest of all the modern ballparks, at about
At the time of Jarry Park's closing in 1977, the
other old ballparks were gone, and Fenway's capacity was listed
(according to Sporting News Baseball Guides
) at 33,513,
making it the smallest in the majors at that point. Fenway began to
grow incrementally over the next three decades, as pockets of
seating areas were added from time to time.
the 2008 season, Fenway Park's capacity was increased to 39,928,
where it remains following additional renovations for the 2009
season rendering Fenway as the fourth smallest, behind the Oakland-Alameda County
Field and PNC
Renovations prior to the 2009 season now
allow the Sox to sell roughly 350 more tickets each game, though
the official capacity has not increased.
There have previously been proposals to increase the seating capacity
to as much as 45,000
through the expansion of the upper decks, while others (notably
former team owners, the JRY Trust
called for razing the historic ballpark entirely and building a
similar, but larger and more modern, scalable facility nearby.
These proposals are now effectively moot as a result of the
alternative modernization plan undertaken by the current
The Green Monster
The Green Monster measures
37 feet, 2 inches tall.
The Green Monster is the nickname of the thirty-seven-foot,
two-inch (11.3 m) left field wall in the park. Only
304-310 feet to home plate, it is a popular target for
Part of the original ballpark construction of 1912, the wall is
made of wood, but was covered in tin and concrete in 1934 when
The wall was covered in hard plastic in 1976. The scoreboard
is still manually updated throughout
the game today. Despite the name, the Green Monster was not painted
green until 1947; before that it was covered with advertisements
. The Monster
designation is relatively new. For most of its history it was
simply called the wall
. In recent years,
terrace-style seating has been added on top of the wall.
"The Triangle" is a region of center field where the walls form a
triangle whose far corner is 420 feet (128 m) from home
plate. That deep right-center point is conventionally given as the
center field distance. True center is unmarked, 390 feet from
home plate, to the left of "The Triangle" when viewed from home
There was once a smaller "triangle" at the left end of the
bleachers in center field, posted as 388 feet (118.3 m).
The end of the bleachers form a right angle with the Green Monster
and the flagpole stands within
that little triangle. That is not the true power alley, but deep
left-center. The true power alley distance is not posted. The foul
line intersects with the Green Monster at nearly a right angle, so
the power alley could be estimated at 336 feet (102.4 m),
assuming the power alley is 22.5 degrees away from the foul line as
measured from home plate.
"Williamsburg" was the name, invented by sportswriters, for the
bullpen area built in front of the right-center field bleachers in
1940. It was built there primarily for the benefit of Ted Williams
, to enable him and other
left-handed batters to hit more home runs
since it was 23 feet closer than the bleacher wall.
was inspired both by Colonial Williamsburg and Yankee Stadium's hitter-friendly right field area that was often
"The Belly" is the sweeping curve of the box-seat railing from the
right end of "Williamsburg" around to the right field corner. The
box seats were added when the bullpens were built in 1940. The
right field line distance from the 1934 remodeling was reduced by
some 30 feet.
The Lone Red Seat
The Lone Red Seat
The lone red seat in the right field bleachers (Section 42, Row 37,
Seat 21), is there to signify the longest home run ever hit at
Fenway. Williams' bomb was officially measured at 502 feet
(153 m)—well beyond "Williamsburg". According to Hit Tracker
Online, the ball, if unobstructed, would have flown 520 to
The ball landed on Joseph A. Boucher, a Yankee fan, who was
supposedly taking a nap at the time, penetrating his large straw
hat and hitting him in the head. A confounded Boucher was later
quoted as saying,
No other player at Fenway Park has ever hit the seat since,
although on June 23, 2001 Manny
hit two home runs; one estimated at 463 feet and
another one with an official estimate of 501 feet. The latter
blast struck a light tower above the Green Monster denying it a
true landing point, to which the official estimate deferred to
Williams' record placing Ramirez's home run exactly one foot
As noted in the 2007 book The Year Babe Ruth Hit 104
researcher Bill Jenkinson found evidence that
on May 25, 1926, Babe Ruth
hit one in the
pre-1934 bleacher configuration which landed five rows from the top
in right field, an estimated 545 feet from home plate. Ruth
also hit several other "Ruthian" blasts at Fenway that landed
across the street behind straightaway center field, estimated at
Although it is only 302 feet to
"Pesky's Pole", the fence directly behind it sharply curves
is the name for the pole
on the right field foul line, which stands a mere 302 feet
from home plate, the shortest porch (left or right field) in Major
League Baseball. Oddly, this distance has never been posted on the
foul pole. Despite the short wall, home runs in this area are
relatively rare, since the fence curves away from the foul pole
sharply. For comparison's sake, the much larger
Park in Chicago had several dozen home runs hit over its roof, yet
no one has ever hit one over Fenway's much shorter right field
The pole was named after Johnny Pesky
, a light-hitting shortstop and
for the Red Sox,
who hit some of his six home runs at Fenway Park around the pole
but never off the pole. Pesky and the Red Sox give credit to
pitcher Mel Parnell
for coining the
name. The most notable for Pesky is a two-run homer in the eighth
inning of the 1946 Opening Day game to win the game (in his career,
Pesky hit 17 home runs). In similar fashion, Mark Bellhorn
hit what proved to be the
game-winning home run off of Julián Tavárez
, in Game 1 of the
2004 World Series
off that pole's
On September 27, 2006, on Pesky's 87th birthday, the Red Sox
organization officially dedicated the right field foul pole as
with a commemorative plaque placed at
In a ceremony before the Red Sox's 2005 interleague
game against the Cincinnati Reds
, the pole on the left field
foul line atop the Green Monster
named Fisk Foul Pole, in honor of Carlton
. Fisk provided one of baseball's most enduring moments in
Game 6 of the 1975 World Series
against the Reds. Facing Reds right-hander Pat Darcy in the 12th
inning with the score tied at 6, Fisk hit a long fly ball down the
left field line. It appeared to be heading foul, but Fisk, after
initially appearing unsure of whether or not to continue running to
first base, famously jumped and waved his arms to the right as if
to somehow direct the ball fair. It ricocheted off the foul pole,
winning the game for the Red Sox and sending the series to a
seventh and deciding game the next night, which Cincinnati
NBC-TV director Harry Coyle had wanted to aim the camera on the
ball. But legend has it that a rat in the left field camera booth
had frightened the cameraman, causing him to stay focused on Fisk's
"waving it fair". This play clinched an Emmy award for Coyle and
NBC's coverage of the Series.
From 1912 to 1933, there was a high incline in front of the then
high left field wall at Fenway Park, extending from the left-field
foul pole to the center field flag pole. As a result, a left
fielder in Fenway Park had to play part of the territory running
uphill (and back down). Boston's first star left fielder, Duffy Lewis
, mastered the skill so well that the
area became known as "Duffy's Cliff".
The incline served two purposes:
- it was a support for a high wall;
- it was built to compensate for the difference in grades between
the field and Lansdowne Street on the other side of that wall.
It also served as a spectator-friendly seating area during the
dead-ball era when overflow crowds would sit on the incline behind
is often compared to the infamous left field "terrace" at Cincinnati's Crosley
Field, but, in truth, the 15-degree all-grass incline
there served an entirely different purpose as an alternative to an
all dirt warning track found in most other ballparks.
a natural feature of the site on which Crosley Field and its
predecessors were located; slightly less severe inclines were
deliberately built in center and right fields to compensate.
incline in center field of Minute Maid Park has been considered a tribute to Duffy's
As part of the 1934 remodeling of the ballpark, the bleachers and
the wall itself, Red Sox owner Tom Yawkey
arranged to flatten the ground along the base of the wall, so that
Duffy's Cliff no longer existed, and thus became part of the lore
of Fenway Park. Thus the base of the left field wall is several
feet below the grade level of Lansdowne Street, accounting for the
occasional rat that might spook the scoreboard operators. ("The
, ISBN 1-57940-091-4.)
For decades there was considerable debate about the true left field
distance, which was posted as 315 feet (96 m). For years,
Red Sox officials refused to remeasure the distance. Reportedly,
The Boston Globe
to sneak into Fenway Park and remeasure the line. When the paper's
evidence was presented to the club in 1995, the line was finally
remeasured by the Red Sox and restated at 310 feet
(94.5 m). The companion 96 meters sign remained unchanged,
until 1998, when it was corrected to 94.5 meters. A theory about
the incorrect foul line distance is that the former 315 ft
(96 m) measurement came from the Duffy's Cliff days. That
measurement likely included the severity of the incline, and when
the mound was leveled, the distance was never corrected.
In 1983, private suites were added to the roof behind home plate.
In 1988, 610 stadium club seats enclosed in glass and named the
"600 Club", were added above the home plate bandstand, replacing
the existing press box. The press box was then added to the top of
the 600 Club. The 1988 addition is largely credited with changing
the air currents in Fenway Park to the detriment of hitters.
In 2002, the organization renamed the club seats the ".406 Club"
(in honor of Ted Williams' batting average in 1941), six days after
his death. (Williams is the last player to hit .400 or better to
finish a season in the major leagues.)
During the 2005/06 offseason, as part of the continuing expansion
efforts at Fenway Park, the existing .406 club was rebuilt. The
second deck now features two open-air levels: the bottom level is
the new "EMC
Club" featuring 406
seats and concierge services
, and above
that, the State Street Pavilion, with 374 seats and a dedicated
standing room area. The added seats are wider than the previous
Sox's one-time cross-town rivals, the Boston Braves used Fenway Park for the
1914 World Series and the 1915
season until Braves
Field was completed.
Since 1990 (except in 2005 when, because of field work, it was held
in a minor league ballpark), Fenway Park has also played host to a
baseball version of Boston-area intercollegiate sports' prestigious
tournament. The University of
joins the traditional Beanpot trio of Boston
College, Harvard University, and Northeastern University in the
Beginning in 2006, the Red Sox have hosted the "Futures at Fenway
" event, where two of
their minor-league affiliates play a regular-season doubleheader as
the "home" teams. In 2006, the Lowell
and Pawtucket Red Sox
played, with both winning. The 2007 event featured Lowell and the
Portland Sea Dogs
as the two
featured farm clubs, again with both teams winning. Before the
Futures day started, the most recent minor-league game held at
Fenway had been the Eastern League
The 2009 Atlantic Coast
baseball tournament was scheduled to be held at
Fenway Park, but a scheduling conflict has caused the 2010
tournament to be scheduled at Fenway Park instead. Due to economic
reasons, the ACC elected to move the 2010 tournament from Fenway
Park to NewBridge Bank Park in Greensboro, NC, but is still looking
to host a tournament at Fenway Park in the future.
Despite its relatively small size, Fenway Park's oblong-esque
layout actually makes it a reasonably
viable facility for various forms of football.
the first American Football League's Boston Bulldogs played at both Fenway
Field; the Boston
Shamrocks of the second AFL did the same
in 1936 and 1937. The National Football League's Boston Redskins (later becoming the
Washington Redskins) played at Fenway for four seasons, 1933 to
1936, after playing their inaugural season in 1932 at Braves Field as the Boston Braves; the Boston Yanks (now the Indianapolis Colts)
played there in the 1940s; and the American Football League's Boston Patriots called Fenway Park home
from 1963 to 1968 after moving there from Nickerson
Field, the direct descendant of Braves Field.
various times in the past, Dartmouth College, Boston
College and Boston University teams have also played football games at Fenway
On May 30, 1931, 8,000 fans came out to Fenway Park to see the
New York Yankees
American Soccer League
4–3. The Yankees goalkeeper,
, would later return to
play for the Boston Red Sox
Park was also used by the NASL
team, Boston Beacons
, as their home field for the
2010 NHL Winter Classic
The National Hockey League
will stage the 2010 NHL Winter
on January 1, 2010, with the Boston Bruins
hosting the Philadelphia Flyers
. This will be the
third in the NHL's current series of New
games. Bruins, Red Sox and city officials made the
official announcement on July 15, 2009 at an impromptu stage
constructed over the Red Sox dugout along the first base line of
Fenway Park. The NHL anticipates a more than week-long
event surrounding the game to include events at TD Garden, the Bruins home venue, as well and public skating
and an additional game involving men's teams from Boston
College and Boston University at Fenway Park.
rebel and future President of Ireland, Éamon de Valera
addressed Boston's Irish asking for their support in the effort to
form an Irish republic before a crowd of 40,000 at Fenway Park on
June 29, 1919. President Franklin D. Roosevelt
gave the last campaign
speech of his political career at Fenway Park in 1944.
Although Fenway Park was not previously a frequent venue for
, the Red Sox new ownership has
used the venue for two concerts each year, starting in 2003 with
Bruce Springsteen and the E Street
Band's The Rising Tour
first major concert since 1973 when there were concerts on
consecutive evenings with Stevie
and Ray Charles
headliners. Following Springsteen were Jimmy Buffett
in 2004, and The Rolling Stones
who kicked off their
2005 A Bigger Bang Tour
consecutive shows at Fenway Park. On July 7–8, 2006 the Dave Matthews Band
played at the stadium,
with Sheryl Crow
. In the summer of 2007,
played two of their shows on
their 30th anniversary reunion tour at Fenway. Neil Diamond
announced a concert at Fenway Park
on August 23, 2008 as part of his world tour, on the big screen
during the Red Sox home opener on April 8. In March 2009, the
Dave Matthews Band
will be playing two nights at Fenway on May 29 & May 30, with
as the opening act both
nights. On May 31, 2009, alternative
performed at the park.
Promotional materials for the show featured the Fenway organist
playing a version of Phish's song "Tweezer
played at Fenway Park on August 5 and August 6 of
On September 17, 2008, Fenway Park was consecrated as a temporary
federal court to host a naturalization ceremony. 3,032 immigrants
from 140 countries sat in the box and loge seats along the first
base line, stretching from right field in to home plate. The
ceremony was led by US District Judge Patti Saris and lasted about
an hour. The greatest number to become citizens were
from the Dominican
Republic, the homeland of Red Sox slugger David Ortiz and former Red Sox outfielder
Public address announcers
The press box
Fenway Park has had four public address announcers in the over
forty years dating back to the Impossible Dream season of 1967,
with veteran composer and radio announcer Sherm Feller
serving for 26 of those years. The
most recent announcer, Carl Beane
his career in radio in 1972 and has handled duties at Fenway since
There are eight retired
above the right field grandstand. All of the numbers
retired by the Red Sox are red on a white circle. Jackie Robinson
's 42, which was retired by
Major League Baseball, is blue on a white circle. The two are
further delineated through the font difference; Boston numbers are
in the same style as the Red Sox jerseys, while Robinson's number
is in the more traditional "block" numbering found on the Dodgers
Until the late 1990s, the numbers originally hung on the
right-field facade in the order in which they were retired:
9-4-1-8. It was pointed out that the numbers, when read as a date
(9/4/18), marked the eve of the first game of the 1918 World
Series, the last championship series that the Red Sox won before
2004. After the facade was repainted, the numbers were rearranged
in numerical order.
Sox policy on retiring uniform numbers was once one of the most
stringent in baseball—the player had to be elected to the National
Baseball Hall of Fame, play at least 10 years with the team, and retire
as a member of the Red Sox.
The final requirement was waived
for Carlton Fisk as he had finished his playing career with the
Chicago White Sox
. However, Fisk
was assigned a Red Sox front office job and effectively "finished"
his baseball career with the Red Sox in this manner. In 2008, the
current ownership relaxed the requirements further with the
retirement of Johnny Pesky
's number 6.
Pesky has not been inducted into the Hall of Fame, but in light of
his over fifty years of service to the club, the management made an
exception. The latest number retired was 14, worn by Jim Rice
. Rice met the original requirements,
retiring after playing sixteen seasons with the Red Sox and
entering the Hall of Fame in 2009.
|Red Sox Retired
||Red Sox Years
||US Army, 1945
||SS, 3B, 2B
||US Navy, 1943–45
||LF, 3B, 1B
||US Marines, 1943–45, 52–53
Dodgers 1947-1956, retired by Major League Baseball
(all ground rules based on)
- Foul poles are inside the field of play.
- A ball going through the scoreboard, either on the bounce or
fly, is a ground rule
- A fly ball striking left-center field wall to right of or on
the line behind the flag pole is a home run.
- A fly ball striking wall or flag pole and bouncing into
bleachers is a home run.
- A fly ball striking line or right of same on wall in center is
a home run.
- A fly ball striking wall left of line and bouncing into bullpen
is a home run.
- A ball sticking in the bullpen screen or bouncing into the
bullpen is a ground rule double.
- A batted or thrown ball remaining behind or under canvas or in
tarp cylinder is a ground rule double.
- A fly ball that strikes the top of the ladder on the Green
Monster and then bounces out of play is two bases.
- A fly ball that lands above the red line on top of the Green
Monster and bounces onto the field of play is ruled a home
Access and transportation
- Baseball-Reference.com 1965 Boston Red Sox
Schedule, Box Scores and Splits.
- USAToday.com Fenway sells out for record 456th
- fenwayparkwriters.org The Great Fenway Park
Writers Series - Writers Speaking About the Books They Write.
- New Fenway Park Ballparks.com.
- Sox make commitment to Fenway Park Boston Red
- Nowlin, Bill and Prime, Jim (2005). Blood Feud: The Red
Sox, the Yankees and the Struggle of Good Vs. Evil. Google Books
- Boston Glove