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Frederick V ( ) (August 26, 1596 – November 29, 1632) was Elector Palatine (1610–23), and, as Frederick I ( ), King of Bohemia (1619–20, for his short reign here often nicknamed the Winter King, Czech: Zimní král). He was the son and heir of Frederick IV and of Louise Juliana of Nassau, the daughter of William I of Orange and Charlotte de Bourbon-Monpensier.

Life

Frederick was born at the (a hunting lodge) near Ambergmarker in the Upper Palatinatemarker. He – an intellectual, a mystic, and a Calvinist – succeeded his father as Prince-Elector of the Rhenish Palatinate in 1610.

In 1618 the Protestant estates of Bohemia rebelled against the Roman Catholic King Ferdinand II and offered the crown of Bohemia to Frederick, choosing him since he was the leader of the Protestant Union, a military alliance founded by his father. Frederick duly accepted the crown (coronation on November 4 1619), which triggered the outbreak of the Thirty Years War,

Frederick's father-in-law, James I of England, opposed the takeover of Bohemia from the Habsburgs. Additionally, Frederick's allies in the Protestant Union failed to support him militarily by signing the Treaty of Ulm . His brief reign as King of Bohemia ended with his defeat at the Battle of White Mountainmarker on November 8, 1620 – a year and four days after his coronation. This earned him the derisive nickname of 'the Winter King'. After this battle, the Imperial forces invaded Frederick's Palatinate lands and he had flee to Hollandmarker in 1622. An Imperial edict formally deprived him of the Palatinate in 1623. He lived the rest of his life in exile with his wife and family, mostly at the Haguemarker, and died in Mainzmarker in 1632.

His eldest surviving son Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine returned to power in 1648 with the end of the war. His daughter Princess Sophia was eventually named heiress presumptive to the British throne, and was the founder of the Hanoverian line of kings.

Ancestry



Family and children

He married Elizabeth Stuart, the daughter of James I of England and of Anne of Denmark in the Chapel Royal, Whitehallmarker on February 14 1613 and had the following children:

  1. Frederick Henry (1614–1629)—(drowned)
  2. Charles Louis (1617–1680), became Elector Palatine in 1648
  3. Elisabeth (1618–1680)
  4. Rupert (1619–1682) of English Civil War fame.
  5. Maurice (1620–1652) who also served in the English Civil War.
  6. Louise (1622–1709)
  7. Louis (1624–1625)
  8. Edward (1625–1663)
  9. Henrietta Maria (1626–1651)
  10. John Philip Frederick (1627–1650)
  11. Charlotte (1628–1631)
  12. Sophia (1630–1714), married Elector Ernest Augustus of Hanover; heiress of Englandmarker by the Act of Settlement, 1701
  13. Gustavus Adolphus (1632–1641)


References



External links




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