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Fox News Channel (FNC), commonly referred to as Fox or Fox News, is a cable and satellite news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of News Corporation. As of April 2009, it is available to 102 million households in the U.S. and further to viewers internationally, broadcasting primarily out of its New York Citymarker studios.

The channel was created by Australian-American media mogul Rupert Murdoch, who hired Roger Ailes as its founding CEO. The channel was launched on October 7, 1996 to 17 million cable subscribers. The network slowly rose to prominence in the late 1990s. In terms of regular viewers (Nielsen ratings), Fox News rates as the United Statesmarker' number one cable news network, ahead of CNN and MSNBC.

Many observers say that the Fox News Channel's programming promotes conservative political positions. Fox News Channel denies any bias in the channel's news reporting, and says there is a distinction between its news coverage and editorial programming.


Early years

In May 1985, Australian publisher Rupert Murdoch announced that he and Americanmarker industrialist and philanthropist Marvin Davis intend to develop "a network of independent stations as a fourth marketing force" to compete directly with CBS, NBC and ABC through the purchase of six television stations then owned by Metromedia. In July 1985, 20th Century Fox announced that publisher Rupert Murdoch had completed his purchase of 50 percent of Fox Filmed Entertainment, the parent company of 20th Century Fox Film Corporation. A year later, Twentieth Century Fox Film Corp. earned $5.6 million in its fiscal third period ended May 31, 1986, in contrast to a loss of $55.8 million in the year-earlier period.

Prior to founding FNC, Murdoch had gained significant experience in the 24-hour news business when News Corp.'s BSkyB subsidiary started Europe's first 24-hour news channel, Sky News, in the United Kingdommarker in 1989. With the success of his fourth network efforts in the United States, experience gained from Sky News, and turnaround of 20th Century Fox, Murdoch announced on January 31, 1996 that News Corp. would be launching a 24-hour news channel to air on both cable and satellite systems as part of a News Corp. "worldwide platform" for Fox programming, reasoning that "The appetite for news — particularly news that explains to people how it affects them — is expanding enormously."

In February 1996, after former Republican political strategist and NBC executive Roger Ailes left America's Talking (now MSNBC), Murdoch called him to start the Fox News Channel. Ailes worked individuals through five months of 14-hour workdays and several weeks of rehearsal shows before launch, on October 7, 1996.

At launch, only 10 million households were able to watch FNC, with none in the major media markets of New York Citymarker and Los Angelesmarker. According to published reports, many media reviewers had to watch the first day's programming at Fox News studios because it was not readily available. The rolling news coverage during the day consisted of 20-minute single topic shows like Fox on Crime or Fox on Politics surrounded by news headlines. Interviews had various facts at the bottom of the screen about the topic or the guest. The flagship newscast at the time was called The Schneider Report, with Mike Schneider giving a fast paced delivery of the news. During the evening, Fox had opinion shows: The O'Reilly Report (now, The O'Reilly Factor), The Crier Report hosted by Catherine Crier, and Hannity & Colmes.

From the beginning, FNC has placed heavy emphasis on visual presentation. Graphics were designed to be colorful and attention grabbing and to allow people to get the main points of what was being said even if they could not hear the host, through the use of on-screen text summarizing the position of the interviewer or speaker and "bullet points" when a host was giving commentary.

Fox News also created the "Fox News Alert," which interrupted regular programming when a breaking news story occurred.

To accelerate its adoption by cable companies, Fox News paid systems up to $11 per subscriber to distribute the network. This contrasted with the normal practice, in which cable operators paid stations carriage fees for the programming of channels. When Time Warner bought out Ted Turner's Turner Broadcasting, a federal antitrust consent decree required Time Warner to carry a second all-news channel in addition to its own CNN. Time Warner selected MSNBC as the secondary news network, instead of Fox News. Fox News claimed that this violated an agreement to carry Fox News. Citing its agreement to keep its U.S. headquarters and a large studio in New York City, News Corporation pressured Mayor Rudolph Giuliani's administration to pressure Time Warner, one of the city's two cable providers, to transmit Fox News on a city-owned channel. City officials threatened to take action affecting Time Warner's cable franchises in the city.

A lawsuit was filed by Time Warner against the City of New York claiming undue interference with, and inappropriate use of, the city's educational channels for commercial programming. News Corporation countered with an antitrust lawsuit against Time Warner for unfairly protecting CNN. This led to an acrimonious battle between Murdoch and Turner, with Turner publicly comparing Murdoch to Adolf Hitler while Murdoch's New York Post ran an editorial questioning Turner's sanity. Giuliani's motives were also questioned, as his wife was a producer at Murdoch-owned WNYW-TVmarker. In the end, Time Warner and News Corporation signed a settlement agreement to permit Fox News to be carried on New York City cable system beginning in October 1997, and on all of Time Warner's cable systems by 2001, though Time Warner still does not carry Fox News in all areas. In return, Time Warner was given some rights to News Corporation's satellites in Asia and Europe to distribute Time Warner programming, would receive the normal compensation per subscriber paid to cable operators, and News Corporation would not object to the continuation of Atlanta Braves baseball games being carried on TBS (which could have expired because of the Fox television network's contract with Major League Baseball).

Recent history

On May 1, 2008, Fox News launched high definition channel simulcasts of its programming in selected regions of the United States. Time Warner Cable is carrying this channel in New York, NY, San Antonio, TX, and Kansas City, MO, while Cablevision is making it available in New York, NY and on Long Island.

On Friday, October 17, 2008 at 6am ET, DirecTV launched the high-definition channel. This launch was the first national launch of the network in HD. On January 9, 2009, Cox Communications added the HD channel and on February 3, 2009 Dish Network did also.

Fox News switched from a 4:3 aspect ratio to a 16:9 letterbox ratio for its standard definition channel at 6 am ET on September 28, 2009.


FNC maintains an archive of most of its programs. This archive also handles the Fox Movietone newsreels. Licensing of the Fox News archive is handled by ITN Source, the archiving division of ITN.


FNC presents a variety of programming with up to 15 hours of live broadcasting per day, in addition to programming and content for the Fox Broadcasting Company. Most of the programs are broadcast from Fox News headquarters in New York Citymarker in their street-side studio on Sixth Avenuemarker in the west extension of Rockefeller Centermarker. Audio simulcasts of the channel are aired on XM Satellite Radio and Sirius Satellite Radio.

In an October 11, 2009 article in the New York Times, Fox articulated that its hard news programming runs from "9 a.m. to 4 p.m. and 6 to 8 p.m. on weekdays" and "are objective" but makes no such claims for its other broadcasts, which are primarily of editorial and opinion journalism in nature.

High Definition

Fox News Channel HD is 720p high definition simulcast of Fox News Channel that launched on May 1, 2008. Most of the programs available in HD (Fox & Friends, America's Newsroom, Happening Now, The Live Desk, Studio B with Sheppard Smith, "Your World with Neil Cavuto", Glenn Beck, Special Report with Bret Baier, Fox Report, The O'Reilly Factor, Hannity, and On the Record with Greta Van Susteren) are shown in 16:9 widescreen. Fox News Channel began producing its standard definition programs in letterboxed format on September 28, 2009; therefore high definition and standard definition viewers now both see the same picture and stylized pillarboxes are no longer needed.


With the growth of FNC, the network introduced a radio division entitled Fox News Radio in 2003. Syndicated throughout the United States, the division provides short newscasts and talk radio programs, featuring personalities from both the television and radio divisions. In addition, the network has also introduced Fox News Talk in 2006, a satellite radio station which features programs syndicated by and featuring Fox News personalities.


FNC produces a news website featuring the latest coverage, including video clips from the network's television division, audio clips from Fox News Radio, in addition to columns from the network's assorted television, radio, and online personalities. Introduced in December 1995, the network's website ranks below many other news websites, ranking in the lower teens in the list of top news websites.

In September 2008, FNC joined other networks by introducing a live streaming segment called The Strategy Room, designed to appeal to older viewers. It airs weekdays, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. and takes the form of an informal discussion, with running commentary on the news. Regular discussion programs include Business Hour, News With a View and God Talk Hours.

Fox News Mobile is a part of the FNC website that is dedicated to streaming news clips that are formatted for video enabled mobile phones.


Producing a variety of different programming, FNC has a number of different program hosts, news anchors, correspondents, and contributors who appear throughout daily programming on the network. The network has a number of different signature hosts, including Bill O'Reilly, Sean Hannity, Greta Van Susteren, Mike Huckabee, Shepard Smith, & Neil Cavuto all of whom host programs which are on the list of the top ten most watched programs on cable news. In January 2009, commentator Glenn Beck was added to the list of personalities at Fox News Channel.

Ratings and reception

FNC saw huge growth in its ratings during the early stages of the Iraq conflict. By some reports, at the height of the conflict they enjoyed as much as a 300 percent increase in viewership, averaging 3.3 million viewers daily.

In 2004, FNC's ratings for its broadcast of the Republican National Convention beat those of all three broadcast networks. During President George W. Bush's address, Fox News notched 7.3 million viewers nationally, while NBC, CBS, and ABC scored ratings of 5.9, 5.0, and 5.1, respectively.

In late 2005 and early 2006, FNC saw a brief decline in ratings. One of the most notable decline in ratings came in the second quarter of 2006, when compared to the previous quarter, Fox News had a loss in viewership for every single prime time program. One of the most noteworthy losses of viewership was that of Special Report with Brit Hume. The show's total viewership was down 19 percent compared to the previous quarter. However, several weeks later, in the wake of the North Korean Missile Crisis and the 2006 Lebanon War, Fox saw a surge in viewership and remained the #1 rated cable news channel. Fox still held eight of the ten most-watched nightly cable news shows, with The O'Reilly Factor and Hannity & Colmes coming in first and second places, respectively.

For the year 2007, FNC was the number-one rated cable news network in the United States when rating based on Ratings, not cumulative audience . It was down one percent in total daily viewers and down three percent in the 25-54 year old demographic, but it still boasted most of the top-rated shows on cable news led by The O'Reilly Factor. For primetime television Fox News ranked #6 of all cable networks. By the end of the first quarter of 2009, Fox was beating CNN and MSNBC combined in the ratings and is now the second highest rated cable network. When the quarter ended on March 31, 2009, Fox News's primetime ratings were up 23% compared with the same period a year before.The quarter ending June 30, 2009, Fox News shows held all ten positions for cable news with an overall increase of 33% in viewership.

In July 2009, FNC continued its cable news lead in ratings, but still trailed CNN in cumulative audience. It was not only beating CNN and MSNBC combined, but showing the most growth in the younger demographic. Among viewers aged 25 to 54, the network was up 48% in total day, and up 70% in primetime, compared to July 2008. Among basic cable networks, Fox News was ranked third for the month in prime time viewership behind only USA Network and TNT, with CNN and MSNBC lagging behind at 15th and 26th, respectively, while continuing to battle each other for third place in cable news.

In September 2009, the Pew Research Center published a report on public views toward various national news organizations. This report indicated that 72% of Republican Fox viewers rated the network as "favorable", and 43% of Democrat viewers and 55% of all viewers share this opinion. However, Fox had the highest unfavorable rating of all national outlets studied at 25 percent of all viewers. The report goes on to say that "partisan differences in views of Fox News have increased substantially since 2007"..


Fair & Balanced graphic used in 2005

"Fair & Balanced" is a trademarked slogan used by the broadcaster. The slogan was originally used in conjunction with the phrase "Real Journalism."Comedian and senator Al Franken used the slogan in the subtitle for his 2003 book Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them: A Fair and Balanced Look at the Right. In the book, he cites examples of what he claims to be Fox News' bias. On August 22, 2003, Fox sued based upon its trademark on the phrase. Fox News dropped the lawsuit three days later after Judge Denny Chin refused their request for an injunction. Chin denied the injunction and said that the case, Fox v. Franken, was "wholly without merit, both factually and legally". He went on to suggest that Fox News' trademark on the phrase "fair and balanced" could be invalid.

In December 2003, FNC found itself on the other end of a legal battle concerning the slogan, when AlterNet filed a cancellation petition with the United States Patent and Trademark Office to have FNC's trademark rescinded as misdescriptive. AlterNet included the documentary film Outfoxed as supporting evidence in its case. After losing early motions, AlterNet withdrew its petition and the USPTO dismissed the case.

In 2008, FNC used the "We Report, You Decide" slogan, referring to "You Decide 2008" which was FNC's original slogan for reporting on matters involving the election, and the candidates.


Accusations of conservative bias

Many critics and politicians have accused FNC of having a bias towards the political right at the expense of neutrality. Murdoch and Ailes have reacted against allegations of bias, with Murdoch saying that Fox has "given room to both sides, whereas only one side had it before." In 2004, director Robert Greenwald produced the documentary film Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch's War on Journalism, which argues that Fox News has a conservative bias, including as evidence internal memos from editorial Vice President John Moody which the film uses to demonstrate Fox's attempts to alter news content.

A Pew Research poll, released on October 29, 2009, found that Fox News is viewed as the most ideological network in America. The poll, which featured Americans view of various news networks by ideology, scored Fox News the highest of any category with (47%) as "mostly conservative," (14%) as "mostly liberal," and (24%) as "neither." In comparison, MSNBC had (36%) identify it as "mostly liberal," (11%) as "mostly conservative," and (27%) as "neither." CNN had (37%) describe it as "mostly liberal," (11%) as "mostly conservative," and (33%) as "neither."

Accusations of misrepresentation of facts

Media Matters for America has cataloged what they claim are the most egregious examples of distortion by both Fox News and its TV personalities. The criticisms include several examples of cropping quotes from President Obama, Vice President Biden, and Vice President Gore so they appear out of context, using image manipulation software to edit the appearance of reporters from The New York Times, and using footage from other events during a report on the November 5th "Tea Party" rally in Washington DC. They claim the intention is to make it appear as if a larger number of protesters attended the event. Media Matters describes itself as 'a Web-based, not-for-profit, 501(c)(3) progressive research and information center dedicated to comprehensively monitoring, analyzing, and correcting conservative misinformation in the U.S. media'.

Talking points from Bush White House

While promoting his memoir, What Happened, Scott McClellan, former White House Press Secretary (2003–2006) for former President George W. Bush stated on the July 25, 2008 edition of Hardball with Chris Matthews that the Bush White House routinely gave talking points to Fox News commentators — but not journalists — in order to influence discourse and content. McClellan stated that these talking points were not issued to provide the public with news; instead, they were to provide Fox News commentators with issues and perspectives favorable to the White House and Republican Party. McClellan later apologized to Fox News commentator Bill O'Reilly for not responding to Matthews' suggestion that "Bill" or "Sean" received the talking points; McClellan said he had no personal knowledge that O'Reilly ever received the talking points. Furthermore he pointed out "the way a couple of questions were phrased in that interview along with my response left things open to interpretation and I should not have let that happen".

Obama Administration criticism of Fox News

In September 2009, the Obama Administration engaged in a verbal conflict with Fox News Channel. On Sept. 20, 2009, President Obama appeared on all the major news programs except Fox News, a snub partially in response to remarks about the President by commentators Glenn Beck and Sean Hannity and general coverage by Fox with regard to Obama's Health Care proposal. Fox News Sunday host Chris Wallace called White House administration officials "crybabies" in response. Following this, a senior Obama adviser told U.S. News that the White House would never get a fair shake from Fox News, while largely ignoring the fact that Obama had refused to give interviews with Fox News reporters for several years prior to running for president and has since refused to give interviews with Fox until 2010.

In late September 2009, Obama senior advisor David Axelrod and Roger Ailes met in secret to try and smooth out tensions between the two camps without much success. Two weeks later, White House officials referred to FNC as “not a news network", communications director Anita Dunn asserting that “Fox News often operates as either the research arm or the communications arm of the Republican Party.” President Obama followed with "If media is operating basically as a talk radio format, then that's one thing, and if it's operating as a news outlet, then that's another," and White House chief of staff Rahm Emanuel stated that it was important "to not have the CNN's and the others in the world basically be led in following Fox."

Within days it was reported that Fox had been excluded from an interview with "pay czar" Ken Feinberg, with bureau chiefs from the White House Pool (ABC, CBS, NBC, and CNN) coming to the defense of Fox. One of the major bureau chiefs stated, "If any member had been excluded it would have been the same thing, it has nothing to do with Fox or the White House or the substance of the issues." Shortly after this story broke the White House admitted to a low-level mistake, but that said that Fox had not made a specific request to interview Feinberg. Fox White House correspondent, Major Garrett responded by stating that he had not made a specific request, but that he had a "standing request from me as senior White House correspondent on Fox to interview any newsmaker at the Treasury at any given time news is being made."

On November 8th, 2009 the Los Angeles Times reported that an unnamed Democratic consultant was warned by the White House not to appear on FOX News again. According to the article, Anita Dunn claimed in an e-mail to have checked with colleagues who "deal with TV issues" and had been told that nobody had been instructed to avoid FOX, Patrick Caddell, a FOX News contributor and former pollster for President Jimmy Carter said he had spoken with other Democratic consultants who had received similar warnings from the White House.

International transmission

The FNC feed is available internationally, while the Fox News Extra segments provide alternate programming.

Fox News Extra

Initially, US advertisements were replaced on FNC with viewer e-mail and profiles of FNC anchors set to music. In 2002 these were replaced with international weather forecasts. In 2006, the weather segments were replaced with 'Fox News Extra' segments, various narrated reports from Fox reports on a variety of topics. These reports are generally on lighter issues not related to current news events, and the segments are repeated. FNC also shows international weather forecasts when the Fox News Extra segments run short.

The Fox News feed in the United Kingdommarker and Irelandmarker does not feature Fox News Extra, and instead features break fillers from sister channel Sky News's International Variant. For a short period in 2001, a still of the Fox News logo replaced this other content.


In Australia, FNC is broadcast on the three major Pay-TV providers, Foxtel, Austar and Optus Television. Foxtel is 25 percent owned by News Corporation. Sky News Australia is Fox's sister channel.


Since 2002 FNC has been broadcast to Brazilmarker, but the commercials are replaced with Fox News Extra. It is broadcast by Sky (satellite operator, a joint-venture between News Corporation and Globosat) and in the digital packages of NET.


In 2003, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) rejected a Canadian Cable Telecommunications Association (CCTA) application to bring Fox News to Canada because Fox News U.S. and Global Television were planning to create Fox News Canada, a combination of U.S. and Canadian news. However in 2004, after a Fox U.S. executive said there were no plans to create the combined channel, the CRTC approved an application to bring Fox News to Canada.

In response to outrage over panelists on late night comedy program Red Eye w/ Greg Gutfeld making disparaging remarks about the Canadian military, including "...inappropriate and disrespectful comments on the channel regarding the Canadian Military's efforts in Afghanistan,...", Canadian cable television provider Shaw Communications gave its customers the option of replacing Fox News Channel with another programming option.


Fox News is available on cable with the French Internet provider Free


FNC is also carried in the Republic of Irelandmarker by the British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB) satellite television network (Sky Digital) which is 40% owned by FNC's parent News Corporation. It is run as a sister channel to BSkyB's popular Sky News. FNC is usually broadcast as a VideoGuard encrypted channel but during major news stories it may be simulcast on Sky Active, which is free to air. As of September 2006 the channel has carried UK specific advertising, along with headlines and weather provided by Sky News during its breaks. These run under the brand of Fox News International.

Due to the shared ownership of Fox and Sky, Fox News and Sky News routinely share bureaus and reporters for breaking news stories from around the world.


In Italymarker, FNC was launched on the now defunct Italian digital satellite television platform Stream TV in 2001. Part of its programming was translated in Italian and broadcasted on the defunct Italian news channel Stream News. In 2003 was moved on SKY Italia with U.S. commercials replaced by Fox News Extra segments and now is available on 4,600,000 subscribers and 160,000 hotel rooms in Italy.

SKY TG 24 is one of the sister channels of Fox News.

New Zealand

In New Zealandmarker, FNC is broadcast on Channel 092 of pay satellite operator SKY TV's digital platform. It is also broadcast overnight on New Zealand TV channel Prime, owned by SKY. Fox News parent corporation News Corp has a stake in both SKY and Prime.


Between 2003 and 2006, in Swedenmarker and the other Scandinavian countries, FNC was broadcast 16 hours a day on TV8, with Fox News Extra segments replacing U.S. advertising. Fox News was dropped by TV8 and replaced by Germanmarker news channel Deutsche Welle in September 2006.


In Singaporemarker, FNC is broadcasted on Channel 75 of pay-tv cable operator StarHub TV digital platform. It also broadcasts its sister channel, Sky News.

United Kingdom

FNC is also carried in the United Kingdom by the British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB) satellite television network (Sky Digital) which is 40% owned by FNC's parent News Corporation. It is run as a sister channel to BSkyB's popular Sky News. FNC is usually broadcast as a VideoGuard encrypted channel but during major news stories it may be simulcast on Sky Active, which is free to air. As of September 2006 the channel has carried UK specific advertising, along with headlines and weather provided by Sky News during its breaks. These run under the brand of Fox News International.

Due to the shared ownership of Fox and Sky, Fox News (and Fox Business) and Sky News routinely share bureaus and reporters for breaking news stories from around the world.

Other countries

Countries where Fox News is provided

Fox News Channel is also carried in more than 40 countries. Although service to Japanmarker stopped in the summer of 2003, it can still be seen on Americable (distributor for American bases), Mediatti (Kadena Air Base), and Pan Global TV Japan.


ET Program Host(s) Location Description
Fox and Friends
Steve Doocy, Gretchen Carlson and Brian Kilmeade Studio E, NY The network's morning editorial program
America's Newsroom
Bill Hemmer and Megyn Kelly Studio J, NY A daily look at what's making news and Politics. (HD)
Happening Now
Jon Scott and Jane Skinner Studio E, NY A daily look at Breaking News in the world. (HD)
The Live Desk
Trace Gallagher and Martha MacCallum Studio J, NY A daily editorial look at Breaking News in the world. (HD)
Studio B
Shepard Smith Studio H, NY A daily editorial look at Breaking News in the world. (HD)
Your World with Neil Cavuto
Neil Cavuto Studio E, NY Business Program. (HD)
Glenn Beck
Glenn Beck Studio H, NY Political opinion program. (HD)
Special Report with Bret Baier
Bret Baier Washington Political opinions from D.C. (HD)
Fox Report
Shepard Smith Studio H, NY Editorial Program. (HD)
O'Reilly Factor
Bill O'Reilly Political opinion program. (HD)
Sean Hannity Studio J, NY A nightly editorial program. (HD)
On the Record
Greta Van Susteren Washington/NY Nightly editorial program. (HD)
Red Eye w/ Greg Gutfeld
Greg Gutfeld Studio E, NY Nightly talk variety program. (HD)

See also


  1. American Public Media: News Archive for October 7, 1996
  2. Slate Magazine
  3. Lenzner, Robert. (May 5, 1985) Boston Globe Murdoch, partner plan 4th network. Section: National/Foreign; Page 1 (the six stations cover many of the nation's major markets — New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Dallas, Houston and Washington)
  4. New York Times (July 11, 1985) $55.9 Million Fox Film Loss. Section: D; Page D19.
  5. Chicago Tribune (July 17, 1986) Turnaround for fox films Section: Business; Page 1.
  6. Shah, Saeed. (September 24, 2002) The Independent Business Analysis: Unstoppable Sky machine rolls on as ITV troubles worsen Dawn Airey's free-to-air television experience will be invaluable to BSkyB as it moves beyond its pay-TV model. Section: Business; Page 21.
  7. Schulberg, Pete. (July 15, 1994) The Oregonian Fox is a business, if not artistic, success. Section: Television; Page E1.
  8. Braxton, Greg. (April 6, 1997) Chicago Sun-Times How Fox broke from the pack to become cutting-edge network.
  9. Williams, Scott. (January 31, 1996) Associated Press Murdoch taps Ailes for new network; Former CNBC chief set to direct 24-hour news channel, take on CNN.
  10. Cox Communications
  11. Stelter, Brian. "Fox’s Volley With Obama Intensifying." NYT. Oct.11, 2009. Retrieved via on Nov.16, 2009.
  12. Broadcasting & Cable September 28, 2009 FNC Pushes Widescreen - Will deliver letterboxed standard-def feed
  13. "For Talking Heads, a Spot to Relax and Sip Coffee, on Webcam " The New York Times. February 15, 2009.
  14. FNC's 25-54 Prime "Downward Spiral", TV Newser
  15. Cable TV: Content Analysis, The State of the News Media 2005
  16. April 2005 Competitive Program Ranker (M-F 6a-11p programs), TV Newser
  17. Fox News Channel Leads in 2007 Cable News Ratings
  18. de Moraes, Lisa (August 12, 2003). Three Little Words: Fox News Sues. Washington Post
  19. Coyle, Jake (July 19, 2004 ). Advocacy Groups Challenge Fox News Slogan. Associated Press
  20. Official Documentation of Petitioned Cancellation of "Fair & Balanced" trademark phrase, Trademark Trial and Appeal Board Inquiry System
  21. Timothy Noah, Fox News admits bias!, Slate, May 31, 2005. Retrieved September 26, 2006.
  22. Dean On President Clinton Standing Up To Right-Wing Propaganda On Fox News Sunday, The Democratic Party, September 25, 2006
  23. News Corp denies Fox News bias Australian Associated Press, October 26, 2004
  24. Interview transcript: Rupert Murdoch and Roger Ailes, the Financial Times, October 6, 2006
  25. Fox News Viewed as Most Ideological Network
  26. Fox News Ranks As Most 'Ideological' News Network
  27. Who Says TV News Is Biased? TV News Viewers Do!
  29. Media Matters for America-About us
  40. "CRTC approves Fox News for Canada", CBC, November 18, 2004.

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