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Football hooliganism is unruly and destructive behaviour — such as brawls, vandalism and intimidation — by association football club fans. Fights between supporters of rival teams may take place before or after football matches at pre-arranged locations away from stadiums, in order to avoid arrests by the police, or they can erupt spontaneously at the stadium or in the surrounding streets. Football hooliganism ranges from shouts and fistfights to riots in which firms clash with bats, bottles, rocks, knives or guns. In some cases, stadium brawls have caused fans to flee in panic; some being killed when fences or walls collapsed. In the most extreme cases, hooligans, police, and bystanders have been killed, and riot police have intervened with tear gas, armoured vehicle and water cannons.

A football firm (also known as a hooligan firm) is a gang formed to fight with supporters of other clubs. Some firms, especially in southern and eastern Europe, have been linked with far right politics or racism, other firms have been associated with leftist politics or anti-racism. The firms' political views are not representative of all supporters of the teams. In the 1970s and early 1980s, the casual subculture transformed the British football hooliganism scene. Instead of wearing working class skinhead-style clothes, which readily identified hooligans to the police, firm members began wearing designer clothes and expensive offhand sportswear.

Football hooliganism has been depicted in films such as: I.D., The Firm, Cass, The Football Factory, and Green Street. There are also many books about hooliganism, such as The Football Factory and Among the Thugs. Some critics argue that these media representations glamorise violence and the hooligan lifestyle.

Early history

The first instance of football violence is unknown, as many football games have been played around the world for thousands of years, but football and violence can be arbitrarily traced back to at least the Middle Ages in England. In 1314, Edward II banned football (which then was a violent free-for-all involving rival villages fly-hacking a pig's bladder across the local heath) because he believed the disorder surrounding matches might lead to social unrest or even treason. The first recorded instances of football hooliganism in the modern game took place in the 1880s in Englandmarker, a period when gangs of supporters would intimidate neighbourhoods, as well as attack referees and opposing supporters and players. In 1885, after Preston North End beat Aston Villa 5-0 in a friendly match, the two teams were pelted with stones; attacked with sticks, punched, kicked and spat at. One Preston player was beaten so severely that he lost consciousness. Press reports of the time described the fans as "howling roughs". The following year, Preston fans fought Queen's Park fans in a railway station; the first recorded instance of football hooliganism away from a match. In 1905, several Preston fans were tried for hooliganism, including a "drunk and disorderly" 70 year old woman, following their match against Blackburn Roversmarker.

Between the two world wars, there were no recorded instance of football hooliganism, (though for example Millwall's ground was reportedly closed in 1920, 1934 and 1950 after crowd disturbances) but it started attracting widespread media attention in the late 1950s due to its re-emergence in Latin America. In the 1955-56 English football season, Liverpool and Everton fans were involved in a number of incidents. By the 1960s, an average of 25 hooligan incidents were being reported each year in England.

South and Central America

In 1964 more than 300 football fans died and another 500 were injured in Limamarker, Perumarker in a riot during an Olympic qualifying match between Argentina and Peru in 24 May. In Argentina, over 70 people died in 1968 when crowds attending a football match in Buenos Airesmarker stampeded after youths threw burning paper on to the terraces. In 2002, the Argentine government announced emergency security measures because the football violence continued, with three people dead and hundreds injured in two weeks. The government announced stiffer penalties for offenders, including longer jail sentences for possession of firearms or fireworks at stadiums. In 2005, a footballer, Carlos Ezcurra, was shot and seriously wounded by a police officer, when rival fans were rioted during the Primera B match between local Mendozamarker rivals San Martin and Godoy Cruz. Argentina also deals with one of the most dangerous hooligans group, which is River Plate's side Los Borrachos del Tablon.

A 2002 investigation into football hooliganism in Argentinamarker stated that football violence had become a national crisis, with about 40 people murdered at football matches in the preceding ten years. In the 2002 season, there had been five deaths and dozens of knife and shotgun casualties. At one point the season was suspended and there was widespread social disorder in the country. Every major and minor football club in Argentina have Barra brava groups, some of whom are violent.

Fans in Brazil join in organized groups often considered criminal organizations that differ in many aspects from European hooligans. They act as the main supporters of each club and often sell products and even tickets. They have up to 50 thousand members and are often involved in criminal activities other than fights such as drug dealing and threats to players. These fans establish alliances with other "torcidas organizadas" as they are called such as the alliance between Força Jovem Vasco (Vasco da Gama), Galoucura (Atletico Mg) and Mancha Verde (Palmeiras). They often schedule fights against rival groups where many are injured and killed. Sometimes different groups of hooligans from the same team clash.In December 2000, fighting between rival supporters during the final of the 2000 Copa João Havelange between Vasco da Gama and São Caetano led to a fence collapsing and over 60 injuries at the Estádio São Januáriomarker in Rio de Janeiromarker. As well, fans of local rivals Ponte Preta and Guarani clashed and rioted at a match in Campinasmarker in 2002.

North America

Mexico

Football hooliganism in Mexicomarker appears to be low key, but there have been some incidents, such as small-scale fighting between fans of Monterrey and Morelia at a Primera División match in Monterreymarker in 2003. In June 1998, one man died and several people were injured when Mexican football fans rioted after the Mexico national football team lost to Germany in the World Cup, a result that eliminated Mexico from the tournament. After the match, hundreds of riot police were brought in to restore order because fans were looting and rioting. Fans then clashed with the police, and many fans were injured or arrested.

United States

While football (called soccer in the United States) is traditionally viewed as a family-friendly event, violence does occur. On July 20, 2008, in a friendly match between Major League Soccer side Columbus Crew and English Premier League club West Ham United, in Columbus, Ohiomarker, a fight broke out between rival fans. Police estimated more than 100 people were involved. That same weekend, a riot was narrowly avoided at a packed Giants Stadiummarker as members of the New York Red Bulls supporters club, Empire Supporters Club (ESC), and members of the New Jersey Sports and Exposition Authority security force clashed over what the ESC claimed was unfair and repeated mistreatment. This resulted in the ejection and permanent ban of several ESC members. The majority of those banned, while holding ESC membership, were members of the Bergen/Passaic County based hooligan gang called the North Jersey Firm out of the Paterson area. Further clashes took place in the parking area around the stadium after the game, involving already ejected for life NJF members, causing the New Jersey State Police to be called to quell the situation. There were several arrests, mostly on known NJF hooligans already banned from the stadium. Former American Gladiator Jonathan Byrne was one of the arrested. He had not attended the game, and apparently did not know what the fight was about; he simply started attacking people at random. ESC has also had to deal with problems stemming from NJF activity and violence before and after this particular incident, specifically games involving D.C, New England, and a Toronto FC game where members of NJF went through the stadium randomly starting fights with the Canadian teams support while sneaking over to the Toronto fans travelling section where they instigated a terrace war where bottles were hurled as well as Duracell batteries, ultimately hurting a random fan, unaffiliated with those involved, when a half full beer bottle struck the unlucky spectator in the head. There were 5 arrests, along with others involved in altercations leading up to the incident, 4 of them were NJF. Red Bull, in 2007/08 season seemed to do this on a weekly basis; banning supporters. NJF was formed by New Jersey Metrostars supporters in the early 2000s which was tied to the RED & Black Brigade, both consisted of anti-racist, working class skinheads (S.H.A.R.P's SkinHeads Against Racial Prejudice) and Red Skins (Socialist & Anarchist Skinheads). However, violence escalated at matches when Red Bull renamed the team against the will of the supporters. Since then, clashes with security, police, and travelling support, rival or not, have been typical but no serious injuries have occurred, mostly due to the location of the stadium and its super tight security which is pretty quick to break up any form of trouble that's easily noticed in a stadium that holds 70,000+ and Red Bull games would only fill about 13,000.

Europe

Croatia

Football hooliganism in Croatiamarker has seen riots over inter-ethnic resentments and the politics that were reignited by the breakup of the Yugoslav federationmarker in the 1990s. Two of the most well known hooligan firms are Torcida (Hajduk Split) and Bad Blue Boys (Dinamo Zagreb). However, the groups are not just hooligan firms; they are more like the South American Torcida supporters groups and Ultras groups, with organised Tifos and so on. On 13 May 1990 (before the break up of Yugoslavia) Serbian club Red Star Belgrade was in Zagrebmarker to play Dinamo Zagreb at the Maksimir Stadiummarker. Red Star brought over 3,000 fans to the game with the late Željko Ražnatović (known as Arkan) a Serbian paramilitary leader being a prominent member. Before the match a number of small fights broke out. Police reinforcements soon arrived with armoured vehicle and water cannons. The fighting lasted for over an hour and hundreds of people were injured.

Ethnic tension between Croats and Serbs has also led to fighting at a football match in Australia. On 13 March 2005, Sydney United (who have a large Croatian following, and were established by Croatian immigrants) and Bonnyrigg White Eagles (who have a large Serbian following and were established by Serbian immigrants) met in Sydneymarker in the New South Wales Premier League. About 50 fans clashed, resulting in two police officers getting injured and five fans being arrested. Football NSW held an inquiry into the events. Both clubs denied that the fight was racially motivated or that there was any ethnic rivalry.

On 13 June 2006, there were ethnic riots in Mostarmarker, Bosnia and Herzegovinamarker after the 2006 FIFA World Cup match between Croatia and Brazil in Germanymarker. One person was shot, six police officers injured and 26 people arrested. The fighting started after the match, when Croatian fans started attacking shop windows and vehicles in the Spanish Square in Mostar, and a group of mostly Bosniaks from the Eastern part of Mostar clashed with them. The fighting lasted for hours before riot police finally threw tear gas to break up the groups. One big riot happened in Prague in 2008. Football hooliganism in Croatia is sometimes connected with racism and nationalism.

Denmark

In the 1980s Denmark was known for their non-violent Roligan fan culture. This culture slowly died out over the 1990s following poor results from the Danish National Football Team. There has been an increasing amount of hooliganism in Denmark since the Roligan fan culture died out. Clubs like FC Copenhagen, Brøndby IF, AGF, Lyngby BK, AaB and OB have all been linked with hooliganism. The derby matches between FC Copenhagen (FCK) and Brøndby have been a particular source of trouble, for example when FCK's fans bombed a stand on Brøndby Stadionmarker with flares.

In 2008 a vote in the Danish parliament agreed to create a hooligan register, like the one they have in England. This was met by criticism from fans who were afraid that the Danish fan culture would disappear. In fall of 2008 FC Copenhagen launched "FCK Away," which is a register of all FCK fans who go on away matches. This was also met by criticism and resulted in FCK fans not showing up on away, because they refused to register.

France

Football hooliganism in Francemarker is rooted in social conflict and racism. In the 1990s, fans of Paris St. Germain (PSG) fought with supporters from Belgium, England, Germany, Italy and Scotland. There is a long standing north/south rivalry between the PSG (Parismarker - North) and OM (Marseillemarker - South) which has encouraged authorities to be extremely mobilized during games between the two teams. Violent fights and post-game riots including car burning, and store windows smashing have been a regular fixture of PSG-OM games. In 2000, the bitter rivalry turned particularly violent. On 24 May 2001, fifty people were injured when fighting broke out at a match between PSG and Turkish club Galatasaray at the Parc des Princes stadium. PSG were initially given a record $571,000 fine, but it was reduced on appeal to $114,000. Galatasaray was initially fined $114,000 by UEFA, but it too was eventually reduced to $28,500. In May 2001, six PSG fans from the Supporters Club, were arrested and charged with assault, carrying weapons, throwing items on the pitch and racism. The six were alleged to have deliberately entered a part of the Parc des Princes stadium where French fans of Turkish origin were standing, in order to attack them. The six were banned from all football stadiums for the duration of their trial.

On 24 November 2006 a PSG fan was shot and killed by police and another seriously injured during fighting between PSG fans and the police. The violence occurred after PSG lost 4-2 to Israeli club Hapoel Tel Aviv at the Parc des Prince in a UEFA Cup match. PSG fans chased a fan of Hapoel Tel Aviv, shouting racist and anti-semitic slogans. A plainclothes police officer who tried to protect the Hapoel fan was attacked, and in the chaos, one fan was shot dead and another seriously injured. In response, the French Interior Minister, Nicolas Sarkozy held a meeting with the president of the French Football League, Frederic Thiriez to discuss racism and violence in football. The director-general of the French police, Michel Gaudin, insisted that measures against football hooliganism had reduced racist incidents to six that season from nineteen in the previous season. Gaudin also stated that 300 known hooligans could be banned from matches. The fan who was shot, was linked with the Boulogne Boys, a group of fans who modelled themselves on Britishmarker hooligans in the 1980s. The group's name coming from the Kop of Boulogne (KOB), one of the two main home fan stand at the Parc des Prince. The KOB themselves held a silent memorial march attended by 300 and accused the police office of murdering the fan. They cited bias in the French press who had only given a "one-sided" account of the incident. French President Jacques Chirac condemned violence that led up to the shooting, stating that he was horrified by the reports of racism and anti-Semitism. And French Prime Minister, Dominique de Villepin called for new, tougher measures to deal with football hooligans. Prosecutors opened an inquiry into the incident, to determine whether the officer involved should face criminal charges.

Before a home match against Sochaux on 4 January 2006, two Arab youths were punched and kicked by white fans outside the entrance to the KOB. During the match racist insults were aimed at black players and a PSG player of Indian origin, Vikash Dhorasoo was told to "go sell peanuts in the metro". On 7 March 2006, three PSG supporters were convicted for unfurling a racist banner at a match in February 2005, that was being held as part of an anti-racism campaign. The fans were banned from the stadium for three years, and fined between US$90 and $1,200.

In the recent years, following UK's example, France's legislation has changed, including more and more banning of violent fans from stadiums. The threat of dissolution of fan groups has also tempered the outward rivalry and violence of a number of fans. Known violent fans under ban sentences are to report to the nearest Police station on nights of game, to prove they are not anywhere in proximity to the stadium. However, as of 2009, hooliganism and its connection to extreme-right, neo-nazi and racist/antisemitic groups/advocates is still a problem in France.

Germany

Some football hooliganism in Germanymarker has been linked to neo-Nazism and far right groups In June 1998, after a FIFA World Cup match in France between Germany and Yugoslavia a French policeman was beaten to the point of brain damage by German fans. Following the incident, German police contacted many of the known 2,000+ German hooligans to warn them they would be arrested if they travelled to upcoming matches in France. A German fan was arrested in 1998 and charged with attempted murder and in 1999, four more Germans were convicted in the attack In 2001, Markus Warnecke, the German fan who was accused of leading the attack, was found guilty and jailed for five years and banned from France for ten years, and from all sports facilities for five years.

In March 2005, German football fans fought with police and rival fans at a friendly match between Germany and Slovenia in Celjemarker, Sloveniamarker, fighting police and rival fans, damaging cars and shops, shouting racist slogans. The German Football Association (DFB) apologised for the behaviour. As a result, 52 people were arrested; 40 Germans and 12 Slovenians. Following a 2-0 defeat to Slovakia in Bratislavamarker, Slovakiamarker, German hooligans fought with the local police, and six people were injured and two were taken into custody. The DFB again apologised for fans who chanted racist slogans.

In June 2006, Germany beat Poland in a World Cup Finals match in Dortmundmarker, which led to violent clashes. The police detained over 300 people in Dortmund and German fans threw chairs, bottles and fireworks at the police. Of the 300 arrested, 120 were known hooligans. In October 2006, a task force was established to deal with violence and racism in German football stadiums. The worst incident took place at a Third division match between the Hertha BSC Berlin B-team and Dynamo Dresden, in which 23 policemen were injured. In February 2007 in Saxonymarker, all German lower league matches, from the fifth division downward were cancelled after about 800 fans attacked 300 police officers (injuring 39 of them) after a match between Lokomotive Leipzig and Erzgebirge Aue II.

Greece

In April 2007 all sports stadiums were closed down in Greecemarker for two weeks following the death of a fan in a pre-arranged fight between hooligans in Athensmarker on 29 March. The fight involved 500 fans of rival Super League Greece clubs Panathinaikos, who are based in Athensmarker and Olympiacos who are based in nearby Piraeusmarker. The Greek government immediately suspended all team sports in Greece and severed the ties between teams and their supporter's organizations.

After a Second Division match on 15 April 2007, between Kallithea and Messiniakos, about fifty fans attacked the Messiniakos coach, Eduardo Amorin and other members of the teams coaching staff. On the same day a Third Division match between Panetolikos and Ilioupoli was stopped for thirty minutes when players and fans clashed following a Panetolikos disallowed goal. Two players and a coach were sent to the hospital. On 18 April rival fans clashed with each other and riot police in Ioanninamarker during and after a Greek Cup semi final match between local rivals PAS Giannina and Larissa. There was trouble during the game in which Larissa won 2-0. Fans set fire to rubbish bins and smashed shop windows, while police tried to disperse them by firing tear gas.http://www.novasports.gr/default.asp On 10 October 2009, PAOK hooligans (about 50 of them), went to nearby under 17's match between them and a local rival Aris. They went with helmets and beat up all the aris players and stabbed their coached and another official. There were some innocent victims as well as the crowd of children and women got beaten up too.

Ireland

In 2006, a club director of Shamrock Rovers was convicted of football-related offences at a First Division game against Limerick F.C. The club refused to accept his resignation.

Italy

In February 2001, AS Roma fans fought with police and with Liverpool fans, and five English supporters were stabbed.In December 2001, police tear gassed brawlers at a Champions League match between AS Roma and Liverpool, in which four Liverpool fans were stabbed. In March 2006 three fans of Englishmarker club Middlesbroughmarker were stabbed before the club's UEFA Cup clash against AS Roma in Romemarker in an attack blamed on Roman ultras.

After a weekend of violence in January 2007, the president of the Italian Football Federation (FIGC) threatened to halt all league football. An official of amateur club Sammartinese died when he was caught up in a fight between players and fans in Luzzimarker and in Florence, a Livorno fan needed 20 stitches in his head after being attacked by Fiorentina fans. About 100 Atalanta fans tried to attack coaches carrying Catania fans and fought with police and at a Serie D game, a linesman was hit by a metal drum thrown from the stands. In February 2007 the Italian Football Federation (FIGC) suspended all football matches after a policeman was killed at the Serie A match between Cataniamarker and Palermomarker. The policeman, Officer Filippo Raciti, died when he was struck in the face by a small explosive as the police were trying to deal with the fighting outside the ground. On 4 April 2007 AS Roma and Manchester United fans fought during UEFA Champions League match. A Manchester United fan was stabbed and eleven fans taken to hospital. Two Roma fans also received hospital treatment. The head of Rome police, Achille Serra, claimed that the police action was justified and that there would be no inquiry.

Netherlands

Football hooliganism in the Netherlandsmarker began after rioting between supporters of Feyenoord and English club Tottenham Hotspur at the 1974 UEFA Cup Final. Since then, several Dutch clubs have been associated with hooliganism, such as AFC Ajax, Feyenoord, FC Utrecht and ADO Den Haag. The most violent rivalry is between Ajax and Feyenoord. On 16 June, 1990, English fans were arrested for brawling in Amsterdammarker before a friendly match. The bloodiest football hooligan encounter has been the Battle of Beverwijk between Feyenoord and Ajax hooligans on 23 March 1997, in which several people were seriously injured and Carlo Picornie was killed. On 26 April, 1999, 80 football fans were arrested when Feyenoord supporters rioted after a cup match with NAC Breda. The 2002-03 season was marked by continued fighting between fans of Ajax and FC Utrecht, and between fans of Ajax and Feyenoord. In 2006, a riot broke out between Feyenoord fans and French police in Nancymarker.

Poland

Arranged football hooligan fights in Poland are known as ustawka. They became common in Poland in the late 1990s. . On 30 March, 2003, it was reported that Polish police arrested 120 people because rival football supporters fought during a match between Śląsk Wrocław and Arka Gdyniamarker. During the riot, hooligans pelted police officers with stones and fought a running battle with knives and axes. One victim was found lying seriously injured at the scene, and later died in hospital. During the 1998-99 UEFA Cup, Italian footballer Dino Baggio, from Parma F.C. was hit with a knife in the head by Wisła Kraków supporters.

Russia

Football hooliganism has become prevalent in Russiamarker since the beginning of the 80s. Russian hooligans often have an underlying resentment towards Russia's perceived political rivals.

Serbia

The most prominent groups of hooligans are associated with Belgrademarker and Serbiamarker's two main clubs, Red Star Belgrade and FK Partizan. They are known as the Delije (Heroes) and Grobari (Grave-Diggers), respectively. FK Rad is a less-successful Belgrade club, whose associated hooligans, known locally as "United Force", have notoriously been involved in many violent incidents. This group is also known as supporters of Nazi ideas.

On 2 December 2007, a plainclothes police officer was seriously injured when he was attacked during a Serbian Superliga match between Red Star Belgrade and Hajduk Kula. On 14 April 2008 a football fan was killed near Novi Sadmarker after clashes between FK Partizan's Grobari and fans of FK Vojvodinamarker. That same week, after a Red Star Belgrade-Partizan cup match, three people were injured and a bus destroyed by hooligans.

On 19 September 2008 a Serbian football hooligan was sentenced to ten years in jail for an attack against a police officer at a Red Star Belgrade-Hajduk Kula game.

On September 17, 2009 before UEFA Europa League match between FK Partizan Belgrade and French side Toulouse FC, away fan Brice Taton was heavily beaten up by group of Partizan fans, Grobari. Twelve days later, Taton died because of this injuries in Belgrade hospital.

Sweden

Hooliganism began in Sweden at the turn of the 20th century as fans of AIK and Djurgårdens IF have been reported fighting after games in Stockholmmarker. Modern hooliganism began in 1970 when fans of IFK Göteborg invaded the pitch, destroyed the goalposts and fought the police at the end of a match that relegated Göteborg from the Allsvenskan, although Hooliganism in Sweden became a growing problem in the 1980s, but pitch invasions and violence at football grounds decreased in the late 1990s; when hooligan firms started pre-arranging their fights away from the grounds and the regular supporters. Five clubs that have large organised hooligans firms are AIK (Firman Boys), IFK Göteborg (Wisemen) Djurgårdens IF (DFG) Hammarby IF (KGB) Helsingborgs IF (Frontline). But several other football and ice hockey clubs have active hooligan followings. In July 2002, a member of Wisemen was killed after a pre-arranged fight against Firman Boys. In November 2002, 12 members of the Wisemen stood trial for inflicting life-threatening injuries on a Hammarby fan in 2001.

Spain

Football hooliganism in Spainmarker arises from 3 main sources. The first is racism, as some black players have been victims of ethnic slurs. Samuel Eto'o, a former FC Barcelona player from Cameroonmarker, has denounced the problem. The second source is the strong rivalry between Real Madrid and Barcelona. After transferring from Barcelona to Real Madrid, Luís Figo's appearance in Barcelona's Nou Campmarker Stadium triggered a strong reaction. The crowd threw bottles, mobile phones and other things (including a pig's head). Although nobody was injured the match was followed by a large discussion on fan violence in the Spanish Primera División. Hooliganism is also rooted in deep political divisions arising from the General Franco fascist regime days (some Real Madrid ultras are linked to franquista groups) and the independentist movements in Cataloniamarker (like FC Barcelona) and the Basque region.

In 1998, a supporter of Real Sociedad was killed by an Atlético Madrid fan who was linked to a neo-Nazi group, just before a match between these two teams. In 2003, a supporter of Deportivo La Coruña was killed in riots by Deportivo hooligans, when he tried to protect a supporter of the opposing team, SD Compostela. Since then, authorities have made attempts to bring hooliganism more under control. In 2007, there were acts of hooliganism before a match between Atlético Madrid and Real Madrid, with several cars being destroyed and policemen injured by flares and bottles which were thrown at them. Many black foreign players have been racially abused, such as at a recent friendly match between Spain and England, in which black England players such as Shaun Wright-Phillips and Ashley Cole endured monkey chants from Spain supporters. There also have been local disputes between rival teams, for example between Cádiz Club de Fútbol and Xerez CD. In 2008, after a hooligan incident versus Espanyol, FC Barcelona very publicly took a stand on violence, saying it hoped to stamp out violence for good.

Switzerland

Football hooliganism is relatively new in Switzerlandmarker. One incident, dubbed the 2006 Basel Hooligan Incident, 13 May 2006, occurred on the last day of the 2005-06 season, when FC Zürich defeated FC Basel at St. Jakob Parkmarker to win the Swiss championship with a last-minute goal. After the final whistle, angry Basel hooligans stormed the field and attacked Zürich players. The Zürich team were forced to celebrate in the upper deck of the stands while the fighting continued. There was similar chaos in the streets that night.

Turkey

According to the Turkish Daily News, hooligan groups are well organised, have their own "leaders", and often consist of organised street fighters. These groups have a "racon" (code of conduct), which states that the intention must be to injure rather than kill and that a stab must be made below the waist. Other hooligans have fired firearms into the air to celebrate their team's victory, which has been known to accidentally kill innocent people watching the celebrations on their balconies.

Trouble has arisen during matches between Istanbul rivals Galatasaray and Fenerbahçe. However, the Turkish Football Federation has tightened security to try and contain the hooliganism. During the 2005 Turkish cup final between Galatasaray and Fenerbahçemarker, 8,000 police, steward and officials were employed to prevent violence. In 2006, the Turkish Football Federation introduced new measures to combat the threat of hooliganism and have made new regulations that allow the Professional Football Disciplinary Board to fine clubs up to YTL 250,000 for their fans behavior. Repeat offenders could be fined up to YTL 500,000. Despite reports from the Turkish Football Federation, the Turkish police believe that football hooliganism is not a major threat and are "isolated incidents".

Before Galatasaray's semi-final UEFA Cup match with Leeds United A.F.C. in 2000, two Leeds fans, Christopher Loftus and Kevin Speight, were stabbed to death in Istanbulmarker following street fights between Turkish and British hooligans. UEFA allowed the game to proceed and Galatasaray won 2-0. Leeds complained because home fans jeered while a message of condolence was read for the victims. Galatasaray's players refused to wear black arm bands. The Leeds chairman at the time, Peter Ridsdale, accused Galatasaray of "showing a lack of respect". He also revealed that his teams' players had received death threats before the match.

Ali Umit Demir was arrested and sentenced to 15 years imprisonment for the stabbing, but the sentence was reduced to 5 years on the basis of heavy provocation, while five others were given lesser sentences of under four months. The families of those accused of attacking with knives are reported to have defended their actions and approved of their children punishing the "rude British people". Galatasaray fans were banned from traveling to the return match to try and avoid further clashes between fans, although there were reports of attacks by Leeds fans on Turkish television crews and the police. However the Assistant Chief Constable in charge of policing the game believed that the number of arrests was "no worse than a normal high category game". Hakan Şükür was hit with projectiles from Leeds United supporters and the Galatasaray team bus was stoned after driving through an underpass. The game saw Emre Belözoğlu and Harry Kewell sent off and Galatasaray sealed their way to the final with a 2-2 score.

Violence also occurred between Arsenal fans and Galatasaray fans before the 2000 UEFA Cup final in Copenhagen in which a Galatasary fan, an Arsenal fan and a Dane were said to have been stabbed. Galatasaray later won the match after a penalty shoot-out.

Hooliganism in Turkey is also a problem in Ankaramarker, İzmirmarker, Eskişehirmarker, Bursamarker and Adanamarker. During the 2003-2004 season, a Second League Category A, match between Karşıyaka and Göztepe on 8 February 2004, involved rival Karşıyaka and Göztepe supporters clashing and the match was subsequently stopped for 33 minutes. This was due to Karşıyaka leading 5-2 after coming back from a 2-0 deficit. After the match, eGöztepe fans clashed with the police, seven police officers were wounded and fifteen Göztepe fans were arrested.

Bursaspor fans clashed with policemen at a match against Samsunspor match in the Turkcell Super League in Adapazarımarker at the end of the 2003-04 season. The match was played in Adapazarı due to events at a previous match between Bursapor and Çaykur Rizespor. Bursaspor were playing to avoid relegation. Bursaspor won 1–0 the but were still relegated to Category A after rivals' won. After the match, Bursaspor fans ripped out and threw seats at the Sakarya Atatürk Stadiummarker. They also fought with craftsmen of Gölcükmarker during their journey to Adapazarı.

United Kingdom

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, the UK, - with hooliganism often dubbed The English Disease - had a reputation worldwide for football hooliganism. However the UK government has led a widescale crackdown on football related violence. Whilst football hooliganism has been a growing concern in some other European countries in recent years, today British football fans tend to have a better reputation abroad. Although instances of hooliganism still happen, it now tends to happen at pre-arranged locations, rather than at the matches themselves.

England

Football hooliganism in England dates back to the 1880s, when what were termed as roughs caused trouble at football matches. Local derby matches would usually have the worst trouble, but in an era when travelling fans were not common, roughs would sometimes attack the referees and the away team's players. Between the two World Wars, football hooliganism diminished to a great extent, and it started to attract media attention in the early 1960s. A moral panic developed because of increased crime rates among juveniles, and because of the mods and rockers conflict. Football matches started to feature regular fights among fans, and the emergence of more organised hooliganism. Fans started to form themselves into groups, mostly drawn from local working class areas. They tended to all stand together, usually at the goal-end terrace of their home football ground, which they began to identify as their territory. The development of these ends helped bring about national gang rivalries, focused primarily around football clubs. With the growth of fans travelling to watch their local club play away matches, these gangs became known as hooligan firms, and during matches they focused their attentions on intimidating opposing fans. Some hooligans travelled to games on the Football Specials train services.

Starting in the late 1960s in the United Kingdommarker, the skinhead and suedehead styles were popular among football hooligans. Eventually, the police started cracking down on people wearing typical skinhead clothing styles, so some hooligans changed their image. In the early 1980s, many British hooligans started wearing expensive European designer clothing, to avoid attracting the attention of authorities. This led to the development of the casual subculture. Clothing lines popular with British casuals have included: Pringle, Fred Perry, Le Coq Sportif, Aquascutum, Burberry, Lacoste, Timberland, Lonsdale, Sergio Tacchini, Ben Sherman, Ralph Lauren, Abercrombie and Fitch and Stone Island.

During the 1970s, organised hooligan firms started to emerge with clubs such as Arsenal (Gooners, Herd) Birmingham City (Zulus), Derby County (Derby Lunatic Fringe), Chelsea (Headhunters), Everton FC (County Road Cutters), Leeds United (Leeds Service Crew), Southampton FC (The Inside Crew), Burnley FC (The Suicide Squad), Liverpool FC (The Urchins), Manchester City (Guvnors, Young Guvnors, Mayne Line Service Crew) Manchester United (Red Army), Portsmouth (6.57 Crew), Sheffield United (Blades Business Crew) and West Ham United (Inter City Firm). Lower league clubs also had firms, such as Blackpool's Rammy Arms Crew and Millwall's (F-Troop). Two main events in 1973 led to introduction of crowd segregation and fencing at football grounds in England. Manchester United were relegated to the Second Division, and the Red Army caused mayhem at grounds up and down the country, and a Bolton Wanderers fan stabbed a young Blackpool fan to death behind the Kop at Bloomfield Roadmarker during a Second Division match.

In March 1985, hooligans who had attached themselves to Millwall were involved in large-scale rioting at Lutonmarker when Millwall played Luton Town in the quarter final of the FA Cup. Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's immediate response was to set up a "War Cabinet" to combat football hooliganism. On 29 May 1985, 39 Juventus fans were crushed to death during the European Cup Final between Liverpool and Juventus at Heysel Stadiummarker in Brusselsmarker; an event that became known as the Heysel Stadium disastermarker. Just before kick-off, Liverpool fans broke through a line of police officers and ran toward the Juventus supporters in a section of the ground containing both English and Italian fans. When a fence separating them from the Juventus fans was broken through, the English supporters attacked the Italian fans, the majority of whom were families rather than ultras who were situated in the other end of the ground. Many Italians tried to escape the fighting, and a wall collapsed on them. As a result of the Heysel Stadium disaster, English clubs were banned from all European competitions until 1990, with Liverpool banned for an additional year.

On 11 May 1985 a 14-year-old boy died at St Andrews stadiummarker when fans were pushed onto a wall by Police which subsequently collapsed following crowd violence at a match between Birmingham City and Leeds United. The fighting that day was described by Justice Popplewell, during the Popplewell Committee investigation into football in 1985 as more like "the Battle of Agincourt than a football match". Because of the other events in 1986 and the growing rise in football hooliganism during the early 1980s, an interim report from the committee stated that "football may not be able to continue in its present form much longer" unless hooliganism was reduced, perhaps by excluding "away" fans.

Margaret Thatcher, UK Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990, made a high-profile public call for the country's football hooligans to be given "stiff" prison sentences to act as a deterrent to others in a bid to clamp down on hooliganism. Her minister for sport, Colin Moynihan, attempted to bring in an ID card scheme for football supporters.

The government acted after the Hillsborough disaster in 1989, when 96 fans died, bringing in the Football Spectators Act 1989 in the wake of the Taylor Report. However, the Hillsborough Justice Campaign states: "the British Judicial system has consistently found that violence or hooliganism played no part whatsoever in the disaster". On 15 February, 1995, England played Ireland. English fans started to throw items down into the stand below and rip up seats; after battles broke out between police and English fans, 50 people were injured. Rumours of IRA retribution at Dublin Airport never materialised and no fixture has been arranged between the two neighbouring countries since.

English and German fans have a rivalry dating back to the late 1980s.Other occasional clashes have occurred with a few other teams since the mid 1980s. France 98 was marred by violence as English fans clashed with the North African locals of Marseillemarker, which led to up to 100 fans being arrested.

In the 2000s, English football hooligans often wear either clothing styles that are stereotypically associated with the "[casual]" subculture, such as items made by Shark and Burberry. Prada and Burberry withdrew certain garments over fears that their brands were becoming linked with hooliganism. English hooligans have begun using Internet forums, mobile phones and text messages to set up fight meetings or provoke rival gangs into brawls. Sometimes fight participants post live commentaries on the Internet.

Football violence in British stadiums declined after the introduction of the Football Spectators Act, and in the 2000s much of the trouble occurred away from stadiums or away at major international tournaments. At Euro 2000, the England team was threatened with expulsion from the tournament, due to the poor behaviour of the fans. Following good behaviour in the Korea-Japan 2002 and Portugal 2004, the English reputation has improved. At the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany, there were limited incidences of violence, with over 200 preventative arrests in Stuttgartmarker (with only three people being charged with criminal offences) 400 others taken into preventative custody. During that day, Police believe that on average each rioter consumed or threw 17 litres of beer.

Despite hooliganism declining domestically, death threats by English hooligans have become more common in the 2000s. Rio Ferdinand was the target of death threats from Leeds United fans, as was Peter Ridsdale.Swedish referee Anders Frisk quit his position after receiving death threats from Chelsea F.C. fans. Reading players Ibrahima Sonko and Stephen Hunt also received death threats from Chelsea fans in 2006. A steward died after serious clashes between firms from Aston Villa and Queens Park Rangers after a Carling Cup game in September 2004. It has been documented that most English hooligans are in their late teens or early twenties, although it is not uncommon for older hooligans to take part, usually as leaders. They usually come from working class backgrounds, mainly employed in manual or lower clerical occupations, or (to a lesser extent) are working in the grey market or are unemployed.

Northern Ireland

Northern Irish football has suffered from hooliganism, though it has tapered somewhat in recent years due to falling attendances. While riots have occurred in the past such as that between Belfast Celtic and Linfield in 1948 , Irish league football as a whole has remained relatively trouble-free, save for minor skirmishes between local rival clubs and derby matches. However, there has historically been a heated rivalry between Linfield and Glentoran that has escalated somewhat in recent years, such as the 2005 riot , and the 2008 Boxing Day riot. Additionally, in the 1970s, the political Troubles in Northern Irelandmarker spilled onto the terraces of the football stadiums, and is seen as a major factor in Derry City leaving the Irish Football League to join the Football League of Ireland.

Despite this trouble at league level, there has historically been very little trouble involving Northern Ireland fans at international level, both home and away.

Scotland

Celtic and Rangers are the two biggest teams in Scotlandmarker, and the Old Firm rivalry is one of the most heated football rivalries in the world. The Old Firm rivalry is largely motivated by religious sectarianism, and is related to the conflict between Loyalist and Republicans in Northern Irelandmarker. Both clubs do not have an "official" hooligan firm attached to them.Notable football firms from the past include the Aberdeen Soccer Casuals, Hibs' Capital City Service firm, Motherwell's Saturday Service and the Dundee Utility, an amalgamation of both Dundee and Dundee United.

While the Scotland national team's travelling supporters, the Tartan Army, are generally not violent these days, hooliganism does occur in other areas of Scottish football. Pre-arranged fights between firms on match days sometimes take place away from the football grounds. Most Scottish football fans are against this behaviour, and authorities have taken several measures to reduce football hooliganism. In May 2008, a small percentage of the 200,000 Rangers fans who went to Manchester were involved in a serious civil disturbance in Piccadilly Gardensmarker in Manchestermarker, following the technical failure of a big screen showing of the UEFA Cup final between Rangers and Zenit St Petersburg.

Wales

Cardiff City F.C.'s hooligan firm are known as the Soul Crew and have been involved in full scale riots since the 1970s. In January 2002, Leeds United A.F.C. and Cardiff City fans, players, and Cardiff chairman Sam Hammam were hit by missiles during a match, and hundreds of Cardiff fans invaded the pitch after the final whistle to celebrate knocking the then leaders of the Premier League out of the FA Cup. In May 2002, Cardiff City were fined £40,000 by the Football Association of Wales for the events that day. Hammam was criticised by the head of the English Police Spotting teams for his comment preceding the game, which were deemed to be encouraging hooligans. Hammam had said, "It's better for us to play them at Ninian because the intimidatory factor will be so big... It's a bit like the old Den at Millwall except ten times more." Hammam at first blamed what he called a "racist English media" for exaggerating the trouble at the Leeds game. However, he then launched "a war on hooliganism." In October 2004 a BBC report stated that Cardiff had more fans banned than any other Football League club, with 160 banning orders against its fans; more than double any other Welsh club. Cardiff City and Swansea City F.C. have a longstanding rivalry that has erupted into violence a number of times since the early 1980s. Cardiff have also had rivalries with many other teams; a selective few are Bristol City F.C., Newport County A.F.C., and Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C. Cardiff are considered to be one of the few teams keeping hooliganism going, with a youth firm C-Squad. In 2007 the C-Squad caused trouble with Premier League team Tottenham Hotspur F.C. with one man lighting a flare in the Grange End of Ninian Parkmarker.

Other notable firms from Wales include the 'Frontline' from Wrexhammarker and the 'Swanseas Riot Squad' from Swanseamarker.

Asia

Israel

In Israelmarker in the 2000s, tensions surrounding the Arab-Israeli conflict spilled over into sporadic riots between Jewish and Arab Israeli football fans. In December 2000 it was reported that every club in Israel was on a final warning following escalating violence and intimidation at matches. Beitar Jerusalem were attracting attention because of their fan's behaviour, with regular "Death to Arabs" banners and chants. Earlier that season Beitar were fined when their fans shouted racist abuse at PAOK FC players during a UEFA Cup match. Beitar had already been under a suspended sentence following an incident two years previously when Rangers F.C. player Rod Wallace was also the subject of racist abuse.

In August 2005 at the start of the domestic season, 7,000 Beitar Jerusalem fans travelled to an opening day away match at Maccabi Tel Aviv. Beitar fans chanted anti Arab chants throughout the match, and later rioted in Tel Avivmarker. After a match in Sakhninmarker against Bnei Sakhnin a predominantly Arab supported club, Beitar fans rioted. Beitar have a hooligan firm, La Familia, whose members consider Israeli Arabs to be their enemy.

In November 2007 the Israel Football Association (IFA) ordered Beitar to play their game against the Arab club, Bnei Sakhnin behind closed doors after Beitar fans, led by La Familia, broke a minute's silence for former Prime Minister of Israel, Yitzhak Rabin and sang chants in praise of his assassin, Yigal Amir.

After a pitch invasion led by La Familia on 13 April 2008, which forced the abandonment of the match, when Beitar were leading Maccabi Herzliya 1–0 and just four minutes from winning the Israeli Premier League, the IFA gave the points to their opponents, deducted two points and ordered that the clubs remaining home games were to be played behind closed doors. At almost every Beitar Jerusalem game illegal smoke bombs and fire works are shot out to the field and seats. Even some games fights break out between fans

Bangladesh

Football hooliganism in Bangladesh does not appear to be a major problem. However, in August 2001, 100 people were injured when thousands of football fans rampaged at a B-League match between Mohammedan Sporting Club and Rahmatganj Sporting Club in the Bangabandhu National Stadiummarker, Dhakamarker. When the referee disallowed a penalty, Mohammedan fans invaded the pitch, throwing stones at the police, who had to fire tear gas at the fans to try and restore order. Outside the stadium dozens of cars and buses were damaged and set on fire.

China

Football hooliganism in Chinamarker is often linked to accusations of corrupt refereeing, with Chinese football being plagued by allegations of match fixing in the early 2000s. After a match in 2000 between Shaanxi Guoli and Chengdu Wuniu in Xi'anmarker, Shaanximarker province Chinamarker football fans clashed with police who had to use tear gas and water cannons to disperse the crowd. Police car windows were smashed as the police tried to stop the fans attacking the match referee, whom they were angry at for a decision made during the match. Eight people were arrested but later released. In March 2002 fans fought with police again as hundreds of football fans rioted at a match in Xi'an, this time between Shaanxi Guoli and Qingdao Yizhong. At the final whistle, and in response to a late penalty to the visiting team, Shaanxi Guoli fans threw missiles at the players and the police before setting fire to the stadium seats. The fans accused the referee of being corrupt and fixing the match. The fans were finally dispersed by riot police with batons and high pressure water hoses. Outside the stadium fighting broke out again, a police van and four police cars were overturned. Two years before this incident following crowd trouble at a match also in Xi'an, the government had demanded more action to stamp out football hooliganism. Football hooliganism continued to rise in China partly due to allegations of corrupt referees.

In June 2002, thousands of football fans rampaged for two hours in the streets of Fuzhoumarker in Fujianmarker province, overturning police cars, damaging a bus and tearing street signs down. Order was only restored when one hundred heavily armed paramilitary policemen were called in. The rampage had started when fans were unable to watch the World Cup match between China and Brazil at an outside broadcast. On 4 July 2004 fans rioted in Beijing when China lost the final of the AFC Asian Cup to Japan, 3-1, at the Workers Stadiummarker. After the match hundreds of Chinese fans threw bottles, confronted riot police, burned Japanese flags and vandalised a Japanese Embassy official's car. The Japanese fans had to be protected by the police, and bussed to safety after they had been given a hostile reception by Chinese fans. The rioting was attributed to ill-feeling toward Japanmarker for atrocities committed before and during the Second World War.

North Korea

There was a brief riot between Iranianmarker and North Koreanmarker fans at an international match in 2005. It appears that a North Korean player got into an argument with the Syrianmarker referee, and then things got out of hand.

Syria

On March 12, 2004 a fight between Arab and Kurdish supporters of rival Syrianmarker football clubs at a match in Qamishlimarker, north east of Damascusmarker, escalated into full scale riots that left 25 people dead and hundreds injured.

Africa

Algeria

There has been football violence reported before during and after matches involving Algeria and Algerian league teams. The Ultras of Marseille were founded by Algerian fanatics.

(Algerian League 29 August 2009) Blida stadium turned to battleground between the fans of Blida Union and Enaba Union as both parties used knives and fireworks which led to serious injuries for both.

Algeriamarker VS Egypt 3-1 in Blida FIFA World Cup African Qualifiers 2nd round (7 June 2009) : the Algerian celebrations after victory led to the death of 4 while 71 got jailed by police.

After a FIFA WC African qualifiers match against Egypt on the 14th of November 2009 Algerian fans rioted in France as an objection to the defeat. At the return match four days later Algerian fans were shown carrying knives at the game. After the return game Algerian fans attacked opposition fans buses as they returned home.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Four died when troops opened fire at a derby match between AS Vita Club and DC Motema Pembe at the Stade des Martyrsmarker in Kinshasamarker in November 1998. In April 2001, 14 people died following a stampede at a derby match between TP Mazembe and FC Saint Eloi Lupopo. When fans invaded the pitch after Mazembe had equalised, and rival fans started throwing missiles at each other, the police fired tear gas, and fans rushed to escape the effects of the tear gas. In the resulting stampede, 14 people died. Fans of the two clubs are alleged to have a history of hatred and violence to each other.

Egypt

In January 2006 riot police had to protect Libyanmarker fans in the Cairo International Stadiummarker from missiles being thrown at them by Egyptianmarker fans in the tier above them during a match between the Egypt national football team and the Morocco national team. The Libyan fans had stayed on to watch the match after they had seen Libya lose 2-1 to Ivory Coast and had started taunting the home supporters. The Egyptian fans responded by throwing missiles at half time, and when, despite a plea to stop, it continued into the second half, the riot police were called in. The Egyptian Football Association were fined $5,000 and the Libyan Football Federation fined $7,000 by the Confederation of African Football disciplinary Commission.

Gambia

Massive riots occurred during and after a Cup of African Nations qualifying game between rival neighbours Senegal and Gambia at the Leopold Sedar Senghor Stadium in Dakarmarker, Senegalmarker in June 2003. Gambian supporters hurled missiles towards Senegalese fans and were subsequently charged by soldiers. After the game violent clashes were reported in both Gambia and Senegal. In Gambia several severe beatings of Senegalese citizens occurred which led to over 200 Senegalese seeking shelter at their embassy. Also, there were rumours of a fatal beating of a Senegalese citizen. In Senegal a Gambian BBC reporter was attacked and robbed by a group of youths. The riots eventually led to the closing of the border between Gambia and Senegal until order was restored.

Ghana

Up to 125 people died and hundreds were injured when football fans stampeded at a match in Accramarker in 2001. Accra Hearts were leading 2-1 against Asante Kotoko — with five minutes left in the match — when some fans began throwing bottles and chairs onto the pitch. Police then fired tear gas into the crowd, creating panic. Fans rushed to escape the gas, and in the ensuing crush, up to 125 people were killed.Ghana giant Asante Kotoko face ban after Fans assault referee in CAF confederations cup game with Etoile du Sahel of Tunisia.

Ivory Coast

Fighting among fans at a match claimed one life on 6 May 2001 and injured 39 people.

Libya

Eight fans died and 39 were injured as troops opened fire to stop both pro and anti Gadaffi sentiments being expressed in a Tripoli stadium during a match between Al Ahli and Al Ittihad in December 1996.

Mali

After a World Cup qualifying match between Mali and Togo on 27 March 2005, which Togo won 2-1, Mali fans rioted and went on a spree of destruction and violence. The trouble started when Togo scored the winning goal. Police fired tear gas at Mali fans who had invaded the pitch. The match was abandoned and the result awarded to Togo. The result set off a wave of violence in the capital of Mali, Bamakomarker. Thousands of Mali fans in Bamako began chanting threats toward the Mali players, cars were set on fire, stores looted, property and monuments destroyed and a building housing the local Olympics committee burnt down.

Mauritius

In May 1999, seven people died when rioting football fans threw petrol bombs into a casino, following a match in Port Louismarker between the Mauritian League champions, Scouts Club, and Fire Brigade SC. After the match which Fire Brigade SC won, hundreds of Scouts fans went on a rampage, attacking police vehicles and torching sugar cane fields.

Mozambique

The government of Mozambiquemarker had to apologise for the violent behaviour of Mozambique fans, before, during and after a match between Mozambique team, Clube Ferroviário de Maputo and Zimbabwe team, Dynamos on 10 May 1998. Ferroviário fans attacked the Dynamo players and the referee, stoned vehicles and fought running battles with riot police outside the stadium. Fifteen people, including four Red Crossmarker workers, needed hospital treatment.

South Africa

In Johannesburg, South Africa, on 14 January 1991 forty people died when fans surged toward a jammed exit to escape rival brawling fans at a match south west of Johannesburg.

Zimbabwe

In July 2000 twelve people died following a stampede, when they were crushed, at a World Cup qualifying match between Zimbabwe and South Africa in Hararemarker. Police fired tear gas when the crowd started throwing missiles onto the pitch, after South Africa had taken a two goal lead. After Delron Buckley scored South Africa's second goal bottles began to fly onto the pitch. The police then fired tear gas into the 60,000 crowd, who began running to the exits to escape the effects of the tear gas. The match had to be abandoned as players from both sides felt the effects of the tear gas and had to receive medical treatment. The police were condemned for firing tear gas, calling it a total over-reaction. In July 2002, two fans were shot when police opened fire on rioting fans at a match in Bulawayomarker. Seven police officers were injured and five vehicles badly damaged.

Australia

Australia has had a history of violence amongst different clubs, mostly motivated by ethnic rivalries. As most clubs in the National Soccer League, were founded on particular ethnic minorities, such as Greek and Croatian, it was not uncommon for violence to take place between fans of rival clubs. In 2001 following crowd violence at a home match against Perth Glory, Melbourne Knights were found guilty of bringing the game into disrepute. They were fined AUS$30,000 with a AUS$50,000 bond to pay should there be any further crowd violence, and were ordered to upgrade the safety of their stadium. Melbourne have large support from the local Croatian community, and the crowd violence was attributed to ethnic tensions and Balkan politics. In 2005 Sydney United were suspended for four matches and Bonnyrigg White Eagles matches were deferred pending an internal enquiry following violence at matches between the two clubs who both compete in the New South Wales Premier League. Sydney United are backed by the local Croatian community and Bonnyrigg are backed by their local Serbian community. Tension between the two communities resulted in flares, missiles and other objects being thrown at supporters. There has also been ethnic tension between fans in the Victorian Premier League. In 2005 Preston Makedonia and South Melbourne Hellas met and Preston won 1-0, sparking pitch invasions and objects were thrown at opposing supporters. Since then, the two clubs have played games to 'members only' crowds.The A-League, currently the highest level of football in Australia, has yet to experience serious hooliganism, despite the presence of organised supporters groups in stadiums.

References

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  5. Major stadium disasters
  6. In Argentina, one fan was killed and 12 people injured, including six police officers when fans of Racing Club de Avellaneda and Club Atlético Independiente clashed in February 2002,. An Independiente fan was shot dead and another fan was shot in the back and hospitalised when about 400 rival fans fought outside Racing Clubs Estadio Juan Domingo Perón in Avellaneda before the match. Between 70 and 80 people were arrested as a result. The match started late when Independiente fans threw a smoke bomb at Racing Club goalkeeper, Gustavo Campagnuolo. That same weekend, 30 people were arrested and 10 police officers injured when fighting broke out at a match between Estudiantes de La Plata and Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata in La Plata.
  7. BBC News | AMERICAS |Football fan killed in Argentina
  8. A survey in the national newspaper Clarin showed 62 percent or poll respondents wanting the football league season to be suspended following a weekend of violence at matches. At one match between River Plate and Nueva Chicago, over 12 people were hospitalised with rubber bullet injuries received when the police tried to break up fighting between rival fans. It was announced that 152 people had died since the 1930s up to that point due to football-related violence in Argentina. Argentina calls foul on football violence
  9. At half-time, fans had thrown rocks onto the pitch, and just before the end of the match, fans from both clubs invaded the pitch and started fighting. The players who had stayed on the pitch, including Ezcurra, tried to calm the fans, and he was shot when police tried to stop the fans by firing rubber bullets. BBC NEWS | World | Americas |Argentine footballer shot in riot
  10. The first death in 2002 was at a match between fierce rivals River Plate and Boca Juniors. The match was abandoned and one fan was shot dead. Boca, one of the largest clubs in Argentina, may have the largest hooligan element in the country, with their self-styled leader, Rafael Di Zeo, claiming in 2002 that they had over 2,000 members.
  11. The Boca group, known as La Doce (player number 12) have a long history of violence. In 2002, Diego Maradona, was alleged to remain friends with the group's leaders, in spite of their reputation. Argentine hooligans revere Maradona
  12. Hundreds of fans in the upper terrace had pushed forward trying to escape from the fighting. Fans lower down were pushed into a perimeter fence which under the weight, collapsed, and fans spilled onto the pitch. Fans had panicked when fighting broke out with people falling on top of each other. Many were treated on the pitch, with helicopters taking over 50 people to local hospitals. The match was abandoned 90 minutes later by the governor of Rio de Janeiro state, Anthony Garotinho. This was despite calls by the police, who had wanted to bring in military police to encircle the pitch, to ensure that fans did not interrupt the match. Fence collapse hits soccer final
  13. In pictures: Brazil's stadium crush
  14. Violence had been expected, and just before kick-off, fans started fighting. Police tried to intervene but were pelted by stones. As the fighting continued inside the stadium, a railing collapsed and numerous fans fell over 13 ft (four metres) into a pit between the stands and the pitch. Over 30 people were injured. Brazil fans plummet into pit
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  19. The Turkish press accused the security, media and PSG club of attempting to cover up the injuries.
  20. . Fears of neo-Nazi return to World Cup
  21. German hooligans warned
  22. Gendarme attack suspect arrested
  23. World Cup policeman out of coma
  24. The main defendant, Andre Zawacki, was found guilty of attempted murder and sentenced to ten years in jail. The other three defendants were convicted of grievous bodily harm and given jail sentences of between six months and three-and-a-half years.
  25. German football hooligans jailed
  26. German fan jailed for gendarme attack
  27. German Hooligans Taint Slovenian Friendly
  28. The Specter of Hooliganism Returns
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  30. Hooligan Violence Rears Its Head for Germany-Poland Game
  31. Theo Zwanziger (president of the DFB) and Werner Hackmann (president of Bundesliga) held a crisis meeting following violence at several German lower-division matches
  32. Dynamo Dresden fans tried to invade the pitch, and threw missiles (including gas cartridges and plastic seats) at police. The police responded with batons and pepper spray. At a Second Division match between FC Augsburg and 1860 Munich, 21 people were arrested and police used pepper spray to disperse fans. In addition, 70 amateur and youth matches in Siegen-Wittgenstein were called off when referees refused to take to the pitch, fearing for their safety.
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  46. BBC Sport: Croatia top after win in Israel
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  61. The Popplewell Committee was originally set up to investigate two incidents at English grounds on 11 May 1985 - the fire at Bradford City's Valley Parade (which was not hooligan-related) in which 56 people died, and the riot at the Birmingham City versus Leeds United match.
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  64. English football fans riot in Germany |The Australian
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  68. People's Daily Online - Portuguese police arrest 34 after riots
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  80. Ghana - Kotoko Face Ban from CAF, Nov 2008
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  83. Soccer fans riot in Mali over loss
  84. Mauritian football riots – seven dead
  85. Government apologises for football riots
  86. in soccer stadiums
  87. Zimbabwe football riot kills 12
  88. Criticism after Zimbabwe football deaths


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