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The French Foreign Legion ( ) is a unique unit in the French Army, established in 1831. The legion was specifically created for foreign nationals wishing to serve in the French Armed Forces, but commanded by French officers. However, it is also open to Frenchmarker citizens, who amounted to 24% of the recruits as of 2007 .

The Legion is today known as an elite military unit whose training focuses not only on traditional military skills but also on its strong esprit de corps. As its men come from different countries with different cultures, this is a widely accepted solution to strengthen them enough to work as a team. Consequently, training is often described as not only physically challenging, but also extremely psychologically stressful.

Officially, there has been only one woman member, Englishwomanmarker Susan Travers

History

The French Foreign Legion was created by Louis Philippe, then King of the French, on 10 March 1831. The direct reason was that foreigners were forbidden to serve in the French Army after the 1830 July Revolution and so the Legion was created to allow France a way around this restriction. The purpose of the Legion was to remove disruptive elements from society and put them to use fighting the enemies of France. Recruits included failed revolutionaries from the rest of Europe, soldiers from the disbanded foreign regiments, and troublemakers in general, both foreign and French. Algeriamarker was designated as the Legion's home. As the colony was proving to be a very unpopular posting with regular regiments in the French Army, the introduction of the Legion was well received.

In late 1831, the first Legionnaires landed in Algeria, the country that would be the Legion's homeland for 130 years and shape its character. The early years in Algeria were hard for Legionnaires because they were often sent to the worst postings, received the worst assignments and were generally uninterested in the new colony of the French. The Legion's first service in Algeria came to an end after only four years, since it was needed elsewhere.

The Legion was primarily used to protect and expand the French colonial empire during the 19th century, but it also fought in almost all French wars including the Franco-Prussian War and both World Wars. The Foreign Legion has remained an important part of the French Army, surviving three Republics, one empire, two World Wars, the rise and fall of mass conscript armies, the dismantling of the French colonial empire and the French loss of the legion's homeland, Algeriamarker.

Spain

To support Isabella's claim to the Spanish throne against her uncle, the French government decided to send the Legion to Spainmarker. On 28 June 1835, the unit was handed over to the Spanish government. The Legion landed at Tarragonamarker on 17 August with around 4,000 men who were quickly dubbed Los Argelinos (the Algerians) by locals because of their previous posting.

The Legion's commander immediately dissolved the national battalions to improve the esprit de corps. Later, he also created three squadrons of lancers and an artillery battery from the existing force to increase independence and flexibility. The Legion was dissolved on 8 December 1838, when it had dropped to only 500 men. The survivors returned to France, many reenlisting in the new Legion along with many of their former Carlist enemies.

Mexico

It was in Mexicomarker on 30 April 1863 that the Legion earned its legendary status. A company led by Capitaine Danjou, numbering 62 soldiers and 3 officers, was escorting a convoy to the besieged city of Puebla when it was attacked and besieged by two thousand revolutionaries, organised in three battalions of infantry and cavalry, numbering 1,200 and 800 respectively. The patrol was forced to make a defence in Hacienda Camarón, and despite the hopelessness of the situation, fought nearly to the last man. When only six survivors remained, out of ammunition, a bayonet charge was conducted in which three of the six were killed. The remaining three were brought before the Mexican general, who allowed them to return to France as an honour guard for the body of Capitaine Danjou. The captain had a wooden hand which was stolen during the battle; it was later returned to the Legion and is now kept in a case in the Foreign Legion museum at Aubagne, and paraded annually on Camerone Day. It is the Legion's most precious relic.

Franco-Prussian War

According to French law, the Legion was not to be used within Metropolitan France except in the case of a national invasion, and was consequently not a part of Napoleon III’s Imperial Army that capitulated at Sedanmarker. With the defeat of the Imperial Army, the Second French Empire fell and the Third Republic was created.
Monument commemorating the soldiers of the Foreign Legion killed on duty during the South-oranais campaign (1897-1902).
The new Third Republic was desperately short of trained soldiers in the Franco-Prussian War, so the Legion was ordered to provide a contingent. On 11 October 1870 two provisional battalions disembarked at Toulonmarker, the first time the Legion had been deployed in France itself. They attempted to lift the Siege of Paris by breaking through the German lines. They succeeded in re-taking Orléans, but failed to break the siege.

19th century colonial warfare

During the Third Republic, the Legion played a major role in French colonial expansion. They fought in North Africa (where they established their headquarters at Sidi Bel Abbèsmarker in Algeriamarker), Beninmarker, Madagascarmarker, Indochina and Taiwanmarker.

Tonkin campaign and Sino-French War

Soldier of the Foreign Legion at Keelung, January 1885
The Legion's 1st Battalion (Lieutenant-Colonel Donnier) was sent to Tonkin in the autumn of 1883, during the period of undeclared hostilities that preceded the Sino-French War (August 1884 to April 1885), and formed part of the attack column that stormed the western gate of Son Tay on 16 December. The 2nd and 3rd infantry battalions (chef de bataillon Diguet and Lieutenant-Colonel Schoeffer) were also deployed to Tonkin shortly afterwards, and were present in all the major campaigns of the Sino-French War. Two Legion companies led the defence at the celebrated Siege of Tuyen Quang (24 November 1884 to 3 March 1885). In January 1885 the Legion's 4th Battalion (chef de bataillon Vitalis) was deployed to the French bridgehead at Keelung (Jilong) in Formosa (Taiwan), where it took part in the later battles of the Keelung Campaign. The battalion played an important role in Colonel Jacques Duchesne's offensive in March 1885 that captured the key Chinese positions of La Table and Fort Bamboo and disengaged Keelung.

In December 1883, during a review of the 2nd Legion Battalion on the eve of its departure for Tonkin to take part in the Bac Ninh campaign, General François de Négrier pronounced a famous mot: Vous, légionnaires, vous êtes soldats pour mourir, et je vous envoie où l’on meurt! ('Legionnaires, you became soldiers in order to die, and I'm taking you to a place where you can die!')

World War I

In World War I, the Legion fought in many critical battles of the war, on the Western Front including Artois, Champagne, Somme, Aisne, Verdunmarker (in 1917) and also suffered heavy casualties during 1918. The Legion was also in the Dardanelles and Macedonian front, and the Legion was highly decorated for its efforts. Many young foreigners, including Americans like Fred Zinn, volunteered for the Legion when the war broke out in 1914. There were marked differences between such idealistic volunteers as the poet Alan Seeger and the hardened mercenaries of the old Legion, making assimilation difficult. Nevertheless, the old and the new men of the Legion fought and died in vicious battles on the Western front, including Belloy-en-Santerremarker during the Battle of the Somme, where Seeger, after being mortally wounded by machine gun fire, cheered on the rest of his advancing battalion.

As most European countries and the US were drawn into the War, many of the newer "duration only" volunteers who managed to survive the first years of the war were generally released from the Legion to join their respective national armies. Citizens of the Central Powers serving with the Legion on the outbreak of war were normally posted to garrisons in North Africa to avoid problems of divided loyalties.

Between the World Wars

In 1932, the Legion comprised 30,000 men in 6 multi-battalion regiments:
  • 1st - Algeria and Syria
  • 2d, 3d, and 4th - Morocco
  • 5th - Indochina
  • 1st Cavalry - Tunisia and Morocco.


World War II

The Foreign Legion played a smaller role in World War II, though having a part in the Norwegian, Syrian and North African campaigns. The 13th Demi-Brigade was deployed in the Battle of Bir Hakeimmarker. Reflecting the divided loyalties of the time, part of the Legion joined the Free French movement while another part served the Vichy government. A battle in the Syria-Lebanon campaign of June 1941 saw legionnaire fighting legionnaire as the 13th Demi-Brigade (D.B.L.E.) clashed with the 6th Regiment Etranger d'Infanterie at Damas in Syria. Later, 1,000 of the rank and file of the Vichy Legion unit joined the 13th D.B.L.E. of the Free French forces as a third battalion. Following the war, many former German soldiers joined the Legion to pursue a military career with an elite unit, an option that was no longer possible in Germany. Germans still constitute a strong presence in the Legion.

First Indochina War

A legionnaire marches ahead of a tank in Indochina in 1954


Units of the Legion were involved in the defense of Dien Bien Phumarker during the First Indochina War and lost a large number of men in the battle. Towards the end of the battle, Legionnaires formed the bulk of the volunteer relief force delivered by parachute to the base.

Algerian War

The Legion was heavily engaged in fighting against the National Liberation Front and other, smaller groups in the Algerian War of Independence from 1954 to 1962. Notable operations included the Battle of Algiers and various offensives launched by General Maurice Challe including Operations Oranie and Jumelles.

Post-colonial Africa

A Foreign Legion soldier with a captured rebel, Ivory Coast, 10 August 2004.
In spite of the view on the part of some that the Legion had by 1962 become an anachronism, the Legion found a new role as a rapid intervention force to preserve French interests not only in its former African colonies but in other nations as well. Some notable operations include: the Suez Crisis in 1956; the Chadian-Libyan conflict in 1969-72, 1978-79, and 1983-87; Kolwezimarker in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congomarker in May 1978; Rwandamarker in 1990-94; and the Côte d'Ivoiremarker (the Ivory Coast) in 2002 to the present.

Gulf War

In September 1990, the 2e REI, 6e REG and 1e REC were sent to the Persian Gulfmarker as a part of Opération Daguet. They were a part of the French 6th Light Armoured Division, whose mission was to protect the coalition's left flank. After a four-week air campaign, coalition forces launched the ground campaign. It quickly penetrated deep into Iraqmarker, with the Legion taking the Al Salman airport, meeting little resistance. The war ended after a hundred hours of fighting on the ground, which resulted in very light casualties for the Legion.

Membership

While most of the Legion's commissioned officers are French, approximately 10% of them are former Legionnaires who have risen through the ranks. Though open to people of any nationality, most Legionnaires still come from European countries. Membership of the Legion is a useful guide to political history: specific national representations generally surge whenever a country has a political crisis, and tend to subside once the crisis is over and the flow of recruits dries up. After the First World War, many (Tsarist) Russians joined.

Immediately before the Second World War, Czechs, Poles and Jews from Eastern Europe fled to France and ended up enlisting in the Legion. After World War Two, the German presence was particularly strong. Following the break-up of Yugoslavia, there were many Serbian nationals. Also in the 1990s, the collapse of the Soviet Unionmarker, and the changes in the former Warsaw Pact countries, led to an increase in recruitment from Poland and from the former republics of the USSR. Recent years have seen an increasing number of recruits from African and Balkan countries.

However, in addition to the fluctuating numbers of political refugees, asylum seekers and economic migrants from a wide variety of nations, there has been, since the end of World War Two, a strong core from two nations in particular, Germany and Britain. The Legion appears to have become as much a part of these two nations' culture as a French institution, and a certain stability in recruitment levels has developed; it does not follow the general 'yo-yo' trend so closely.

After the fall of the Third Reich, Germans, long a major presence in the legion, are believed to have accounted for roughly sixty percent of its manpower. . After the war, the French administered two zones of Western Germany adjacent to France. In these zones, recruitment offices enabled many former German POWs to join the legion almost immediately after their release from prison camps. However, Bernard B. Fall, a leading expert on French Indochina and the author of the famous accounts Street without Joy and Hell in a Very Small Place, disputes this figure and claims that Germans made up thirty-five percent of the Legion at most in the post-WWII period. Nevertheless, the image of a German-dominated postwar Foreign Legion is the setting for the well-known novel Devil's Guard, which narrates a former Waffen-SS member's brutal experience of joining the Legion and fighting alongside other former SS against the Viet Minh in Indochina.

During the late 1980s, the Legion saw a large intake of trained soldiers from the UK. These men had left the British Army following its restructuring and the Legion's parachute unit was a popular destination. At one point, the famous 2eme REP had such a large number of British citizens amongst the ranks that it was a standing joke that the unit was really called '2eme PARA', a reference to the 2nd Battalion, the Parachute Regiment of the British Army.

While no serious studies have been made of the motives for enlistment over the years, the majority in the Legion's ranks were either those transient souls in need of escape and a regular wage, or refugees from countries undergoing crises. In recent years, however, the improved conditions and professionalism of the Legion have in turn attracted a new kind of 'vocational' recruit, from middle-class backgrounds in stable and prosperous countries, such as the US, Britain and France itself.

In the past, the Legion had a reputation for attracting criminals on the run and would-be mercenaries, but in recent years the admissions have been severely restricted and background checks are performed on all applicants. Generally speaking, convicted felons are prohibited from joining the service. Legionnaires can choose to enlist under a pseudonym ("declared identity"). This disposition exists in order to allow people who want to start their lives over to enlist. French citizens can enlist under a declared, fictitious, foreign citizenship (generally, a francophone one, often that of Canada or Monaco). After one year's service, Legionnaires can regularise their situation under their true identity. After serving in the Legion for three years, a legionnaire may apply for French citizenship. He must be serving under his real name, must no longer have problems with the authorities, and must have served with “honour and fidelity” for at least three years. French nationality cannot be granted under a declared identity. Furthermore, a soldier who becomes injured during a battle for France can apply for French citizenship under a provision known as “Français par le sang versé” ("French by spilled blood").

Ranks

Soldats du rang

All French Foreign Legion NCOs begin their careers as legionnaires with one in four becoming an NCO. Sous-officiers account for 25% of the current legion's total manpower.

  • Engagé Volontaire - 15 weeks basic training
  • Legionnaire 2e Classe (2nd Class Legionnaire) - on completion of training
  • Legionnaire 1e Classe (1st Class Legionnaire) - within 2 years of service
  • Caporal (Corporal) - after 2 years of service
  • Caporal Chef (Senior Corporal) - with 6 years of service


Sous-Officiers

  • Sergent (Sergeant) - after 3 years of service
  • Sergent Chef (Senior Sergeant) - after 3 years in rank of Sergeant and 7 to 14 years of service
  • Adjudant (Warrant Officer) - after 3 years in rank of Senior Sergeant
  • Adjudant Chef (Senior Warrant Officer) - 4 years as Adjutant with at least 14 years service
  • Major - either passing an examination or being appointed without the examination after 14 years service.
Major is the French military rank equivalent of a Regimental Sergeant Major. Since January 1, 2009 this grade has been attached to the Sous-officiers. Prior to this, Major was an independent rank between NCOs and commissioned officers. It is an executive position within a regiment or brigade responsible for senior administration, standards and discipline.

Officiers (Officers)

Most officers are seconded from the French Army, though roughly 10% of officers are former NCOs promoted from the ranks of La Légion.

Code of Honour

Every Legionnaire must know by heart the "Legionnaire's Code of Honour". The Legionnaires spend many hours learning it, reciting it, and then getting the vocal synchronisation together:
  • Légionnaire, you are a volunteer serving France with "Honour and Fidelity".
  • Every legionnaire is your brother-in-arms, regardless of his nationality, race, or religion. You will demonstrate this by strict solidarity which must always unite members of the same family.
  • Respect of traditions, devotion to your leaders, discipline and comradeship are your strengths, courage and loyalty your virtues.
  • Proud of your status as Legionnaire, you display this in your uniform, which is always impeccable, your behaviour always dignified but modest, your living quarters always clean.
  • An elite soldier, you will train rigorously, you will maintain your weapon as your most precious possession, you are constantly concerned with your physical form.
  • A mission is sacred, you will carry it out until the end respecting laws, customs of war, international conventions and, if necessary, at a risk of your life.
  • In combat, you will act without passion and without hate, you will respect the vanquished enemy, you will never abandon your dead or wounded, nor surrender your arms.


Composition

Previously, the Légion was not stationed in mainland France except in wartime. Until 1962, the Legion headquarters were located in Sidi Bel Abbèsmarker, Algeriamarker. Nowadays, some units of the Légion are in Corsicamarker or overseas possessions, while the rest are in the south of mainland France. Current headquarters are in Aubagnemarker, Francemarker, just outside Marseillemarker.

Legionnaires of the 2REI during training.
France, 2006


Legionnaires parachute from a plane while training in Corsica.


There are nine regiments and one independent sub-unit:

Disbanded unit and attempted coup

The 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment (1e Régiment Étranger Parachutiste, 1e REP) was established in 1955 during the Algerian War and disbanded in April 1961 as the entire regiment rose against the French government of Charles de Gaulle (Algiers Putsch), in protest against moves to negotiate an end to the Algerian War.

Following Algerian Independence in 1962, the Legion was reduced in numbers but not disbanded like most other units comprising the Armée d’Afrique: Zouaves, Tirailleurs, Meharistes, Harkis, Goums, Chasseurs d'Afrique and all but one of the Spahi regiments). The intention seems to have been to retain the Foreign Legion as a professional force which could be used for military interventions outside France and not involve the politically unpopular use of French conscripts. The subsequent abolition of conscription in France in 2001 and the creation of an entirely professional army might be expected to put the Legion's long-term future at risk, and indeed when Paris contributed a 2,000-strong contingent to the U.N. force in Lebanon in 2006, it included only 200 Legion engineers.

Current deployments

Paratroopers of the 2REP in Djibouti.
These deployments are current as of December 2008:



Note: English names for countries or territories are in parentheses.

Units
Acronym French Name English Meaning
CEA Compagnie d'éclairage et d'appuis Reconnaissance and Support Company
CAC Compagnie anti-char Anti-Tank Company
UCL Unité de commandement et de logistique Unit of Command and Logistics
EMT État-major tactique Tactical Command Post
NEDEX Neutralisation des explosifs Neutralisation and Destruction of Explosives
OMLT Operational Monitoring and Liaison Team (The official name for this branch is in English)


Recruitment process

  • First Day - In a legion Information Center for Reception, Information, and Terms of contract


  • Preselection - 1 to 3 days in a legion Recruitment Center (Paris - Aubagne) for confirmation of motivation, initial medical check-up , finalizing enlistment papers, and signing 5-year service contract


  • Selection - 1 to 10 days In the Recruitment and Selection Center in Aubagne for Psychological tests, personality tests (complementary to the psychological tests), logic tests (without minimum education requirements), medical exam and physical condition tests, motivation and security interviews, and confirmation or denial of selection.


  • Final Selection - 7 days: signing and handing-over of the five-year service contract and Incorporation into the Legion as a trainee.


Legion basic training

Basic training is conducted in the 4th Foreign Regiment with a duration of 15 weeks:
  • Initial training of 4 weeks - initiation to military lifestyle; outdoor and field activities; learning legion traditions.


  • March "Képi Blanc" and graduation ceremony - 1 week.
  • Technical and practical training (alternating with barracks and field training) - 3 weeks.
  • Mountain training (Chalet at Formiguière in the French Pyreneesmarker) - 1 week.
  • Technical and practical training (alternating barracks and field training) - 2 weeks.
  • Examinations and obtaining of the elementary technical certificate (CTE) - 1 week.
  • March ending basic training - 1 week.
  • Light vehicle / trucks school - 1 week.
  • Return to Aubagne before reporting to the assigned regiment - 1 week.


Recruitment chart

The following is a chart showing the national origin of the more than 600,000 Legionaries of the force from 1831 to 1961, which was compiled in 1963. It should be noted that, at a given moment, principal original nationalities of the foreign legion reflect the events in history at the time they join. The legion allows men to escape from the worries of war, especially if their native country has lost. The large numbers of Germans joining in the wake of WWII led to the misconception that the Legion was full of former Waffen SS and Wehrmacht personnel. It is not surprising to see that a large number of German enlistments in the period following WWII, but the figures do not show whether or not the post-WWI period had a similar boost. Bernard B. Fall, writing in the context of the First Indochina War, has called the notion that the Foreign Legion was mainly German at that time:
"a canard . . . with the sub variant that all those Germans were at least SS generals and other much wanted war criminals. As a rule, and in order to prevent any particular nation from making the Legion into a Praetorian guard, any particular national component is kept at about 25 percent of the total. Even supposing (and this was the case, of course) that the French recruiters, in the eagerness for candidates would sign up Germans enlisting as Swiss, Austrian, Scandinavian and other nationalities of related ethnic background, it is unlikely that the number of Germans in the Foreign Legion ever exceeded 35 percent. Thus, without making an allowance for losses, rotation, discharges, etc., the maximum number of Germans fighting in Indochina at any one time reached perhaps 7 000 out of 278 000. As to the ex-Nazis, the early arrivals contained a number of them, none of whom were known to be war criminals. French Intelligence saw to that.


Since, in view of the rugged Indochinese climate, older men without previous tropical experience constituted more a liability than an asset, the average age of the Legion enlistees was about 23. At the time of the battle of Dien Bien Phu, any Legionnaire of that age group was at the worst, in his "Hitler Youth" shorts when the [Third] Reich collapsed.

When looking at the overall recruitment chart, one must keep in mind that the Legion accepts people enlisting under a nationality that is not their own. The large number of Swiss and Belgians are actually more likely than not Frenchmen who wish to avoid detection.

Rank Country of origin Total numbers
1 210,000
2 60,000
3 50,000
4 50,000
5 40,000
6 30,000
7 10,000
8 6,000
9 5,000
10 4,000
11 4,000
12 4,000
13 3,000
14 3,000
15 2,300
16 1,500
17 1,500
18 1,300
19 1,000
20 1,000
21 700
22 500
23 500
24 500
25 500
26 200
27 200
28 200
29 100
30 100
31 100
32 100
33 100
34 100
35 100
36 100
Regarding recruitment conditions within the Foreign Legion, please see the official page (in English) dedicated to the subject: [1426]. However, with regard to age limits, recruits can be accepted from ages ranging from 17 ½ (with parental consent) to 40 years old.

Uniforms



White kepi of the French Foreign Legion.




From its foundation until World War I the Legion wore the uniform of the French line infantry for parade with a few special distinctions. The field uniform was often modified under the influence of the extremes of climate and terrain in which the Legion served. Shakos were soon replaced by the light cloth kepi which was far more suitable for North African conditions. One short lived aberration was the wearing of green uniforms in 1856 by Legion units recruited in Switzerland for service in the Crimean War.

In the early 1900s the Legionnaire wore a red kepi with blue band and piping, dark blue tunic with red collar, red cuff patches, and red trousers. The most distinctive features were the green epaulettes (replacing the red of the line) worn with red woolen fringes; plus the embroidered Legion badge of a red flaming grenade, worn on the kepi front instead of a regimental number. In the field a light khaki cover was worn over the kepi, sometimes with a protective neck curtain attached. The standard medium-blue double breasted greatcoat (capote) of the French infantry was worn, usually buttoned back to free the legs for marching. Around the waist was a broad blue sash, copied from that of the Zouaves. The blue sash provided warmth and support as well as (supposedly) preventing intestine diseases. White linen trousers tucked into short leather leggings were substituted for red serge in hot weather. This was the origin of the "Beau Geste" image of the Legion.

In barracks a white bleached kepi cover was often worn together with a short dark blue jacket ("veste") or white blouse plus white trousers. The original kepi cover was khaki and due to constant washing turned white quickly. The white or khaki kepi cover was not unique to the Legion at this stage but was commonly seen amongst other French units in North Africa. It later became particularly identified with the Foreign Legion as the unit most likely to serve at remote frontier posts (other than locally recruited tirailleurs who wore fezzes or turbans). The variances of climate in North Africa led the French Army to the sensible expedient of letting local commanders decide on the appropriate "tenue de jour" (uniform of the day) according to circumstances. Thus a Legionnaire might parade or walk out in blue tunic and white trousers in hot weather, blue tunic and red trousers in normal temperatures or wear the blue greatcoat with red trousers under colder conditions. The sash could be worn with greatcoat, blouse or veste but not with the tunic. Epaulettes were a detachable dress item worn only with tunic or greatcoat for parade or off duty wear.

Officers wore the same dark blue (almost black) tunics as those of their colleagues in the French line regiments, except that black replaced red as a facing colour on collar and cuffs. Gold fringed epaulettes were worn for full dress and rank was shown by the number of gold rings on both kepi and cuffs. Trousers were red with black stripes or white according to occasion or conditions. All-white or light khaki uniforms (from as early as the 1890s) were often worn in the field or for ordinary duties in barracks. Non-commissioned officers were distinguished by red or gold diagonal stripes on the cuffs of tunics, vestes and greatcoats. Small detachable stripes were buttoned on to the white shirt-like blouse.

Prior to 1914 units in Indo-China wore white or khaki Colonial Infantry uniforms with Legion insignia, to overcome supply difficulties. This dress included a white sun helmet of a model that was also worn by Legion units serving in the outposts of Southern Algeria, though never popular with the wearers. During the initial months of World War I Legion units serving in France wore the standard blue greatcoat and red trousers of the French line infantry, distinguished only by collar patches of the same blue as the capote, instead of red. After a short period in sky-blue the Legion adopted khaki with steel helmets, from early 1916. A mustard shade of khaki drill had been worn on active service in Morocco from 1909, replacing the classic blue and white. The latter continued to be worn in the relatively peaceful conditions of Algeria throughout World War I, although increasingly replaced by khaki drill. The pre-1914 blue and red uniforms could still be occasionally seen as garrison dress in Algeria until stocks were used up about 1919.

During the early 1920s plain khaki drill uniforms of a standard pattern became universal issue for the Legion with only the red and blue kepi (with or without a cover) and green collar braiding to distinguish the Legionnaire from other French soldiers serving in North African and Indo-China. The neck curtain ceased to be worn from about 1915, although it survived in the newly raised Foreign Legion Cavalry Regiment into the 1920s. The white blouse (bourgeron) and trousers dating from 1882 were retained for fatigue wear until the 1930s.

At the time of the Legion's centennial in 1931, a number of traditional features were reintroduced at the initiative of the then commander Colonel Rollet. These included the blue sash and green/red epaulettes. In 1939 the white covered kepi won recognition as the official headdress of the Legion to be worn on most occasions, rather than simply as a means of reflecting heat and protecting the blue and red material underneath. The 3rd REI adopted white tunics and trousers for walking out dress during the 1930s and all Legion officers were required to obtain full dress uniforms in the pre-war colours of black and red from 1932 to 1939.

During World War II the Legion wore a wide range of uniform styles depending on supply sources. These ranged from the heavy capotes and Adrian helmets of 1940 through to British battledress and US field uniforms from 1943 to 1945. The white kepi was stubbornly retained whenever possible.

The white kepis, together with the sash and epaulettes survive in the Legion's modern parade dress. Since the 1990s the modern kepi has been made wholly of white material rather than simply worn with a white cover. Officers and senior NCOs still wear their kepis in the pre-1939 colours of dark blue and red. A green tie and (for officers) a green waistcoat recall the traditional branch colour of the Legion. From 1959 a green beret became the ordinary duty headdress of the Legion, with the kepi reserved for parade and off duty wear. Other items of dress are the standard issue of the French Army. Officers seconded to the Foreign Legion retain one Legion button on the vests of their dress uniforms upon returning to their original regiments.

Equipment

The Foreign Legion is basically equipped with all the same equipment of the French Army.
  • The FAMAS assault rifle, a French-made automatic bullpup-style rifle, most of which were designed for the 5.56x45mm NATO round. In bullpup-style firearms, the action and magazine are located behind the trigger, which increases the barrel length relative to the overall weapon length, permitting shorter weapons for the same barrel length, saving weight and increasing maneuverability.


Marching step

Also notable is the marching pace of the Legion. In comparison to the 120-step-per-minute pace of other French units, the Legion has an 88-step-per-minute marching speed. It is also referred by Legionnaires as the "crawl". This can be seen at ceremonial parades and public displays attended by the Legion, particularly while parading in Paris on 14 July (Bastille Day). Because of the impressively slow pace, the Legion is always the last unit marching in any parade. The Legion is normally accompanied by its own band which traditionally plays the march of any one of the regiments comprising the Legion, except that of the unit actually on parade. The regimental song of each unit and "Le Boudin" (commonly called the blood sausage) is sung by Legionnaires standing at attention. Also, because the Legion must always stay together, it doesn't break formation into two when approaching the presidential grandstand, as other French military units do, in order to preserve the unity of the Legion.

Contrary to popular belief, the adoption of the Legion's slow marching speed was not due to a need to preserve energy and fluids during long marches under the hot Algerian sun. Its exact origins are somewhat unclear, but the official explanation is that although the pace regulation does not seem to have been instituted before 1945, it hails back to the slow, majestic marching pace of the Ancien Régime, and its reintroduction was a "return to traditional roots".

References in popular culture

Beyond its reputation as an elite unit often engaged in serious fighting, the recruitment practices of the French Foreign Legion have also led to a romantic view of it being a place for a wronged man to leave behind his old life to start a new one, yet also full of scoundrels and men escaping justice.

Emulation by other countries

Spanish Foreign Legion

The Spanish Foreign Legion was created in 1920, in emulation of the French one, and had a significant role in Spain's colonial wars in Moroccomarker and in the Spanish Civil War on the Nationalist side. Unlike its French model, the number of non-Spanish recruits never exceeded 25%, and most of these were Latin Americans.

Israeli Mahal

In Israel, the Mahal ( , an acronym for Mitnadvei Hutz LaAretz which means Volunteers from outside the Land [of Israel]) is a term used to describe both Jewish and non-Jewish volunteers who went to Israelmarker to fight in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War including Aliyah Bet. About 4,000 volunteers from all over the world came to fight on the Israeli side. The Mahalniks were mostly World War II veterans from American and British armed forces.

Allied armies were reduced considerably after the end of the war and many soldiers were demobilised; moreover, the service experience became mundane and did not suit some servicemen, particularly pilots. In various circumstances they were invited, or heard of the Jewish state's struggle for independence and volunteered. There were Jews and Christians, both ideological supporters of Zionism and mercenaries. The largest presence of Mahal was felt in the Israeli Air Force (IAF), making up nearly a quarter of its personnel, to the point that English overtook Hebrew as the most common operational IAF service language. Covert and overt cargo flights flown by Mahal air crews transported weapons and supplies to Palestine from Europe, and thousands of Jewish refugees from Arab countries.

In the 2000s, overseas residents serve with the IDF through various Mahal-IDF-Volunteers programs.

Netherlands KNIL Army

Though not named "Foreign Legion", the Dutchmarker Koninklijk Nederlandsch-Indische Leger , or Royal Netherlands-Indian Army (in reference to the Dutch East Indiesmarker, now Indonesiamarker), was created in 1830, a year before the French legion,and is therefore not an emulation but an entirely original idea, and had a similar recruitment policy. It stopped being a foreign legion around 1900 when recruitment was restricted to Dutch citizens and to the indigenous peoples of the Dutch East Indies. The KNIL was finally disbanded on 26 July 1950, seven months after the Netherlands formally recognized Indonesia as a sovereign state, and almost five years after Indonesia declared its independence.

See also



Notes

References

Sources

  • Geraghty, Tony. March or Die: A New History of the French Foreign Legion, 1987, ISBN 0816017948
  • McGorman, Evan. Life in the French Foreign Legion: How to Join and What to Expect When You Get There. Hellgate Press, 2000. ISBN 1-55571-633-4
  • Porch, Douglas. The French Foreign Legion. New York: Harper Collins, 1991. ISBN 0-06-092308-3
  • The French Foreign Legion in Kolwezi Roger Rousseau, 2006. ISBN 2-9526927-1-8
  • Szecsko, Tibor. Le Grand Livre des Insignes de la Légion Etrangère. Aubagne, I.I.L.E / S.I.H.L.E, 1991. ISBN 2-9505938-0-1


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