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Fluminense Football Club is a sports club based in Rio de Janeiromarker, Brazilmarker. Founded in the beginning of the 20th century as a single-sport institution, Fluminense is today an umbrella organization for several teams in more than 16 different sport activities. The most popular endeavour of Fluminense, however, continues to be football. This article concerns itself with Fluminense solely as a professional football club.

History

Fluminense Football Club was founded on July 21, 1902 in Rio de Janeiromarker by Oscar Cox, a Brazilian of British heritage. Settled in the then aristocratic neighbourhood of Laranjeiras, Fluminense was formed by sons of the elite who had come into contact with football while studying in Europe. The first official match was played against now defunct Rio FC, and ended 8-0 for Fluminense. The first achievement came in 1906, when Fluminense won its first Campeonato Carioca.

In 1911, disagreement between Fluminense players led to the formation of Flamengo's football team, which remains the club's main rival. The so-called Fla-Flu derby is considered the biggest in the history of Brazilian football. Five years later, in Fluminense's stadium, the Brazilian national football team debuted. It was also there that they conquered their first title, in 1919. One year later, Afrânio Costa, a Fluminense shooting athlete, won the first medal for Brazil in the history of the Olympic Games.

By 1924, Fluminense had 4,000 members, a stadium for 25,000 people and facilities that impressed clubs in Europe. Nonetheless, Fluminense's long association with the rich tainted its history with racism. In an unfortunate event in 1914, a mulatto man playing for Fluminense decided to cover himself in cosmetic powder to disguise the colour of his skin. This ultimately led to one of the club's nicknames, pó de arroz, which is the Portuguese for white powder. After 1925, Fluminense began pressuring for the professionalization of football, so far restricted to club affiliates. But it wasn't before 1950 that the club started to accept black players in its squad.

The following years saw an expansion of the club's hegemony in Rio. Fluminense would remain unsurpassed in terms of state championships until 2009. International acclaim came in 1949 with the award of the Olympic Cup and was further fostered in 1952 with Fluminense's first intercontinental honour, the Copa Rio. The club established itself regionally with the achievement of two Torneio Rio-São Paulo cups in 1957 and 1960. National honours followed in 1970 and 1984, with Taça de Prata and Série A cups, respectively.

Stained glass windows in Fluminense's headquarters
A disastrous campaign led to the club's relegation from Série A in 1996. A set of off-field political maneuvers, however, allowed Fluminense to remain in Brazil's main domestic league, only to be relegated again in the next year. Completely out of control, the club was relegated from Série B to Série C in 1998. In 1999, Fluminense won the Série C championship and was to be promoted to Série B when it was invited to take part in Copa João Havelange, a championship that replaced the traditional Série A in 2000. In 2001, it was decided that all clubs which took part in Copa João Havelange's so-called Blue Group should be kept in Série A, and so Fluminense Football Club found its way back to the top, where it has been ever since.

In 2007, Fluminense won the Copa do Brasil and was admitted in the Copa Libertadores again after 23 years. The club's campaign led it into the finals and included remarkable matches against Arsenal de Sarandí, São Paulo and Boca Juniors. Fluminense lost the cup to LDU Quito in a dispute of penalty shootouts.

Honours

International

National

Regional

State

  • Campeonato Carioca (30):
    • 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1924, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1940, 1941, 1946, 1951, 1959, 1964, 1969, 1971, 1973, 1975, 1976, 1980, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1995, 2002, 2005

Friendly Tournaments

Others

In 1949, Fluminense Football Club was awarded the Olympic Cup by the International Olympic Committeemarker. The official 2009 kit features the Olympic Cup as a 60th year celebration.

Partners

Companies and institutions that Fluminense Football Club currently has partnership deals with include:

People

Current Squad

As of September 24, 2009.


Football Officials

As of September 2009, Fluminense Football Club was undergoing serious political turmoil, with no clearly defined chain of command.

Notable Former Players

The most notable players for Fluminense Football Club so far have been:





Performance

Fluminense Football Club took part in 36 of the 38 official Serie A championships organized in Brazil since 1971. Since the number of participating teams has changed considerably over time, any accurate performance measurement must take this variable into account. In the two tables below, the performance field for a given position p in a universe of n teams was calculated using the formula:

x = \frac{n-p}{n} \times 100


This allows for an asymptotic limit of 100%, since p will never be zero.

Year Position Participants Performance Year Position Participants Performance
1971 16 20 20% 1981 11 44 75%
1972 14 26 46% 1982 5 44 89%
1973 23 40 42% 1983 18 44 59%
1974 24 40 40% 1984 1 41 98%
1975 3 42 93% 1985 22 44 50%
1976 4 54 93% 1986 6 48 87%
1977 26 62 58% 1987 7 16 56%
1978 22 74 70% 1988 3 24 87%
1979 52 94 45% 1989 15 22 32%
1980 11 44 75% 1990 15 20 25%


Year Position Participants Performance Year Position Participants Performance
1991 4 20 80% 2001 3 28 89%
1992 14 20 30% 2002 7 26 73%
1993 28 32 12% 2003 19 24 21%
1994 15 24 37% 2004 9 24 62%
1995 4 24 83% 2005 5 22 77%
1996 23 24 4% 2006 15 20 25%
1997 25 26 4% 2007 4 20 80%
2000 3 25 88% 2008 14 20 30%


Fluminense Football Club has an average performance of 56% in Série A, with a standard deviation of 28%.

Sponsors

Companies that Fluminense Football Club currently has sponsorship deals with include:
  • Adidas - Official Partner.
  • Unimed - Main Partner since 1999.


Support

Fluminense supporters in Maracanã
The supporters of Fluminense Football Club are usually related to the upper classes of Rio de Janeiromarker. However, the popularity of the club reaches beyond the city limits. Recent polls have estimated the number of supporters to be between 1.4% and 3.7% of the Brazilian population. Considering a universe of 185 million people, that would account for numbers between 2.6 and 6.8 million.

The best attendance ever observed in a match of Fluminense was registered on December 15, 1963 in a rally against Flamengo. On that day, an impressive amount of 194,000 people showed up at the Maracanãmarker stadium. This occasion remains as the stadium's record for a match between clubs.

Notable supporters of Fluminense include composers Cartola and Chico Buarque, FIFAmarker president of honour João Havelange, musician Ivan Lins, poet and actor Mario Lago, journalist and songwriter Nelson Motta and dramatist, journalist and writer Nelson Rodrigues.

References

External links




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