**Frank Jennings Tipler III**
(born February 1, 1947 in Andalusia, Alabama) is a mathematical
physicist and cosmologist, holding a
joint appointment in the Departments of Mathematics and Physics
at Tulane
University.
## Life

Tipler is the son of Frank Jennings Tipler Jr., a lawyer, and Anne
Tipler, a homemaker.

He received his Bachelor of Science degree in physics in
1969 at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology (attending from 1965-1969). In 1976, Tipler
obtained his PhD from the
University of Maryland, College
Park in the field of global general relativity for his proof that if
a time machine could be created its use would necessarily result in
the formation of singularities, using the techniques of Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose.

Source:
Tipler went on to be hired as a postdoctoral researcher by physicists John A. Wheeler, Abraham Taub, Rainer Sachs and Dennis Sciama. He eventually became a professor of mathematical physics in 1981 at Tulane University, where he has taught since.

## Academic work

### The Omega Point

In his controversial 1994 book

*The Physics of
Immortality*, Tipler claims to provide a mechanism for

immortality and the

resurrection of the dead consistent
with the known laws of physics, provided by a computer intelligence
he terms the

Omega Point and
which he identifies with

God. The line of
argument is that the evolution of intelligent species will enable
scientific progress to grow exponentially, eventually enabling
control over the

universe even on the
largest possible scale. Tipler predicts that this process will
culminate with an all-powerful intelligence whose computing speed
and information storage will grow exponentially at a rate exceeding
the collapse of the universe, thus providing infinite "experiential
time" which will be used to run computer simulations of all
intelligent life that has ever lived in the history of our
universe. This

virtual reality
emulation is what Tipler means by "the resurrection of the dead."
In more recent works, Tipler says that the existence of the

Omega Point is required to
avoid the violation of the known laws of physics.

According to

George Ellis's review of
Tipler's book in the journal

*Nature*, Tipler's book on the

Omega Point is "a masterpiece of

pseudoscience ... the product of a
fertile and creative imagination unhampered by the normal
constraints of scientific and philosophical discipline", and

Michael Shermer devoted a chapter of

*Why People Believe
Weird Things* to enumerating flaws in Tipler's thesis. On
the other hand,

David Deutsch (who
pioneered the field of

quantum
computers), endorses Tipler's physics of the

Omega Point as being correct. However,
while in his 1997 book

*The
Fabric of Reality*, Deutsch incorporates the concept of
Tipler's

Omega Point as a
central feature of the fourth strand of his "four strands" Theory
of Everything, he doesn't therein support Tipler's identification
of the Omega Point with God. However, Deutsch does agree that the
society near the Omega Point would have unlimited computational
resources available to them (i.e., finite at any given time, with
additional resources continuously coming online) and would hence be
able to perfectly emulate any environment, including the ability to
resurrect life.

His 1986 book,

*The Anthropic Cosmological Principle* (with

John D. Barrow) reviews the intellectual history of

teleology, the large number of physical
coincidences which allow sapient life to exist (see

anthropic principle), and then
investigates the

ultimate
fate of the universe. This was the first book to describe the
Omega Point Theory.

Tipler's 2007 book

*The Physics of Christianity* analyzes
the Omega Point Theory's pertinence to

Christian theology. In the book, Tipler
identifies the Omega Point as being the

Judeo-Christian God,
particularly as described by

Christian
theological tradition. In this book Tipler also analyzes how

Jesus Christ could have performed the miracles
attributed to him in the

New Testament
without violating any known laws of physics, even if one were to
assume that we currently don't exist on a level of implementation
in a

computer simulation (in the
case that we did, then according to Tipler such miracles would be
trivially easy to perform for the society which was running the
simulation, even though it would seem amazing from our
perspective).

Tipler's writings on scientific

peer
review have been cited by

William
A. Dembski as forming the
basis of the process for review in the intelligent design journal

*Progress in Complexity, Information and Design* of the

International
Society for Complexity, Information and Design, where both
Tipler and Dembski serve as fellows.

### The quantum gravity Theory of Everything (TOE)

In his 2005 paper in the journal

*Reports on Progress in
Physics*, Tipler maintains that the correct

quantum gravity theory has existed since
1962, first discovered by

Richard
Feynman in that year, and independently discovered by

Steven Weinberg and

Bryce DeWitt, among others. But, according to
Tipler, because these physicists were looking for equations with a
finite number of terms (i.e., derivatives no higher than second
order), they abandoned this qualitatively unique quantum gravity
theory since in order for it to be consistent it requires an
arbitrarily higher number of terms. Tipler writes "They also did
not realize that the correct quantum gravity theory is consistent
only if a certain set of boundary conditions are imposed ...",
which includes the initial

Big Bang, and
the final

Omega Point,
cosmological

singularities. Tipler says that
the equations for this theory of quantum gravity are term-by-term
finite, but the same mechanism that forces each term in the series
to be finite also forces the entire series to be infinite (i.e.,
infinities that would otherwise occur in

spacetime, consequently destabilizing it, are
transferred to the cosmological singularities, thereby preventing
the universe from immediately collapsing into nonexistence). Tipler
writes that "It is a fundamental mathematical fact that this
[infinite series] is the best that we can do. ... This is somewhat
analogous to

Liouville's theorem
in

complex analysis, which says
that all analytic functions other than constants have singularities
either a finite distance from the origin of coordinates or at
infinity."

In the same aforestated journal article, Tipler combines the above
theory of quantum gravity with an extended

Standard Model in order to form what he
maintains is the correct

Theory of
Everything (TOE) describing and unifying all the

forces in physics.

Out of 50 articles, Tipler's said paper was selected as "[one of]
the very best articles published in

*Reports on Progress in
Physics* in 2005. Articles were selected [...] for their
outstanding reviews of the field. They all received the highest
praise from our international referees and a high number of
downloads from the journal Website."

## Writings

### Books

### Articles

## See also

## References

## External links

- * 56 kbs .wmv
- * Broadband .wmv
- * Broadband .mov
- * PowerPoint file of the topics of
discussion

- * Listen to the interview (.mp3)

- * " How Did This Universe Begin? in RealMedia format. See transcript.
- * " Will This Universe Ever End? in RealMedia format. See transcript.
- * " Will Intelligence Fill the Universe? in
RealMedia format. See transcript.