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Fiestas Patrias ( ) in Mexicomarker originated in the 19th century and are observed today as five public holidays.

Aniversario de la Constitución

This day ( ) commemorates the Constitution of 1917, promulgated after the Mexican Revolution on February 5. Article 74 of the Mexican labor law (Ley Federal del Trabajo) provides that the first Monday of February (regardless the date) will be an official holiday in Mexico. This was a modification of the law made in 2005, effective since 2006; before, it was the February 5th regardless of the day, and all schools gave extended holidays if the day was a Tuesday or Thursday.

Natalicio de Benito Juárez

This day ( ) commemorates President Benito Juárez's birthday on March 21, 1806. Juárez is popularly regarded as an exemplary politician because of his liberal policies that, among other things, defined the traditionally strict separation of the church and the Mexican state. Article 74 of the Mexican labor law (Ley Federal del Trabajo) provides that the third Monday of March (regardless the date) will be an official holiday in Mexico. As with Constitution Day, the holiday was originally celebrated every year on the same date (March 21), but the federal labor law was modified in 2005 so the holiday is always celebrated on a Monday.

Día del Trabajo

Día del Trabajo ( ) commemorates the Mexican workers' union movements on May 1 — specifically, the 1906 Cananea, Sonoramarker, and the 1907 Río Blanco, Veracruz, labor unrest and repression.

Grito de Dolores and Aniversario de la Independencia

Grito de Dolores (on the evening of September 15) and Aniversario de la Independencia (September 16) commemorate Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla's Grito de Dolores — on September 16, 1810, in the village of Dolores, near Guanajuatomarker. Hidalgo called for the end of Spanish rule in Mexico. On October 18, 1825, the Republic of Mexico officially declared September 16 its national Independence Day.

Mexican Independence day, also referred to as Dieciséis de septiembre, is celebrated from the evening of September 15 with a re-creation of the Grito de Dolores by all executive office-holders (from the President of the Republic down to municipal presidents) and lasts through the night.

Aniversario de la Revolución

This day commemorates the Mexican Revolution which started on November 20, 1910 when Francisco I. Madero planned an uprising against dictator Porfirio Díaz's 31-year-long iron rule. Article 74 of the Mexican labor law (Ley Federal del Trabajo) provides that the third Monday of November (regardless the date) will be an official holiday in Mexico. This was a modification of the law made in 2005, effective since 2006; before then, it was November 20 regardless of the day, and all schools gave extended holidays if the day was a Tuesday or Thursday. Although November 20 is the official day, the uprising started on different days in different parts of the country.

Confusion regarding Cinco de mayo

Contrary to US popular belief, Cinco de mayo is not Mexico's "independence day", but rather commemorates an initial victory of Mexican forces over Frenchmarker forces in the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862.

In contrast to Independence day, described above, Cinco de mayo is observed mostly at a local level (Puebla State) and is a minor Bank Holiday in the rest of Mexico. Many Labor Unions negotiate to have the day off, however, since its proximity to Labor Day (May 1) often allows an extended five day weekend or two consecutive three day weekends.

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