The Full Wiki

More info on Freshwater pearl mussel

Freshwater pearl mussel: Map

Advertisements
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



The freshwater pearl mussel, scientific name Margaritifera margaritifera, is an endangered species of freshwater mussel, an aquatic bivalve mollusk in the family Margaritiferidae, the freshwater pearl mussels. The name "freshwater pearl mussel" should not be construed to mean that other freshwater mussels do not harbor pearls or cannot be used as mother of pearl. In fact most cultured pearls today come from Hyriopsis species in Asia, or Amblema species in North America, both members of the related family Unionidae.

The interior of the shell of this species has thick nacre. The species is capable of making fine quality pearls, therefore it was historically exploited in the search for pearls from wild sources.



Deutsche Post featured Margaritifera margaritifera on a 2002 Germanmarker 0.56 postage stamp as part of a series on endangered species of animals .

Subspecies

Subspecies within the species Margaritifera magaritifera include:
  • Margaritifera margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Margaritifera margaritifera parvula (Haas, 1908)
  • Margaritifera margaritifera durrovensis Phillips, 1928 - critically endangered subspecies in Ireland. Synonym: Margaritifera durrovensis. This subspecies is mentioned in annexes II and V of Habitats Directive as Margaritifera durrovensis.


Group of live Margaritifera margaritifera in a river bed in Sweden
The anatomy of Margaritifera margaritifera
1.

Posterior adductor muscle
2.


Anterior adductor muscle
3.



Frontal gill
4.





Back gill
5.







Exhalant aperture
6.









Inhalant aperture
7.











Foot
8.













Pseudotooth
9.















The hingeline and ligament
10.

















Mantle
11.



















The shell's thickest part, the umbo









Distribution



The native distribution of this species is Holarctic.

  • More than half the world's population exist in Scotland
  • North America: eastern Canada and New Englandmarker at northwestern of the United States
  • Asia: Russian Federation
  • Continental Europe, including:
    • Austria
    • Belgium
    • Czech Republic - critically endangered (CR). Listed in Decree for implementation, No. 395/1992 Sb. (Czech code) (in Czech: Vyhláška 395/1992 Sb. ve znění vyhl. 175/2006 Sb.) as Critically Threatened species. It's Conservation status in 2004-2006 is bad (U2) in report for European commissionmarker in accordance with Habitats Directive.
    • Denmark
    • Estonia
    • France
    • Germany - critically endangered (vom Aussterben bedroht). Listed as strictly protected species in annex 1 in Bundesartenschutzverordnung.
    • Great Britain. This species is fully protected in the United Kingdom under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 since 1998 and it has been partly protected according to the section 9(1) already since 1991.
    • Ireland - The Cladagh river contains one of the largest populations surviving in Northern Irelandmarker, estimated minimum 10,000, confined to a 6 km stretch of undisturbed river in the middle section.
    • Luxembourg
    • Lithuania - extinct


    • Poland - extinct
    • Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain)
    • Scandinavian Peninsula (Finland, Norway, rare in Sweden)


References

  1. 2007 IUCN Red List – Search
  2. Juřičková L., Horsák M. & Beran L., 2001: Check-list of the molluscs (Mollusca) of the Czech Republic. Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem., 65: 25-40.
  3. Red List of the molluscs (Mollusca) of the Czech Republic http://mollusca.sav.sk/malacology/redlist.htm
  4. Dušek J., Hošek M. & Kolářová J. (2007) Hodnotící zpráva o stavu z hlediska ochrany evropsky významných druhů a typů přírodních stanovišť v České republice za rok 2004-2006. - Ochrana přírody, 62(5): appendix 5:I-IV. (in Czech language)
  5. Glöer P. & Meier-Brook C. (2003) Süsswassermollusken. DJN, pp. 134, page 109, ISBN 3-923376-02-2
  6. Protection for wild animals on Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981. website accessed 7 August 2009.
  7. Joint Nature Conservation Committee website]
  8. Margaritifera margaritifera - Polska Czerwona Księga Zwierząt - Bezkręgowce
  9. :pl:Polska Czerwona Księga Zwierząt - Bezkręgowce
  10. [1] cited 16 February 2007


Further reading



External links




Embed code:
Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message