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Fruit tree forms: Map

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The shapes of most fruit trees can be manipulated by pruning and training in order to increase yield, or to improve their suitability for different situations and conditions. Pruning a tree to a pyramid shape means that trees can be planted closer together. An open bowl or cup form increases the penetration of sunlight, thus encouraging a high fruit yield whilst keeping the tree short and easy to pick from. Other shapes such as cordons, espaliers and fans offer opportunities for growing trees two dimensionally against walls or fences, or can themselves be trained as barriers.

Forms

Bush trees are the traditional open goblet shaped form, with a clear lower stem. Within this branch, several subforms are frequently used; these include the spindlebush-form; which was designed for dense orchards by Schnitz-Hubsh and Heinrichs in Germany in 1936, and is currently also the most popular training system for dwarf apple and pear trees.

Cordons are single stemmed trees with fruiting spurs planted at an angle. Any side branches are removed by pruning. cordons take less space and crop earlier than most other forms which means that more varieties can be got into a small space, but yields are smaller per tree. A special cordon set-up is the Bouché-Thomas system.

Espaliers have a central vertical trunk with three or four horizontal branches each side. A special espalier in this group is the LePage-system.

Fans have a short central trunk with several radiating branches growing from the crown.

Step-over espaliers have single horizontal branches at 30 cm from the ground and make a novel and productive border to the vegetable plot.

All of these shapes require training by tying the branches to the required form, and pruning to retain the desired structure. This is usually carried out in autumn for major cutting back and late summer for light trimming. Autumn pruning encourages woody growth whilst late summer pruning encourages fruiting. Not all trees will accept all of the shapes above- apple and pears do well as cordons and espaliers for example, whereas cherries prefer to be fanned.

Yield and spacing

Yields and spacing table

Apples and pears

Yield

Spacing

Apples

Pears

In rows

Rows apart

Bush

25-50 kg

20-45 kg

4-5 m

4-5 m

Dwarf bush

15-25 kg

10-20 kg

2.5-5 m

2.5-5 m

Dwarf pyramid

5-7 kg

3-5 kg

1.5-2 m

2 m

Espalier (two tier)

10-12 kg

7-10 kg

3-6 m

2 m

Fan

5-15 kg

5-15 kg

4-5 m

-

Single cordon

2-4 kg

2-3 kg

0.5-1 m

2 m

Standard

50-200 kg

40-100 kg

6-10 m

6-10 m

Other tree fruits

Bush (sour cherry)

15-20 kg

4-5 m

4-5 m

Bush (plum and peach)

15-30 kg

4-5 m

4-5 m

Bush, standard (sweet cherry)

15-50 kg

5-12 m

5-12 m

Fan (all stone fruits)

7-15 kg

4-5 m

-

Fan (sweet cherry)

6-15 kg

5-7.5 m

-

Pyramid (plum)

15-25 kg

3-4 m

3-4 m

Standard (plum, peach and apricot)

15-50 kg

5-7.5 m

5-7.5 m



Books and publications

  • Snoei der Fruitbomen by Frederik Burvenich 1879


References

  1. spindlebush fruit tree form
  2. Main fruit tree forms


Gallery

Image:Orchard3.jpg|A community apple orchard originally planted for productive useduring the 1920s, in Westcliff on Seamarker (Essex, Englandmarker), illustrating long neglected trees that have recently been pruned]]Image:BoucheThomas fruittreeformdescription.JPG|The description of the Bouché-Thomas fruittreeformImage:Lepage fruittreeform.JPG|A picture of the LePage fruittreeformImage:Lepage fruittreeform description.JPG|The description of LePage fruittreeformImage:Singlerow fruittree system.JPG|The description of singlerow fruittreeform-setupImage:Spindlebush description.JPG|The description of the spindlebush fruittreeformImage:Spindlebush fruittreeform.JPG|A picture of the spindlebush fruittreeformImage:JeukseHaagDescription.JPG|The description of the "Jeukse Haag" fruittreeformImage:Standard fruittreeform.JPG|A picture of the standard fruittreeformImage:Singlerow fruittree system.JPG|The decription of the singlerow fruittreeform-setupImage:Dubblerow fruitttree system.JPG|The description of the dubblerow fruittreeform-setupImage:Triplerow fruittree system.JPG|The description of the triplerow fruittreeform setup

See also




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