Frankfurt am Main ( , ),
commonly known simply as Frankfurt, is the largest
city in the German state of
Hesse and the fifth-largest
city in Germany, with a 2008
population of 670,000.
The urban area had an estimated
population of 2.26 million in 2001. The city is at the centre of the larger
Region which has a population of 5.3 million and is
Germany's second largest
, this city's name
translates into "Frankfurt on the Main" (pronounced like "mine"). A
part of early Franconia
, the inhabitants
were the early Franks
. The city is located on
an ancient ford on the river
Main, the German word for which is "Furt".
the city's name receives its legacy as being the "ford of the
on the Main
River, Frankfurt is the financial
and transportation centre of
Germany and the largest financial centre in continental Europe. It is seat of the
Bank, the German Federal Bank, the Frankfurt
Stock Exchange and the Frankfurt Trade Fair, as well as several large commercial banks.
Airport is one of the world's busiest international
airports, Frankfurt Central Station is one of the largest terminal stations in Europe,
and the Frankfurter
interchange) is the most heavily used interchange in continental Europe.
the only German city listed as one of ten Alpha world cities
. Frankfurt lies in the former
of Germany, and it was formerly the headquarters city of
the U.S. Army in Germany.
English speakers the city is commonly known simply as "Frankfurt",
though Germans occasionally call it by its
full name when it is necessary to distinguish it from the other
(significantly smaller) "Frankfurt" in the state of Brandenburg, Frankfurt .
has been Germany's financial
centre for centuries, and it is the home of a number of major banks
The three pillars of Frankfurt's economy are
finance, transport, and trade fairs. The Frankfurt Stock Exchange
is by far
Germany's largest, and is one of the world's most important.
is also the seat of the European Central Bank which sets monetary policy for the Eurozone economy, and of the German Federal Bank.
Over 300 national and international banks
are represented including the headquarters of the major German
has an excellent transportation infrastructure, and the Frankfurt
International Airport is a major European aviation hub.
central location at the heart of Europe
its excellent accessibility by air, rail and road make Frankfurt
Airport City especially attractive.
In addition, many large trade fairs are held in Frankfurt each
year, notably the Internationale
, the world's largest motor show, and the
world's largest book fair,and Musikmesse
world's largest music fair.
is also home to many cultural and
including the Johann Wolfgang Goethe
University, many museums, and two major botanical gardens, the Palmengarten and the Botanischer Garten der Johann Wolfgang
Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main.
Frankfurt is one of only three cities in the European Union
that have a significant number
. With 10 skyscrapers
(i.e. buildings taller than ) in early 2009, Frankfurt is second
behind Paris with 14
skyscrapers, and on par with London which also
has 10 skyscrapers. The city of Frankfurt contains the two
tallest skyscrapers in the European
Union, the Commerzbank Tower and Messeturm, which rank third and fourth on the
continent after the Naberezhnaya Tower and the Triumph-Palace in Moscow.
Panorama of Frankfurt seen from the Maintower observation
In the area of the Römer
were established, probably in the 1st century; some
artifacts from that era are found even to this day. The city
has a name probably dating back to Roman
times—it is thought to be derived from bona me(n)sa
(Heddernheim) was also a Roman civitas capital.
of Frankfurt on Main is derived
from the Franconofurd of the Germanic tribe of the Franks; Furt (cf.
) where the river was shallow enough
to be crossed by wading. Alemanni
Franks lived there
and by 794 Charlemagne
presided over an imperial assembly
and church synod, at
(-furt -vurd) was first
Frankfurt was one of the most important cities in the following
Holy Roman Empire
. From 855 the German kings and emperors
were elected in Frankfurt and crowned in Aachen.
1562 the kings/emperors were also crowned in Frankfurt, Maximilian II
first. This tradition ended in 1792, when Franz II
was elected. His
coronation was deliberately held on Bastille Day
, 14 July, the anniversary of the
storming of the Bastille
elections and coronations took place in St.
Bartholomäus cathedral, known as the Kaiserdom (en: Emperor's
Cathedral), or in its predecessors.
The Frankfurter Messe
(Frankfurt Trade Fair) was first
mentioned in 1150. In 1240, Emperor Friedrich II
granted an Imperial privilege to its visitors, meaning they would
be protected by the Empire. Book trade fairs have been held in
Frankfurt since 1478.
In 1372 Frankfurt became a Reichsstadt
), i.e. directly subordinate
to the Holy Roman Emperor
to a regional ruler or a local nobleman.
Frankfurt in 1612
managed to remain neutral during the Thirty Years' War
, but suffered from the
that was brought to
the city by refugees. After the end of the war, Frankfurt regained
In the Napoleonic Wars
occupied or bombarded several times by French troops. It
nevertheless still remained a free city until the total collapse of
the Holy Roman Empire in 1805/6. In 1806 it become part of the
under the Fürstprimas
), Karl Theodor Anton Maria
. This also meant that Frankfurt was
incorporated into the confederation of the Rhine. In 1810 Dalberg adopted the title of a
of Frankfurt. Napoleon
intended to make his adopted
son Eugène de
, already Prince de Venise
("prince of Venice
", a newly established
primogeniture in Italy), Grand Duke of Frankfurt after Dalberg's
death (since the latter as a Catholic bishop had no legitimate
heirs). The Grand Duchy remained a short episode lasting from 1810
to 1813, when the military tide turned in favor of the
Anglo-Prussian lead allies, which overturned the Napoleonic order
of central Europe. Dalberg abdicated in favor of Eugène de
Beauharnais, which of course was only a symbolic action, as the
latter effectively never did rule after the ruin of the French
armies and Frankfurt being taken by the allies.
Napoleon's final defeat and abdication, the Congress of Vienna (1812–1815, redrawing
the map of Europe) dissolved the grand-duchy, and Frankfurt entered
the newly founded German Confederation (till 1866) as a free city, becoming the seat of
its Bundestag, the confederal parliament where the
nominally presiding Habsburg Emperor
of Austria was represented by an Austrian "presidential
The Frankfurt Parliament at St.
Paul's Church in 1848
the ill-fated revolution of
, Frankfurt was the seat of the first democratically
elected German parliament, the Frankfurt Parliament
, which met in the
(St. Paul's Church
) and was opened on 18
May 1848. The institution failed in 1849 when the
Prussian king declared that he would not accept "a crown
from the gutter".
In the year of its existence, the assembly
developed a common constitution for a unified Germany, with the
Prussian king as its monarch.
lost its independence after the Austro-Prussian War as Prussia in 1866 annexed several smaller states,
among them the free city of Frankfurt.
administration incorporated Frankfurt into its province of Hesse-Nassau
. The formerly independent towns of
Bornheim and Bockenheim were incorporated in 1890.
the citizens of Frankfurt founded the University of Frankfurt, later called Johann Wolfgang Goethe
This is the only civic foundation of a
university in Germany; today it is one of Germany's largest
After World War I
, Frankfurt was
occupied by French troops in reprisal for having violated, from the
French viewpoint, some details of the peace treaty of Versailles
concerning the demilitarisation of the Rhineland
. In 1924 Ludwig Landmann
became the first Jewish
Mayor of the city, and led a significant
expansion during the following years. However, during the Nazi era
, the synagogues
of Frankfurt were destroyed.
Aerial view of the cathedral in May
1945 after World War II
city of Frankfurt was
severely bombed in World War II
(1939–1945). About 5,500
residents were killed during the raids, and the once famous
medieval city centre, by that time the largest in Germany, was
destroyed. Post-war reconstruction took place in a sometimes simple
modern style, thus irrevocably changing the architectural face of
Frankfurt. Only very few landmark buildings have been reconstructed
historically, albeit in a simplified manner.
The collection of historically significant Cairo Genizah
documents of the Municipal
Library was destroyed when the city was bombed. According to
and Genizah scholar S.D. Goitein
even handlists indicating its contents have survived."
end of the war, Frankfurt became a part of the newly founded state
of Hesse, consisting of the old Hesse- and the Prussian
The city was part of the American
Zone of Occupation
of Germany. The Military Governor for the United
States Zone (1945–1949) and the United States High Commissioner for
Germany (HICOG) (1949–1952) had their headquarters in the IG Farben
Building, intentionally left undamaged by the Allies'
wartime bombardment. Frankfurt was the original choice for the
provisional capital of West Germany—they even went as far as constructing a new
parliament building that has never been used for its intended
Since 1949 it is used to house the radio studios of
Hessische Rundfunk. In the end, Konrad Adenauer (the first post-war Chancellor)
preferred the tiny city of Bonn, for the
most part because it was close to his hometown, but also for
another reason; many other prominent politicians opposed the choice
of Frankfurt out of concern that Frankfurt, one of the largest
German cities and a former centre of the old German-dominated Holy
Roman Empire, would be accepted as a "permanent" capital of
Germany, thereby weakening the West German population's support for
reunification and the eventual
return of the Government to Berlin.
Reconstruction (1981–1984) of six
houses at the east side of the Römerberg
destroyed in World War II
the 1970s, the city created one of Europe's most efficient
underground transportation systems. That system includes a suburban
rail system (S-Bahn
) capable of
reaching outlying communities as well as the city centre, and a
deep underground light rail system with smaller coaches (U-Bahn
) also capable of travelling above
ground on street rails.
Since the postwar period Frankfurt has emerged once again as the
financial and transportation centre of Germany.
As a major center of international commerce, Frankfurt is a
multicultural city, home to people of 180 nationalities.
addition to the ethnic German majority, the city contain sizable
immigrant populations from Turkey,
Albania, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, India, Pakistan, Italy, Spain, North African countries, Iran, and
The Frankfurt area is also home to the
in Europe, and to Germany's largest Sri
For a long time Frankfurt was a Protestant
-dominated city. However, during the
19th century an increasing number of Catholics
moved to the city.
Today a small minority of its citizens are Catholic. According to the
Central Council of Jews in Germany, there are 7,300 Jews affiliated
with Judaism in Frankfurt, giving it the third largest Jewish community (behind
Frankfurt as the centre of the Rhine
The 16 Ortsbezirke
districts) of Frankfurt
is located on both sides of the River Main in the south-west part of Germany.
southern part of the city contains the Frankfurt
City Forest (Frankfurter Stadtwald), Germany's largest
forest within a city.
The centre of Frankfurt is located on
the north side of the river.
Neighbouring communities and areas
west, Frankfurt borders the Main-Taunus-Kreis (Hattersheim am Main, Kriftel, Hofheim am Taunus, Kelkheim ,
am Taunus, Sulzbach , Schwalbach am Taunus and Eschborn); to the northwest the Hochtaunuskreis (Steinbach , Oberursel , and Bad
Homburg); to the north the Wetteraukreis (Karben and
Vilbel); to the northeast the Main-Kinzig-Kreis (Niederdorfelden and Maintal); to the southeast the city of Offenbach am
Main; to the south the Kreis Offenbach (Neu-Isenburg) and to the southwest the Kreis
Groß-Gerau (Mörfelden-Walldorf, Rüsselsheim and Kelsterbach).
City divisions and districts
The city is divided into 46 Stadtteile
which are again divided into 118
. The largest
Ortsteil is Sachsenhausen-Süd. Most Stadtteile are incorporated
suburbs (Vororte), or previously
separate cities, like Höchst. Some like Nordend arose during the rapid growth of the city in
the Gründerzeit following the
unification of Germany. Others were formed from settlements which
previously belonged to other city divisions, like Dornbusch.
The 46 city divisions are combined into 16 area districts or
, which each have a
district committee and chairperson.
History of incorporation
middle of the 19th century, the city territory of Frankfurt
consisted of the present-day Stadtteile of Altstadt, Innenstadt, Bahnhofsviertel, Gutleutviertel, Gallus, Westend, Nordend, Ostend, Riederwald and Sachsenhausen.
After 1877, a number of previously
independent areas were incorporated into the city, see .
Saint Bartholomeus' Cathedral
) is a Gothic
building which was constructed in
the 14th and 15th centuries on the foundation of an earlier church
from the Merovingian
time. It is the main
church of Frankfurt. From 1356 onwards, kings of the Holy Roman Empire
were elected in this
church, and from 1562 to 1792, the roman-German
emperors were crowned
Since the 18th century, Saint Bartholomeus' has been called "the
" by the people, although it has
never been a bishop's seat. In 1867, the cathedral was destroyed by
a fire and rebuilt in its present style. The height of the
cathedral is 95 m.
The name of the city hall
means "Roman". In
fact, nine houses were acquired by the city council in 1405 from a
wealthy merchant family. The middle house became the town hall and
was later connected with the neighbouring buildings. In the upper
floor, there is the Kaisersaal
("Emperor's Hall") where the
newly crowned emperors held their banquets. The Römer was partially
destroyed in World War II and later rebuilt. It is located at the
(city hall square).
Saint Paul's Church
St. Paul's Church (Paulskirche
) is a national historic
monument in Germany with great political symbolism, because it was
the seat of the first democratically elected Parliament in 1848. It
was established in 1789 as a Protestant church but was not
completed until 1833. Its importance has its root in the Frankfurt Parliament
, which met in the
church during the revolutionary years of 1848/49 in order to write
a constitution for a united Germany. The attempt failed because the
monarchs of Prussia and Austria did not want to lose power, and in
1849 Prussian troops ended the democratic experiment by force of
arms and the parliament was dissolved. Afterwards, the building was
used for church services again.
St. Paul's was partially destroyed in World War II, particularly
the interior of the building, which now has a modern appearance. It
was quickly and symbolically rebuilt after the war; today it is not
used for religious services, but mainly for exhibitions and
Old Opera House
The famous old opera house (Alte Oper
) was built in 1880
by the architect Richard Lucae. It was one of the major opera
houses in Germany until it was heavily damaged in World War II.
Until the late 1970s it was a ruin, nicknamed "Germany's Most
Beautiful Ruin". There were even efforts to just blow it up. Former
Frankfurt Lord Mayor Rudi Arndt called for blowing it up in the
1960s, which earned him the nicknamed "Dynamite-Rudi". (Later on,
Arndt said he never had meant his suggestion seriously.)
Due to public pressure, it was finally fully reconstructed and
reopened in 1981. Today it functions as a concert hall, while
operas are performed in the Oper Frankfurt.
The inscription on the frieze
of the Old Opera
says: "Dem Wahren, Schönen, Guten
" ("To the true, the
beautiful, the good").
Frankfurt Opera House
The Frankfurt Opera is a leading opera company in Germany and one
of the most important opera houses in Europe. It was elected "Opera
house of the year" by German magazine Opernwelt
in 1995 and
Saint Katherine's Church
St. Katherine's church is the largest evangelical
Frankfurt. It is located in the city centre at the
entrance to the Zeil.
The Hauptwache (Main Watch) is a baroque
building built in 1730, formerly
used as a prison. It has given its name to the surrounding square
and the transport hub beneath it. It is situated at one end of the
Zeil, the city's main retail street.
The Zeil is Frankfurt's main shopping street and one of the most
crowded in Germany. The street is a pedestrian-only area and is
bordered by two large plazas, Hauptwache in the west and
Konstablerwache in the east. It is the second most expensive street for
shops to rent in Germany after the Kaufingerstraße in Munich.
During the month before Christmas, the extended pedestrian-only
zone is host to the fifth largest Christmas Market in
- Frauenfriedenskirche, consecrated 1929, example of early modernist
- Grossmarkthalle, built 1926-1928, former wholesale market, future
Central Bank headquarters
- IG Farben Building, built 1928-1930, now housing the Johann
Wolfgang Goethe University
- Goethe House, rebuilt in 1947. The birthplace of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe from
1749 was destroyed in World War II and then rebuilt true to the
original. The Goethe Museum is next door.
- Museum für angewandte Kunst, built 1985, designed by Richard Meier
skyline, view from south
Frankfurt is the only German city with a significant number of
, meaning buildings at least
150 metres tall. There are ten buildings, with two more
(Opernturm, 170 m and Tower
185, 185 m) currently under
construction.Only Bonn has also
one building (Post Tower, 163 m) over 150 m.
the skyscrapers in Frankfurt are located in the western part of the
city centre known as Bankenviertel
skyscrapers in Frankfurt are:
- Commerzbank Tower, 259 m — Europe's tallest building (1997–2003),
Headquarters of Commerzbank.
- MesseTurm, 257 m — Europe's tallest building
- Westendstraße 1, 208 m — Headquarters of DZ
- Maintower, 200 m — Headquarters of Landesbank Hessen-Thüringen with an observation deck
open to the public.
- Trianon, 186 m — Headquarters of DekaBank.
- Silver Tower, 166 m — Germany's tallest building
(1978–1990), Headquarters of Dresdner
- Plaza Büro Center, 159 m — Germany's tallest building
- Deutsche Bank I, 155 m — Headquarters of Deutsche Bank.
- Deutsche Bank II, 155 m — Headquarters of Deutsche Bank.
- Skyper, 154 m.
Other tall structures
- Europaturm - The Europe Tower is a telecommunication tower
known as the Frankfurt TV Tower. It is the tallest tower in
the city with a height of 337.5 metres. It was open to the public
until 1999, with an entertainment establishment in the revolving
is normally referred to by the locals as "Ginnheimer Spargel"
(The Ginnheimer Asparagus) which is not correct because it
is not located in the Ginnheim district but stands a few meters within the
- Henninger Turm - The Henninger Tower is a 120-metre high grain silo built from 1959-1961 and owned by
Henninger Brewery. It has
two rotating restaurants at the height of 101 and 106 metres and an
open-air observation deck at the height of 110 metres. The tower
has been closed to the public since October 2002. Plans to destroy
the tower and replace it were abandoned. Today there are new plans
to convert it into a residential tower.
- Goetheturm - The Goethe Tower is a 43-metre high tower built
entirely out of wood on the northern edge of the Frankfurt
City Forest in Sachsenhausen. It is the fifth tallest wooden construction
in Germany. It was built in 1931 and is still a popular place for
day-trippers, especially families, as a large playground and a café
have been built at the foot of the tower.
The Museumsuferfest in 2005
Wäldchestag in 2002
A major festival in the city is the
). It is one of the biggest cultural festivals in
Germany which attracts more than 3 million visitors over a period
of 3 days. It takes place yearly at the end of August
on both sides of the Main Riverbank
in the city centre.
More than 20 museums are located there
and they are open far into the night. Furthermore there are special
attractions like live-bands, dance shows, several booths for
crafts, jewelry, clothes and food from all around the world. It
ends with a spectacular firework display .
Frankfurt's oldest folk festival is the
(Festival of Stoneware
takes place twice a year around Easter
end of September in the eastern part of the city. Mentioned for the
first time in the 14th century as an annual marketplace it is now
more of an amusement park. ("Dippe" is a regional hessian dialect
word meaning "pot" or "jar"
and which would not be understood in most other German regions. The
name of the festival derives from its original purpose, when it was
a fair where traditionally crafted jars, pots and other stoneware
The Frankfurt Wäldchestag
jocularly known as a regional holiday because until the 1990s it
was common that Frankfurt's shops were closed on this day. Despite
the name, the festival takes place over a period of four days after
with the actual Wäldchestag being
Tuesday. What is special about this festival is its
location in Frankfurt's city forest, south of the city centre in Niederrad.
The Wolkenkratzer Festival
) is unique in Germany. It takes place irregularly,
the last time in May 2007. For two days most of the skyscrapers in
downtown Frankfurt are open to the public, which is normally not
the case, apart from the Maintower observation deck.
Around 1.2 million visitors
took the opportunity to see the city from above. Sky-divers, base
jumpers, fireworks and laser shows were extra attractions. The next
festival will not be held before 2010.
The Sound of Frankfurt
is a music festival held in
the city centre. It took place regularly from 1994 to 2004. Various
artists and bands performed open-air and for-free concerts on eight
stages located mainly around the Zeil. Different types of music
(rock, Latino, house, alternative and pop) attracted about 500,000
visitors each year.
the museums in Frankfurt are located on both sides of the River Main in Sachsenhausen (south side) and in the old part of
the city centre (north side).The area is therefore known as Museumsufer (Museums Riverbank).
Schirn Art Gallery from above
There are 13 museums on the south side between Eiserner Steg
street itself, Schaumainkai, is partially closed to traffic on Saturdays for
Frankfurt's largest flea
There are 2 museums on the north side:
Not directly located on the Riverbank are:
important museum is located in the Westend area:
of trance music can be traced back to
Germany, and in
It was here, in the early 1990s, that
local DJs like Sven Väth
and DJ DAG
(of Dance 2 Trance
) first played a
harder, deeper style of acid house
became hugely popular worldwide during the next decade. One of the
main venues of the early Trance
sound was the Omen nightclub in the city. Accordingly,
some of the early and most influential Trance acts, e.g. Jam and Spoon
, Oliver Lieb
, and record labels such as Harthouse
, were based in the city in the early 1990s.
Frankfurt International Airport
The Zeil, the main shopping
Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof (Central
S-Bahn at Central Station
Tram at Frankfurt South Station
is accessed from around the world via the Frankfurt
Airport (Flughafen Frankfurt am Main) which is
from the city centre. The airport has three runways and serves 265 non-stop destinations. It ranks among the world's top ten airports and is the biggest cargo airport in Europe. The airport also serves as a hub for German flag carrier Lufthansa. Depending on whether total passengers or flights are used, it ranks as the second or third busiest in Europe alongside London Heathrow Airport and Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport. Passenger traffic at Frankfurt Airport in 2007 was 54.2 million.
The airport can be reached by car or bus and has two train
stations, one for regional and one for long-distance traffic.
S-Bahn lines S8 and S9 (direction "Frankfurt
(Main) Hbf", "Offenbach
Ost or "Hanau"),
departing at the regional traffic station take 10–15 minutes from
the airport to the Central Station and the city centre, the IC and ICE trains
departing at the long-distance traffic station take as well 10–15
the name, Frankfurt Hahn Airport (Flughafen Frankfurt-Hahn) is not located
anywhere near Frankfurt but is instead situated approximately from
the city in Lautzenhausen (Rhineland-Palatinate).
This airport can only be reached by car or
hourly bus service runs from Frankfurt Central Station, taking about 1 hour and 45 minutes.
year over 4 Million Passengers used this airport in order to use
Low Cost Airlines like Ryanair.
Egelsbach Airport is a busy general
aviation airport located south-east of Frankfurt International
Airport, near the town of Egelsbach.
The streets of central Frankfurt are usually congested with cars
during the rush hour. Some areas, especially around the shopping
streets Zeil, are
numerous car parks located throughout the city.
Frankfurt is a traffic hub of the German Autobahn
system. The Frankfurter Kreuz is an Autobahn interchange close by the airport
where the Autobahnen A 3 (Cologne-Würzburg) and A 5 (Basel-Hannover) meet.
With approximately 320,000 cars daily
it is the most heavily used interchange in Europe
. The A 66
connects Frankfurt with Wiesbaden in the west and Fulda in the
east.The A 661 starts in the south (Darmstadt), runs through the eastern part of Frankfurt and
ends in the north (Bad
is a very short Autobahn in the western part of
Hauptbahnhof (or short Ffm Hbf) is the largest train
station in Germany by number of platforms and railway
traffic.Regarding daily passenger volume it ranks
second together with München Hauptbahnhof (350,000 each) after Hamburg
Hauptbahnhof (450,000).It is located between
the Gallus and the Bahnhofsviertel, not far away from the Trade
Fair and the financial district (Bankenviertel).
serves as a major hub for long-distance trains (ICE
) and regional trains (all Rhine-Main S-Bahn
lines, two U-Bahn
lines, several tram
lines). Local trains are
integrated in the Public
the second largest integrated public transport systems in the
world. Only the Berlin integrated
public transport system (VBB) is larger.
Frankfurt Airport Long Distance
Station connects Frankfurt
International Airport to the main rail network, most of the ICE services using the Cologne-Frankfurt
high-speed rail line.It is one of two railway stations at the
airport, the other is for local S-Bahn (lines S8 and S9) and regional
trains, called Frankfurt Airport Regional
major stations in the city centre are Hauptwache and Konstablerwache, both located on Frankfurts
most famous shopping street, the Zeil.
The city has two underground railway systems: the U-Bahn
and the S-Bahn
, as well as an above-ground
about the U and S Bahn can be found on the RMV website
S-Bahn lines connect Frankfurt with the Rhine Main
All lines have a 30 minute service
during the day but the majority of the routes are served by two
lines thereby offering a 15 minute schedule. All lines, except
line S7, run through the Frankfurt city tunnel and serve the
stations Ostendstraße, Konstablerwache, Hauptwache, Taunusanlage and
Frankfurt Central Station.
When leaving the city the S-Bahn
travels above ground. It provides access to the Frankfurt Trade
Fair (S3-S6), the airport (S8, S9), the stadium (S7-S9) and nearby
cities such as Wiesbaden, Mainz, Darmstadt, Rüsselsheim, Hanau, Offenbach am
Homburg, Kronberg and smaller towns that are on the
has seven lines serving the city centre
and some larger suburbs. The trains
that run on
the line are in fact lightrails
lines travel along a track in the middle of the street instead of
underground further from the city centre. There is only one line
(U4) that is completely underground. The minimum service interval
is 2.5 minutes, although the usual pattern is that each line runs
with a 7.5-10 minute frequency which combines to approx 3–5 minutes
on the city centre sections served by more than one line.
Frankfurt has 9 tram
lines, with trams arriving
usually every 10 minutes. Many sections are served by two lines,
combining to give a 5 minute frequency during rush-hour. The tram
runs only above ground and serve more stops than the U-Bahn or the
A number of bus
lines complete the Frankfurt public
transportation system. Night
take over the service of the U-Bahn and tram at 1:30 am to
3:30 am on Friday and Saturday nights.
can be found outside most S-Bahn or
U-Bahn stations and major intersections. The normal way to obtain a
taxi is to either call a taxi operator or go to a taxi rank.
However, although not the norm, one can hail one on the
Deutsche Bahn also rent out bicycles
public. One finds them at many major road intersections and railway
stations. All one has to do is make a phone call to hire them for
€0.06/min or they can be hired per day for €15,-. The bicycles are
a bit heavy but they do have shock
to ensure a smooth journey. The silver
colour of the bikes with
their unique frame make them easily visible and difficult to
The public can now use a velotaxi
involves the operator using a tricycle
a sheltered passenger cab. There is room for two people and the
service covers all of the city centre.
Frankfurt has also a network of modern cycle routes throughout
city. Many of the long distance bike routes into town have
dedicated cycle tracks. A number of city centre roads are "bicycle
streets" where the cyclist has the right of way and where motorised
vehicles are allowed access if they do not disrupt the cycle
Every first Sunday in the month there is a Critical Mass
cycle event which starts at 2 pm
at the Old Opera.
Economy and business
Frankfurt is one of the leading financial centres in Europe.
to an annual study (2007) by Cushman & Wakefield it is one of
the top three cities for international companies in Europe, along
with London and Paris.According to a ranking list (2001) produced
by the University of Liverpool, Frankfurt is the richest city in Europe by
GDP per capita.After Frankfurt are
Karlsruhe, Paris and Munich .
Mercer Human Resource Consulting Worldwide Quality of Living Survey
2007 ranked Frankfurt at the seventh position of the cities with
the highest quality of
worldwide. The only German city that did better was
Düsseldorf at number six .
Frankfurt is commonly known as the city of the banks
Germany. It is sometimes referred to as
Mainhattan (a portmanteau
of the local river Main and Manhattan in New York City) or nicknamed Bankfurt.
six of the ten major German banks had their headquarters in the
city, including the top three (Deutsche
, and DZ Bank
) . Other important banks are ING Diba
, BHF Bank
, Landesbank Hessen-Thüringen
and Frankfurter Sparkasse
. More than 300
national and international banks are represented here .
Central Bank (Europäische Zentralbank) is one of the
world's most important central banks, responsible for monetary
policy covering the 15 member countries of the Eurozone.Since its foundation in 1998 the
headquarters are located in downtown Frankfurt although plans have
now been made for a move to a landscaped area on the site of the
former wholesale market hall (Großmarkthalle) in the eastern part of the
(Deutsche Bundesbank) is an integral part of the European
System of Central Banks (ESCB).
It was established in
With the stock
) and XETRA
, which belong to Deutsche Börse
, Frankfurt has the second
largest stock exchange in Europe after the London Stock Exchange
. It is by far
the largest stock exchange in Germany with over 90 percent turnover
in the German market. In terms of market capitalization, Deutsche
Börse is the largest stock exchange in the world.
Fairs have a very long tradition in Frankfurt. They were first
mentioned in the 12th century. Today Frankfurt has the
third-largest exhibition site in the world. The Messe
corporation arranged 120 fairs in 40 countries in
2006. Hosted in Frankfurt are the Internationale
(the world's largest motor show), the
world's largest book fair), the Ambiente (the world's largest
consumer goods fair), the Achema (the world's largest plant
engineering fair) and many more like Paperworld, Christmasworld,
Beautyworld, Tendence Lifestyle or Light and Building.
Although it is best known for its banks, Frankfurt is also a centre
for media companies. There are around 570 companies of the advertising
industry and 270 public relations
companies.According to a
ranking of FOCUS
from November 2007 there are seven of the 48 largest
based in Frankfurt, including McCann-Erickson
, Saatchi & Saatchi
, and Publicis
. Topping the list is
Berlin with nine, followed by Hamburg with eight.After Frankfurt
comes Munich with six.Wiesbaden is also on the list with two .
Accountancy and professional services
The Big Four
, the four
largest international accountancy and professional services firms,
are all represented in Frankfurt.
Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu,
Ernst & Young, KPMG and PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC).
In October 2007, KPMG's member firms in the UK, Germany,
Switzerland and Liechtenstein merged to form KPMG Europe LLP, which
is now the largest accountancy and professional services firm in
Europe. The European headquarters will be situated in
Some of the largest international management consulting firms are
represented in Frankfurt, including Accenture
, McKinsey & Company
, Boston Consulting Group
, Booz & Company
, Oliver Wyman
, Bain & Company
and Roland Berger Strategy
Frankfurt is also an important location for the internet. It is
home to Germany's largest internet exchange point
, and is where domain names are registered for
the top-level-domain ".de
Frankfurt has the highest concentration of lawyers in Germany, with
one lawyer per 99 inhabitants. Most of the large international law firms maintain offices in Frankfurt, among
them Baker & McKenzie,
Chance, Cleary Gottlieb Steen &
Hamilton, Debevoise &
Plimpton, Jones Day, Mayer Brown, Norton
Rose, Shearman &
Sterling, and Taylor
Working in Frankfurt
With over 922 jobs per 1,000 inhabitants, Frankfurt has the highest
concentration of jobs in Germany. The high number of around 600,000
jobs with only 663,000 inhabitants of the city itself is explained
by the high number of commuters who work in the city, which raises
the per capita GDP of the resident population significantly. On
work days and Saturdays there are around one million people within
the city limits. On other days, the statistics regarding
Frankfurt's wealth are reduced, in favor of the communities and
towns of the so-called "Speckgürtel" (literally bacon
belt, meaning the suburban area), such as Bad Homburg, Königstein im Taunus, Kronberg im Taunus and Bad Soden am Taunus, many of whose inhabitants work in
Despite that, Frankfurt also had, as of 2003, the highest levels of
crime per 100,000 inhabitants in Germany. However, this statistic
is a result of the commuter population, for it is calculated based
on the 650,000-inhabitant figure, and also includes crimes
committed at the airport, such as smuggling. Frankfurt is actually
therefore a very safe city, corroborated by surveys among the
International Airport is the single largest place of work in
Frankfurt is home to chemical
businesses and call centers
. Business development and other
important departments of the Deutsche
are located at the DB-Headquarters in Gallus. Because of
, Frankfurt is considered the
"Apothecary of the World". Höchst's industrial park in Frankfurt is
one of the three largest locations for the chemical and
pharmaceutical industry in Europe. Frankfurt is also home to
several large German industrial associations, such as the Chemical
Industry Association; the Association for German Machine- and
Equipment-building; the Electrotechnical, Electronic, and Information Technology
V. with its affiliated electrotechnical standards commission; and
the Association of German Automobile Producers, which is currently
moving to Frankfurt. The Union of German Automobile Producers meets
in Frankfurt every two years to coincide with the International
Automobile Exhibition, mentioned above. Furthermore, the Trade
Association of German Booksellers has its headquarters in
Frankfurt, and organizes the Frankfurt Book Fair. In terms of
labour unions, Frankfurt is home to the headquarters of IG Metall
and IG Bau
, two of
Germany's largest labour unions.
Lufthansa maintains its base of operations, the Lufthansa
Aviation Center (LAC), by Frankfurt Airport.
Businesses with regional headquarters or based in and near
Property and real estate
Frankfurt has the highest concentration of home owners in Germany.
This is partly attributed to number of financial workers in the
city but also because of its cosmopolitan nature with a quarter of
the city's population being foreigners. For this reason Frankfurt's
property market often operates differently than the rest of the
country where the prices are generally much flatter than Frankfurt.
German property prices are pulled down nationally because of the
former East Germany, however, economically sound cities like
Frankfurt and other cities in the west of Germany, have a buoyant
housing market, which attracts a lot of buyers from the Far
Establishments and organization
Frankfurt is home of the German
National Library, the Hessian State Supreme Court, and the Hessian
State Employment Court, and has its own police academy.
fire department, founded in 1874, and the volunteer fire department
have eight fire stations. Until their dissolution at the end of
2003, Frankfurt was the location of the Federal Disciplinary
German office of the International Finance
Corporation, part of the World Bank
group, and the Committee of European Insurances and Occupational
Pensions Supervisors (Ceiops), the European insurance control, have
their headquarters in Frankfurt.
Frankfurt hosts 88 consulates
York and Hamburg have more foreign representation, excluding
Russia and China have recently opened general
consulates in Frankfurt. The Consulate
General of the United States in Frankfurt
in Eckenheim is the
largest American consulate in the world.
Two important daily newspapers are published in Frankfurt. The
was founded in 1949 and is the German
newspaper with the widest circulation abroad, with its editors
claiming to deliver the newspaper to 148 countries every day. The
has a circulation of over 380,000 copies daily. The
other important newspaper, the Frankfurter Rundschau
, was first
published in 1945 and has a daily circulation of over 181,000
Frankfurt is also home to the German headquarters of Reuters
, one of the world's most important news
Several magazines also originate from Frankfurt. The Journal Frankfurt
is the best-known
magazine for events, parties, and "insider tips". An "ecological
materials for the Green
of Germany in Bockenheim. Bockenheim is known for the quiz
magazine of the same name, and is home to the editorial office of
the satire magazine, Titanic
Frankfurt's first radio station was the Südwestdeutsche
Rundfunkdienst AG (Southwest German Radio Service), founded in
1924. Its successor service is the public
broadcaster Hessischer Rundfunk (Hessian Broadcast).
Its "Funkhaus am
Dornbusch" station is one of the most important radio
broadcasters. There is also the
that broadcasts from individual
senders via a high-service network. Bloomberg TV
have regional studios on the Neuen Mainzer
, downtown. Other broadcasters in Frankfurt include
and Radio X
largest private radio station in the region FFH, is located nearby
Since August 1945, the American
had broadcasted from Frankfurt. Due to troop
reductions, the AFN's Frankfurt location has been abandoned.
October 2004, the AFN has broadcast its European programs from
Education and research
In Frankfurt am Main, there are two universities and several
Johann Wolfgang Goethe University
oldest and most well-known university in the city is the Johann
Wolfgang Goethe University, with locations in Bockenheim, Westend, and
Riedberg, and the university hospital in Niederrad.
Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences
Frankfurt University of Applied
Sciences (Fachhochschule Frankfurt am Main) was created
out of several older organizations in 1971, and offers over 38
study areas, in the arts, sciences, engineering and law.
of the most important research projects: Planet Earth Simulator,
analysis of methan in human corpses with the help of a mass
spectrometer, Softwareengeneering (e.g. fraDesk
), analysis of qualitative and quantitative
gas in human lungs, long-term studies on photovoltaicmodules (only
to name a few).
Frankfurt School of Finance & Management
Alongside the university is the banking
academy Frankfurt School of Finance &
Management, formerly known as the (Institution of Higher
Learning for Banking Economics), with its campus in the Ostend
Since 2001, it has been a specialist
institution for the teaching Economics and Management, or
Städelschule and Conservatories
Frankfurt has the State Institution of
Higher Learning for Artistic Education known as the Städelschule, founded in 1817 by Johann Friedrich Städel, that was taken over by the city in 1942 and turned
into a state art school.
Other music institutions are the
University of Music and Performing Arts
, and the Dr. Hoch's Konservatorium
founded in 1878.
Other notable schools
Until September 2003, Frankfurt was also home to a school for
library science and administration.
Philosophical-Theological Institution of Saint George (Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule
Sankt Georgen, a private institution with membership in the
German Jesuit Association, has been located in Sachsenhausen since 1950.
is also home of three Max Planck
Society institutes: the Max Planck Institute for European
History of Law (MPIeR), Max
Planck Institute for Biophysics, and the Max
Planck Institute for Brain Research.
Frankfurt Institute for Advanced
Studies, sponsored by several institutional and private
sources, is involved in theoretical research in physics, chemistry,
neuroscience, and computer science.
Frankfurt is host to the
Römisch-Germanische-Kommission (RGK), the German
Archaeological Institute branch for prehistoric
archaeology in Germany and Europe.
The RGK is involved in
a variety of research projects. Its library, with over 130,000
volumes, is one of the largest specialised archaeological libraries
in the world.
Education and media
Over the past years the city of Frankfurt has been increasingly
investing into the IT-infrastructure of its schools. As a result,
schools in Frankfurt now rank among the best equipped schools
nationwide as far as availability of PCs and other media facilities
are concerned. In order to assure maintenance and support of the
school PCs, the city of Frankfurt in cooperation with the
University of Applied Sciences has launched the project Fraline
- IT-Schul-Service, an initiative employing
students to provide basic school IT-support.
Frankfurt hosts the following sports teams or clubs:
Frankfurt used to host these former teams or clubs:
Frankfurt is host to the classic
race Rund um den
. The city hosts also the annual Frankfurt Marathon
Twin towns — Sister cities
with, or has sister city
File:Frankfurt am Main - Skyline.jpg|
The financial district at night
File:Westendstrasse 1 from
Maintower.JPG|Westendtower, also known as "crown
File:Frankfurt am Main Friedensbrücke Westhafen.JPG|
View from the Main riverbank
File:Luftbild Ffm 2005-08-11.jpg|
Commerzbank-Arena in the city forest
Twin towers of Deutsche
File:Frankfurt Goethehaus jhl.jpg|
Frankfurt Book Fair
Kaiserstrasse, view from Frankfurt Central
File:Alteoper in Frankfurt.gif|
The old opera house
- Goitein, S.D. A Mediterranean Soceity: The Jewish
Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the
Cairo Geniza, Vol. I - Economic Foundations. University of
California Press, 2000, p. 5
- Nick Swift: European cities outperform their English
counterparts. citymayors.com (Zugriff am 1. November
- Highlights from the 2007 Quality of Livings – Mercer
Human Resource Consulting
- The Top 100 German banks 2006
- Wirtschaft in Frankfurt am Main
- FOCUS: Die größten Werbeagenturen
- " How to get there." Lufthansa. Retrieved on 30 July 2009.
- Frankfurt — City Guide, Kraichgau Verlag (ISBN
St. Bartholomeus' Cathedral
Roemer, the town hall at
St. Paul's Church
Alte Oper, the old opera house,
now a concert hall
St. Katherine's Church and