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Frederick William Gaisberg (1 January 1873 – 2 September 1951) was an American-born musician, recording engineer and one of the earliest classical music producers for the gramophone. He himself did not use the term 'producer' and was not an impresario like his protégé Walter Legge of EMI or an innovator like John Culshaw of Decca. Gaisberg's genius was in talent spotting and persuading performers to make recordings for the newly-invented gramophone.

Gaisberg began working in the recording industry in America as a young man, becoming a pioneer of early recording, and also worked as piano accompanist. In 1898, he join the Gramophone Company in England as its first recording engineer. In 1902, he recorded music sung by the tenor Enrico Caruso for Victor, and the recordings became a sensation. By 1921, Gaisberg was artistic director of HMV's international artistes department. After 1925, he concentrated on artist management. In 1939, he retired from his position but continued as a consultant in the industry through the 1940s.


Early years

Gaisberg was born in Washington, DCmarker. His father, Wilhelm, was the son of German immigrants. Gaisberg was educated in Washington and was a chorister at St. John's Episcopal Churchmarker.

A musically talented youngster, he encountered the fledgling recording technology in the early 1890s and got a job working for the 'Graphophone' [sic] company in America. Sound quality and short playing time, however, meant that recordings were more an amusing novelty than a serious means of reproducing music. In this decade the first of the recording industry's format wars was taking place, with the original cylinder recordings gradually being ousted by the superior and more convenient flat disc. Gaisberg played an important part in this, helping to establish 78 revolutions per minute as the standard playing speed and shellac as the standard material for making discs.

The Gramophone Company and HMV

In 1898 the Gramophone Company was formed in London. Gaisberg, by then working as piano accompanist and recording supervisor for Emile Berliner, left New York for London to join the Gramophone Company as its first recording engineer. He landed in Liverpoolmarker with recording outfit, a $25 bicycle and introductions and instructions from Berliner. Among his first recordings in London were several sung by Syria Lamonte, an Australian singer working at Rules Restaurant in Maiden Lane.

Gaisberg was the first person to record the tenor Enrico Caruso, in Milanmarker on April 11, 1902. The voice recorded well even on the primitive equipment of the time, and the entire enterprise paid off financially as well as artistically. Caruso's recordings were released in 1903 on the premium-price Victor 'Red Seal' label, the first recordings to feature Nipper, the 'His Master's Voice' dog, listening to the acoustic horn of a gramophone. Caruso's Victor recordings sold prodigiously and turned him into an international star. Caruso himself said, 'My Victor records will be my biography'. Gaisberg's subsequent signings for the label included Fyodor Chaliapin, Beniamino Gigli, Nellie Melba, John McCormack and Fritz Kreisler. Gaisberg was the only record producer to record a castrato singer, and he was the first to produce recordings in India and Japan. He produced India's first gramophone recordings with Gauhar Jaan singing a khayal recorded on 2 November 1902 in a makeshift studio in two rooms of a hotel in Calcuttamarker. In Japan, he recorded more than 270 titles in one month of 1903.

Unlike his successors Legge and Culshaw, Gaisberg did not generally regard it as part of his function to influence the way performers performed. He found the best artists he could, signed them up and faithfully captured their performance on disc in the best possible sound. He told a colleague that he saw his task simply as one of making as many sound photographs or gramophone disc sides as possible during each recording session.

Later years

In 1921 Gaisberg became HMV's artistic director in the newly formed international artistes department. After the introduction of electrical recording in 1925, he delegated the role of producer and concentrated on artist and repertoire management. He remained artistic director after the HMV and Columbia merged in 1931 as Electric and Musical Industries (EMI). The recordings made under his supervision include Elgar's series of records of his symphonies, concertos and other major works. With Bernard Shaw, the BBC and others Gaisberg was partly responsible for persuading Elgar to write a third symphony, though in the end the composer died leaving the sketches incomplete. (They were successfully "elaborated" into symphonic shape by the composer Anthony Payne four decades later.)

Gaisberg refused offers of a directorship of HMV, preferring to remain a link between the artists and the company. At the age of sixty-six, in 1939, Gaisberg retired; he remained a consultant to EMI and continued to have an important influence on the recording industry. In the late 1940s he argued in favour of long-play and stereophonic recording, both of which were introduced after his death.

A banquet was given at the Savoy Hotelmarker to mark his retirement. It was attended by musicians as diverse as Sir Thomas Beecham, Gracie Fields, Richard Tauber and Arthur Rubinstein.

Gaisberg retained his American citizenship to the end, and was a life-long bachelor. He died at his home in Hampstead in 1951 at age 78 and was buried in Hampstead Cemeterymarker in West Hampsteadmarker.


  1. Martland, Peter. "Gaisberg, Frederick William (1873–1951)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 29 June 2007
  2. The Times obituary notice, 13 September 1951, p. 6


  • Gaisberg, Frederick W.: The Music Goes Round [Andrew Farkas, editor.] New Haven, Ayer, 1977.
  • Lipman, Samuel,The House of Music: Art in an Era of Institutions, 1984. See the chapter on "Getting on Record", pp.62-75, about the early record industry and Fred Gaisberg and Walter Legge and FFRR (Full Frequency Range Recording).

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