- For the computer security term, see Phishing.
is the activity of catching fish
. Fish are normally caught in the wild
for catching fish include
The term fishing may be applied to catching other aquatic animals
such as shellfish
, and echinoderms
. The term is not usually applied to
catching aquatic mammals
, such as
, where the term whaling
is more appropriate, or to farmed fish
. In addition to providing food, modern
fishing is also a recreational
According to FAO
statistics, the total number of
is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries
provide direct and indirect
employment to over 500 million people. In 2005, the worldwide per
capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries
kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms
Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back at least to the
period which began about
40,000 years ago. Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of
, a 40,000 year old modern
human from eastern Asia, has shown that he regularly consumed
freshwater fish. Archaeology
such as shell middens
, discarded fish bones
and cave paintings
show that sea foods
were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities.
During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer
lifestyle and were, of
necessity, constantly on the move. However, where there are early examples of
permanent settlements (though not necessarily permanently occupied)
such as those at Lepenski
Vir, they are almost always associated with fishing as
a major source of food.
Egyptians bringing in fish, and
splitting for salting.
The ancient river Nile
full of fish; fresh and dried fish were a staple food for much of
the population. The Egyptians had
implements and methods for fishing and these are illustrated in
tomb scenes, drawings, and papyrus documents.
Some representations hint
at fishing being pursued as a pastime. In India, the Pandyas
, a classical Dravidian Tamil
kingdom, were known for the pearl fishery as early as the 1st
century BC. Their seaport Tuticorin was known for deep sea pearl fishing. The paravas, a Tamil caste centred in Tuticorin, developed a rich community because of their pearl
trade, navigation knowledge and fisheries.
are rarely represented in ancient
culture, a reflection of the low social status of
fishing. However, Oppian of Corycus
, a Greek
author wrote a major treatise on sea fishing, the
, composed between 177
and 180. This is the earliest such work to have survived to the
modern day. Pictorial evidence of Roman
fishing comes from mosaics
. The Greco-Roman
sea god Neptune
is depicted as
wielding a fishing trident. The Moche people of
ancient Peru depicted
fisherman in their ceramics.
One of the
world’s longest trading histories is the trade
of dry cod from the Lofoten area of
Norway to the southern parts of Europe, Italy, Spain and Portugal.
trade in cod
started during the Viking
period or before, has been going on for more
than 1000 years and is still important.
Traditional fishing is a term used to describe small scale commercial
fishing practices, using traditional
techniques such as rod
and drag nets, etc.
and sport fishing describe
fishing for pleasure
Recreational fishing has conventions, rules, licensing restrictions
that limit the way in which fish may
be caught; typically, these prohibit the use of nets and the
catching of fish with hooks not in the mouth
The most common form of recreational fishing is done with a
and any one of a wide range of bait
or artificial lures such as
spinners or 'dry flies'. The practice of catching or attempting to
catch fish with a hook is generally known as angling
. In angling, it is sometimes expected or
required that fish be returned to the water
(catch and release
or sport fishermen may log their catches or participate in fishing
from boats to catch large open-water species such as tuna
. Sport fishing (sometimes game fishing)
describes recreational fishing where the primary reward is the
challenge of finding and catching the fish rather than the culinary
or financial value of the fish's flesh.
Fish sought after include marlin
although the list is endless.
There are many fishing techniques or methods for catching fish. The
term can also be applied to methods for catching other aquatic animals
such as molluscs
edible marine invertebrates
Fishing techniques include hand gathering
fishers use different techniques,
and also, sometimes, the same techniques. Recreational fishers fish
for pleasure or sport, while commercial fishers fish for profit.
Artisanal fishers use traditional, low-tech methods, for survival
in third-world countries, and as a cultural heritage in other
countries. Mostly, recreational fishers use angling methods and
commercial fishers use netting methods.
There is an intricate link between various fishing techniques and
knowledge about the fish and their behaviour including migration
. The effective use
of fishing techniques often depends on this additional
Fishing tackle is a general term that refers to the equipment used
Almost any equipment or gear used for fishing can be called fishing
tackle. Some examples are hooks
and tackle boxes.
Tackle that is attached to the end of a fishing line is called
. This includes hooks
, leaders, swivels
, split rings and wire, snaps, beads,
spoons, blades, spinners and clevises to attach spinner blades to
Fishing tackle can be contrasted with fishing techniques
. Fishing tackle refers
to the physical equipment that is used when fishing, whereas
fishing techniques refers to the ways the tackle is used when
The fishing industry
The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned
with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing,
transporting, marketing or selling fish or fish products.
It is defined by the FAO
as including recreational
and commercial fishing
, and the harvesting,
, and marketing
sectors. The commercial activity is
aimed at the delivery of fish
products for human consumption or as
input factors in other industrial processes.
There are three principal industry sectors:
- The commercial
sector comprises enterprises and individuals associated with
wild-catch or aquaculture resources and the various transformations
of those resources into products for sale. It is also referred to
as the "seafood industry", although non-food items such as pearls
are included among its products.
- The traditional
sector comprises enterprises and individuals associated with
fisheries resources from which aboriginal people derive products in
accordance with their traditions.
- The recreational sector
comprises enterprises and individuals associated for the purpose of
recreation, sport or sustenance with fisheries resources from which
products are derived that are not for sale.
Commercial fishing is the capture of fish for commercial purposes.
Those who practice it must often pursue fish far into the ocean
under adverse conditions. Commercial fishermen harvest almost all
aquatic species, from tuna
, in various
for these species. Commercial
fishing methods have become very efficient using large nets and
-going processing factories. Individual fishing quotas
and international treaties
seek to control the species and quantities caught.
A commercial fishing enterprise may vary from one man with a small
with hand-casting nets or a few pot traps,
to a huge fleet of trawlers
of fish every day.
Commercial fishing gear includes weights, nets
(e.g. purse seine
), seine nets (e.g. beach seine),
), dredges, hooks
and line (e.g.
), lift nets, gillnets
, entangling nets and traps
According to the Food
and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations
, total world capture fisheries
2000 was 86 million tons (FAO 2002). The top producing
countries were, in order, the People's Republic of China (excluding Hong Kong and Taiwan), Peru, Japan, the
States, Chile, Indonesia, Russia, India, Thailand, Norway and Iceland.
Those countries accounted for more than half of the world's
production; China alone accounted for a third of the world's
production. Of that production, over 90% was marine and less than
10% was inland.
A small number of species support the majority of the world’s
fisheries. Some of these species are herring
. All except these last four provided a
worldwide catch of well over a million
in 1999, with herring
providing a catch of over 22 million metric tons in 1999. Many
other species as well are fished in smaller numbers.
Intensive koi aquaculture facility in
Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture
, while other methods may fall under
. It involves raising fish
commercially in tanks or enclosures, usually for food. A facility
that releases juvenile fish into the wild for recreational fishing
or to supplement a species' natural numbers is generally referred
to as a fish hatchery
. Fish species raised
by fish farms include Atlantic
Increased demands on wild
has caused widespread overfishing
. Fish farming offers an alternative
solution to the increasing market demand
and fish protein
Gyula Derkovits, still-life with fish
Fish and fish products
are consumed as food
all over the world. With other
, it provides the world's prime
source of high-quality protein
percent of the animal protein consumed worldwide. Over one billion
people rely on fish as their primary source of animal
Fish and other aquatic organisms are also processed into various
food and non-food products, such as sharkskin leather, pigments
made from the inky secretions of cuttlefish
used for the clarification
, fish emulsion
used as a fertilizer
, fish glue
Fish are also collected live for research or the aquarium
A fishing vessel is a boat
used to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or
river. Many different kinds of vessels are used in commercial
and recreational fishing
According to the FAO
, there are currently (2004)
four million commercial fishing vessels. About 1.3 million of these
are decked vessels with enclosed areas. Nearly all of these decked
vessels are mechanised, and 40,000 of them are over 100 tons. At
the other extreme, two-thirds (1.8 million) of the undecked
boats are traditional craft of various
types, powered only by sail and oars. These boats are used by
It is difficult to estimate how many
recreational fishing boats
there are, although the number is high. The term is fluid, since
most recreational boats are also used for fishing from time to
time. Unlike most commercial fishing vessels, recreational fishing
boats are often not dedicated just to fishing. Just about anything
that will stay afloat can be called a recreational fishing boat, so
long as a fisher
aboard with the intent to catch a fish. Fish are caught for
recreational purposes from boats which range from dugout canoes
and small dingies
and cruising yachts to large, hi-tech and luxurious
rigs. Larger boats,
purpose-built with recreational fishing in mind, usually have
large, open cockpit
, designed for convenient fishing.
Fishing down the foodweb
Issues involving fishing include environmental effects of
and fish farms
These conservation issues are part of marine conservation
, and are addressed
in fisheries science
There is a growing gap between how many fish are available to be
caught and humanity’s desire to catch them, a problem that gets
worse as the world population
Similar to other environmental
, there can be conflict between the fishermen who depend
on fishing for their livelihoods and fishery scientists
who realise that if future fish populations are to be sustainable
then some fisheries must limit
fishing or cease operations.
Fisheries scientists sorting a catch
of small fish and langoustine.
Fisheries management draws on fisheries science
in order to find ways to
resources so sustainable
exploitation is possible. Modern fisheries management is often
referred to as a governmental system of (hopefully appropriate)
management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of
management means to implement the rules, which are put in place by
a system of monitoring control and
Fisheries science is the academic discipline of managing and
understanding fisheries. It is a multidisciplinary science, which
draws on the disciplines of oceanography
, population dynamics
economics and management in an attempt to provide an integrated
picture of fisheries. In some cases new disciplines have emerged,
such as bioeconomics
- Semantic impact: The expression "fishing expedition" (usually
used to describe a line of questioning), describes a case in which
the questioner implies that he knows more than he actually does in
order to trick the target into divulging more information than he
wishes to reveal. Other examples of fishing terms that carry a
negative connotation are: "fishing for compliments", "to be fooled
hook, line and sinker" (to be
fooled beyond merely "taking the bait"), and the internet scam of
Phishing in which a third party will
duplicate a website where the user would put sensitive information
(such as bank codes).
- Religious Impact: Fishing has had an effect on all major
religions, including Islam, Christianity,
Zoroastrianism, Wicca, Hinduism, Latter Day Saints and the various new age religions. According to the Roman Catholic
faith the first Pope was a fisherman, the
apostle Peter, and
a number of the miracles reported in the
Bible involve it. Additionally, the Pope's
traditional costume includes a fish-shaped
hat which some say is a representation of the
- Fisheries and Aquaculture in our Changing
Climate Policy brief of the FAO for the UNFCCC COP-15 in
Copenhagen, December 2009.
Fisheries and Aquaculture
- African Bone Tools Dispute Key Idea About Human
Evolution National Geographic News article.
- Yaowu Hu Y, Hong Shang H, Haowen Tong H, Olaf Nehlich O, Wu Liu
W, Zhao C, Yu J, Wang C, Trinkaus E and Richards M (2009) "Stable isotope dietary analysis of the Tianyuan 1 early
modern human" Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences, 106 (27) 10971-10974.
- First direct evidence of substantial fish consumption by
early modern humans in China PhysOrg.com, 6 July 2009.
- Coastal Shell Middens and Agricultural Origins in
- Image of fishing illustrated in a Roman
- Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient
Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera.
New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.
- Keegan, William F (1986)
New Series, Vol. 88, No. 1., pp. 92-107.
- FAO Fisheries Section: Glossary: Fishing industry. Retrieved 28 May 2008.
- The wording of the following definitions of the fishing
industry are based on those used by the
- World Health Organization.
- Tidwell, James H. and Allan, Geoff L.
- FAO 2007
- NOAA: Sport fishing boat
Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF)
- African fishermen find way of conservation in the
Koran The Christian Science Monitor
- A Misunderstood Analogy for Evangelism Bible Analysis
- American Bible Society Article American Bible
- About Pices the Fish The Astrology Cafe
- Peter: From Fisherman to Fisher of Men Profiles of