2010 model Ford Mustang badge
The Ford Mustang
is an automobile
manufactured by the Ford Motor Company
. It was initially
based on the second generation North American Ford Falcon
, a compact car
. Production began in Dearborn,
Michigan on March 9, 1964 and the car was introduced to the
public on April 17, 1964 at the New York World's Fair.
is Ford's second oldest nameplate currently in production next to
pickup truck line.
However the F-series pickup truck has undergone major nameplate
changes over the years.The Mustang was Ford's most successful
launch since the Model A
Executive stylist John Najjar, who was a fan of the World War II
fighter plane, suggested
the name. An alternative view was that the Mustang name was first
suggested by Robert J. Eggert, Ford Division market research
manager. Eggert, a breeder of quarterhorses
, received a birthday present
from his wife of the book, The Mustangs
by J. Frank Dobie
in 1960. Later, the book’s title gave him the idea of adding the
“Mustang” name for Ford’s new concept car. As the person
responsible for Ford’s research on potential names, Eggert added
“Mustang” to the list to be tested by focus groups; “Mustang,” by a
wide margin, ” came out on top under the heading: “Suitability as
Name for the Special Car.”
The Mustang created the "pony car
" class of
American automobile — sports car-like coupes
with long hoods and short rear decks — and gave rise to competitors
such as GM's Chevrolet Camaro
, and Chrysler's revamped
. It also
inspired coupés such as the Toyota
and Ford Capri
, which were
exported to America.
Mustangs grew larger and heavier with each model year until, in
response to the 1971-1973 models, fans of the original 1964 design
wrote to Ford urging a return to its size and concept.
Although some other pony cars have seen a revival, the Mustang is
the only original pony car
remained in production without interruption after four decades of
development and revision.
First generation (1964 1/2–1973)
As Lee Iacocca
's assistant general
manager and chief engineer, Donald N.
was the head engineer for the
Mustang project — supervising the overall development of the
Mustang in a record 18 months — while Iacocca himself championed
the project as Ford Division general manager. The Mustang prototype
was a two-seat, mid-mounted engine roadster
. This vehicle employed a Taunus (Ford
Germany) V4 engine and was very similar in appearance to the much
later Pontiac Fiero. It was claimed that the decision to abandon
the 2 seat design was in part due to the low sales experienced with
the 2 seat 1955 T-Bird. To broaden market appeal it was later
remodeled as a four-seat car styled under the direction of Project
Design Chief Joe Oros
and his team of
, Gale Halderman, and John Foster — in Ford's Lincoln
Division design studios, which
produced the winning design in an intramural design contest
instigated by Iacocca.
Having set the design standards for the Mustang, Oros said:
To cut down the development cost and achieve a suggested retail price
2,368, the Mustang was based
heavily on familiar yet simple components. Much of the chassis
, and drivetrain components
were derived from the Ford
. Favorable publicity
articles appeared in 2,600 newspapers the next morning, the day the
car was "officially" revealed. A Mustang also appeared in the James
Bond film Goldfinger
September 1964, the first time the car was used in a movie.
Original sales forecasts projected less than 100,000 units for the
first year, but in its first eighteen months, more than one million
Mustangs were built. All of these vehicles were VIN
-identified as 1965 models,
but several changes were made at the traditional opening of the new
model year (beginning August 1964), including the addition of
back-up lights on some models, the introduction of alternators
and an upgrade of the V-8 engine from 260 to 289 cubic-inch
displacement. In the case of at least some six-cylinder Mustangs
fitted with the 101 hp., 170 cu. in. Falcon engine, the rush into
production included some unusual quirks, such as a horn ring
bearing the 'Ford Falcon' logo beneath a trim ring emblazoned with
'Ford Mustang.' These characteristics made enough difference to
warrant designation of the 121,538 earlier ones as "1964½"
model-year Mustangs, a distinction that has endured with purists
for the past 46 years and counting.
Second generation (1974–1978)
1974-1978 Mustang II.
The 1970s brought about more stringent pollution laws and the
1973 OPEC oil embargo
. As a
result, large, fuel-inefficient cars fell into disfavor, and the
Pony Cars were no exception. Lee
, who became president of the Ford Motor Company in 1964
and was the driving force behind the original Mustang, ordered a
smaller, more fuel-efficient Mustang for 1974. Initially it was to
be based on the Ford Maverick
but ultimately was based on the Ford
The new model was introduced two months before the first "Energy
Crisis" in October 1973
, and its
reduced size allowed it to compete more effectively against smaller
imported sports coupés such as the Japanese Toyota Celica
and the European Ford Capri
(then Ford-built in Germany and
Britain, sold in U.S. by Mercury as a captive import
car). First-year sales were
385,993 cars, compared with the original Mustang's twelve-month
sales record of 418,812.
Lee Iacocca wanted the new car, which returned the Mustang to more
than a semblance of its 1964 predecessor in size, shape, and
overall styling, to be finished to a high standard, saying it
should be "a little jewel." However not only was it smaller than
the original car, but it was also heavier, owing to the addition of
equipment needed to meet new U.S. emission and safety regulations.
Performance was reduced, and despite the car's new handling and
engineering features the galloping mustang emblem "became a less
muscular steed that seemed to be cantering
The car was available in coupé and hatchback
versions. Changes introduced in 1975
included reinstatement of the 302 CID
option (called the "5.0 L" although its
capacity was 4.94 L) and availability of an economy option
called the "MPG Stallion". Other changes in appearance and
performance came with a "Cobra II" version in 1976 and a "King
Cobra" in 1978.
Third generation (1979–1993)
1985-1986 Ford Mustang GT
The 1979 Mustang was based on the larger Fox platform
(initially developed for the
1978 Ford Fairmont
and Mercury Zephyr
). The interior was restyled to
accommodate four people in comfort despite a smaller rear seat. The
was larger, as was the
engine bay, for easier service access.
Body styles included a coupé
), and hatchback
; a convertible was offered in 1983.
Available trim levels included L, GL, GLX, LX, GT, Turbo GT, SVO
(1984-86), Cobra, and Cobra R (1993).
In response to slumping sales and escalating fuel prices during the
early 1980s, a new
was in development. It was to be a variant of the Mazda MX-6 assembled at AutoAlliance
International in Flat Rock, Michigan.
Enthusiasts wrote to Ford objecting to the
proposed change to a front-wheel drive, Japanese-designed Mustang
without a V8 option. The result was a major facelift of the
in 1987, while the MX-6 variant became the 1989
Fourth generation (1994–2004)
2002 Ford Mustang GT coupe
In 1994 the Mustang underwent its first major redesign in fifteen
years. Code named "SN-95" by Ford
, it was based
on an updated version of the rear-wheel
Fox platform called "Fox-4." The new styling by Patrick Schiavone
styling cues from earlier Mustangs. For the first time since 1973,
coupe model was
The base model came with a 3.8 OHV V6
(232 cid) engine rated at 145 hp (108 kW; 1994-1995) or
150 hp (112 kW; 1996-1998) and was mated to a standard
5-speed manual transmission
optional 4-speed automatic
Though initially used in the 1994 and 1995 Mustang GT, Ford retired
the 302cu pushrod small-block V8 after nearly 40 years of use,
replacing it with the newer Modular
4.6 L (281 cid) SOHC
V8 in the 1996 Mustang GT. The 4.6 L V8 was initially rated at
215 hp (160 kW; 1996-1997) but was later increased to
225 hp (168 kW; 1998).
For 1999, the Mustang received Ford's New
styling theme with sharper contours, larger wheel arches,
and creases in its bodywork, but its basic proportions, interior
design, and chassis remained the same as the previous model. The
Mustang's powertrains were carried over for 1999 but benefitted
from new improvements. The standard 3.8 L V6, thanks to a new
split-port induction system, now produced 190 hp (142 kW;
1999-2004) while the Mustang GT's 4.6 L V8 saw an increase in
output to 260 hp (194 kW; 1999-2004), thanks to a new
head design and other enhancements. There were also three alternate
models offered in this generation that included the 2001 Bullitt GT
and in 2003 and 2004 the Mach 1
and the supercharged Cobra.
Fifth generation (2005–present)
2005-2009 Ford Mustang GT C/S
At the 2004 North
American International Auto Show
, Ford introduced a completely
redesigned Mustang, codenamed "S-197," that was based on an all-new
platform for the 2005 model year
. Developed under the direction of
Chief Engineer Hau Thai-Tang
exterior styling designer Sid
, the fifth-generation Mustang's styling echoes the
Mustangs of the late 1960s. Ford's
senior vice president of design, J Mays
called it "retro-futurism."
fifth-generation Mustang is manufactured at the AutoAlliance
International plant in Flat Rock, Michigan.
The base model
is powered by a cast-iron block 4.0 L SOHC V6
, which replaces the
3.8 L pushrod V6 used previously. The Mustang GT features an
aluminum block 4.6 L SOHC 3-valve
V8 with variable camshaft timing
produces . The 2005 Mustang GT has an approximate weight to power
ratio of /bhp. The base Mustang comes with a standard Tremec T-5
transmission while Ford's own 5R55S
automatic, a Mustang first, is optional. Though the Mustang GT
features the same automatic transmission as the V6 model, the
Tremec T-5 manual is substituted with the heavier duty Tremec TR-3650
transmission to better handle the GT's extra power.
For 2010, Ford unveiled a redesigned Mustang prior to the Los Angeles International Auto
. The 2010 Mustang remains on the D2C
platform and mostly retains the
previous-year's drivetrain options. The Mustang received a
thoroughly revised exterior, with only the roof panel being
retained, that is sculpted for a leaner, more muscular appearance
and better aerodynamic performance (coefficient of drag
has been reduced by 4%
on V6 models and 7% on GT models ).
The V6 for base Mustangs remains unchanged, while the Mustang GT's
4.6 L V8
has been revised
to specifications similar to that of the 2008-2009 Mustang
Bullitt's 4.6 L V8, resulting in at 6000 rpm and of
torque at 4250 rpm. Other mechanical features for the 2010
Mustang include new spring rates and dampers to improve ride
quality and control, standard traction control system and stability
control system on all models, and new wheel sizes. For the Mustang
GT, two performance packages were made available. Other new
features and options for the 2010 Mustang include Ford SYNC
, dual-zone automatic climate control, an
updated navigation system with Sirius
Travel Link, a capless fuel
filler, and a reverse camera system to aid in backing up.
The 2010 Mustang was released in the spring of 2009.
For 2011, Ford is revising the Mustang's base V6 engine. The new V6
will be a smaller 3.7 L aluminum block engine weighing lighter
than the outgoing version, and produces a much more powerful and of
According to the car magazine Motor
, a redesigned Mustang is planned for the 50th anniversary
of the first Mustang in 2014
Ford announced in July 2007 that all 2008 Mustangs would have seats
containing material derived from soy
, harking back to some of Henry Ford's
On December 12
, Ford announced a new option for the 2009 Mustang
to be unveiled at the 2008 North American International Auto Show
called the glass roof. This $1,995 option is in effect a full roof
sunroof that splits the difference in price and purpose of the
coupe and convertible models.
Concept cars, special editions and modified Mustangs
The Mustang made its first public appearance on a racetrack little
more than a month after its April 17 introduction, as pace car
for the 1964 Indianapolis 500
The same year, Mustangs achieved the first of many notable
competition successes, winning first and second in class in the
Tour de France
The car’s American competition debut, also in 1964, was in drag racing
, where private individuals and
dealer-sponsored teams campaigned Mustangs powered by 427 cu. in.
In late 1964, Ford contracted Holman
to prepare ten 427-powered Mustangs to contest the
National Hot Rod
's (NHRA) A/Factory Experimental class in the 1965
drag racing season. Five of these special Mustangs made their
competition debut at the 1965 NHRA Winternationals, where they
qualified in the Factory Stock Eliminator class. The car driven by
Bill Lawton won the class.
A decade later Bob Glidden won the Mustang’s first NHRA Pro Stock
Early Mustangs also proved successful in road racing. The GT 350 R,
the race version of the Shelby GT
, won five of the Sports Car Club of America
(SCCA) six divisions in 1965. Drivers were Jerry Titus, Bob Johnson
and Mark Donohue
, and Titus won the
(SCCA) B-Production national championship. GT 350s won the
B-Production title again in 1966 and 1967. They also won the 1966
manufacturers’ championship in the inaugural SCCA Trans-Am series
, and repeated the win the
modified versions of the 428 Mach 1, Boss 429 and Boss 302 took 295
United States Auto Club-certified records at Bonneville Salt
The outing included a 24-hour run on a
course at an average speed of . Drivers were Mickey Thompson
, Danny Ongais
, Ray Brock and Bob Ottum.
Boss 429 engines powered Ford Torinos
1969 and 1970 NASCAR
In 1970 the Mustang won the manufacturers’ championship in the
Trans-Am series once again, with Parnelli
and George Follmer
Jones won the drivers’ title. Two years later Dick Trickle
won 67 short-track feature races,
a national record for wins in a single season.
In 1975 Ron Smaldone's Mustang became the first-ever American car
to win the Showroom Stock national championship in SCCA road
Mustangs also competed in the IMSA
with wins in 1984 and 1985. In 1985 John Jones also won the 1985
GTO drivers’ championship; Wally Dallenbach Jr., John Jones and
won the GTO class at the
Daytona 24 Hours
; and Ford won its
first manufacturers’ championship in road racing since 1970. Three
class wins went to Lynn St. James, the first woman to win in the
1986 brought eight more GTO wins and another manufacturers’ title.
won the drivers’
championship. The GT Endurance Championship also went to
In drag racing Rickie Smith’s Motorcraft
Mustang won the International Hot Rod
Association Pro Stock
In 1987 Saleen Autosport Mustangs driven by Steve Saleen
won the SCCA Escort Endurance SSGT championship, and in
Motor Sports Association
(IMSA) racing a Mustang again won the
GTO class in the Daytona 24 hours. In 1989, its silver anniversary
year, the Mustang won Ford its first Trans-Am manufacturers’ title
since 1970, with Lynn St. James winning the drivers’ championship.
In 1997, Tommy Kendall
Roush-prepared Mustang won a record 11 consecutive races in
Trans-Am to secure his third straight driver’s championship.
In 2002 John Force broke his own NHRA drag racing record by winning
his 12th national championship in his Ford Mustang Funny Car
, Force beat that record again in 2006,
becoming the first ever 14-time champion, again, driving a
Currently Mustangs compete in several racing series, including the
for the Miller Cup
and the KONI Challenge
, where it won the
manufacturer's title in 2005 & 2008, and theCanada Drift
and D1 Grand Prix
They are highly competitive in the SCCA Speed World Challenge
As reported by Jayski.com, the Ford Mustang will be Ford's Car of Tomorrow
for the NASCAR Nationwide
Series in 2010, opening a new chapter in both Mustang's history and
2005 Canadian Car of the Year
The 1965 Mustang won the Tiffany Gold Medal for excellence in
American design, the first automobile ever to do so.
The Mustang was on the Car and
Driver Ten Best
list in 1983
, and 2006
. It won the Motor Trend Car of the Year
award in 1974 and 1994.
In 2005 it was runner-up to the Chrysler
for the North
American Car of the Year
award and was named Canadian Car of the Year
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Retrieved on August 25 2008.
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website. Retrieved on August 25 2008.
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(Birmingham, Michigan, Walmur Publishing 1984), page 125.
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(Berkeley, California, North Atlantic Books, 2009), page
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- Mustang Ready For the Pony Car War "Mustang is the
only one of the original pony cars from the 1960s to live on into
the 21st century with no interruption in production."
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Technology, retrieved on August 16, 2008.
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21, 1967, retrieved on August 16, 2008.
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Consumer Guide, February 4, 2007, retrieved on August
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Mustang Legend by Ford Motor Company Media, undated, retrieved
on August 16, 2008.
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MI6, August 26, 2005, retrieved on August 8,
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is Named 2005 Canadian Car of the Year