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FCS network
Future Combat Systems (FCS) was the United States Army's principal modernization program from 2003 to early 2009. Formally launched in 2003, FCS was envisioned to create new brigades equipped with new manned and unmanned vehicles linked by an unprecedented fast and flexible battlefield network and aided by various pieces of other gear. In April and May 2009, Pentagon and Army officials announced that the FCS vehicle-development effort would be cancelled. The rest of the FCS effort would be swept into a new, pan-Army program called the Army Brigade Combat Team Modernization Program.

Development history

FCS timeline (click to view)


As planned, FCS included the network; unattended ground sensors (UGS); unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs); unmanned ground vehicles; and the eight manned ground vehicles.

The Boeing Company and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) work together as the lead systems integrator, coordinating more than 550 contractors and subcontractors in 41 states.

A spiral model was planned for FCS development and upgrades. As of 2004, FCS was in the System Development and Demonstration (SDD) phase, which includes four two-year spirals. Spiral 1 was to begin fielding in Fiscal Year 2008 and consist of prototypes for use and evaluation. Following successful evaluation, production and fielding of Spiral 2 will commence in 2010. The evaluation is conducted by the Army Evaluation Task Force (AETF), previously known as Evaluation Brigade Combat Team (EBCT), stationed in Fort Blissmarker. As of December 2007, AETF consisted of 1,000 soldiers from the 1st Armored Division.

In August 2005, the program met 100% of the criteria in its most important milestone to date, Systems of Systems Functional Review. On October 5, 2005, Pentagon team recommended "further delaying the Army's Future Combat Systems program" in light of the costs of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, and expected declines in future budgets.

The Pentagon announced plans in January 2006 to cut $236 million over five years from the $25 billion FCS 2007-2011 budget. The entire program is expected to cost $340 billion. As of late December 2006, funding has been scaled back for critical elements of the overall FCS battlespace, and the most advanced elements have been deferred.

The program had completed about one-third of its development as of 2008, which had been planned to run through 2030. Technical field tests began in 2008. The first combat brigade equipped with FCS had been expected to roll out around 2015, followed by full production to equip up to 15 brigades by 2030. However, the program has not met the initial 2004 plan of fielding the first FCS-equipped unit in 2008.

On April 6, 2009, President Barack Obama's Secretary of Defense, Robert Gates announced plans to cut FCS spending as part of a shift toward spending more on counter-terrorism and less to prepare for conventional warfare against large states like China and Russia. This included, but was not limited to, cancelling the series of Manned Ground Vehicles.

In May 2009, the proposed DoD budget for fiscal year 2010 has minimal funding for Manned Ground Vehicles research. The Army plans to restart from the beginning on manned ground vehicles. The service is to restructure FCS so more Army units will be supported.

The DoD released a memorandum on 23 June 2009 that cancels the Future Combat Systems program and replaces it with separate programs under the Army Brigade Combat Team Modernization umbrella to meet the Army's plans.

Subsystems

Active Subsystems

The following subsystems have been swept into the Brigade Combat Team Modernization Program:
* XM1216 Small Unmanned Ground Vehicle (SUGV)
* Multifunctional Utility/Logistics and Equipment vehicle (MULE)
* XM156 Class I Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
* XM157 Class IV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
  • Devices
* XM501 Non-Line-of-Sight Launch System (NLOS-LS)
* AN/PSW-2 Common System Controller (CC)
* Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS)


Former subsystems

The following subsystems were cancelled. The Manned ground vehicles program has been superseded by the BCT Ground Combat Vehicle Program.

  • Ground vehicles
* XM1201 Reconnaissance and Surveillance Vehicle (RSV)
* XM1202 Mounted Combat System (MCS)
* XM1203 Non-Line-of-Sight Cannon (NLOS-C)
* XM1204 Non-Line-of-Sight Mortar (NLOS-M)
* XM1205 Recovery and Maintenance Vehicle (FRMV)
* XM1206 Infantry Carrier Vehicle (ICV)
* XM1207 Medical Vehicle-Evacuation (MV-E)
* XM1208 Medical Vehicle-Treatment (MV-T)
* XM1209 Command and Control Vehicle (C2V)
* XM1217 Multifunctional Utility/Logistics and Equipment
  • Aerial vehicles
*Class II UAVs for Companies
*Class III UAVs for Battalions


Operating system

FCS is networked via an advanced architecture, called System of Systems Common Operating Environment (SOSCOE) that will enable unprecedented levels of joint connectivity and situational awareness (see Network-centric warfare). SOSCOE targets x86-Linux, VxWorks, and LynxOS. The FCS (BCT) network consists of five layers that when combined provides seamless delivery of data: The Standards, Transport, Services, Applications, and Sensors and Platforms Layers. The FCS (BCT) network possesses the adaptability and management functionality required to maintain pertinent services, while the FCS (BCT) fights on a rapidly shifting battlespace giving them the advantage to see first, understand first, act first, and finish decisively. FCS will network existing systems, systems already under development, and systems to be developed.

See also



References

  1. "Future Combat Systems (FCS) Successfully Completes Major Program Milestone". Boeing, August 15, 2005]
  2. . Wired News, October 17, 2005.
  3. "Pentagon takes minimal cut out of Boeing program". Seattle Post Intelligencer, January 25, 2006.
  4. Timeline: Army Modernization and Future Combat Systems, Washington Post
  5. Department of Defense authorization for appropriations for fiscal year 2004 : hearings before the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, One Hundred Eighth Congress, first session, on S. 1050, to authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2004 for military activities of the Department of Defense, for military construction, and for defense activities of the Department of Energy, to prescribe personnel strengths for such fiscal year for the armed forces, and for other purposes [1]
  6. "Military Budget Reflects a Shift in U.S. Strategy". New York Times, April 7, 2009. Retrieved on April 7, 2009.
  7. McLeary, Paul. "U.S. Army Ground Vehicles Up and Down". Aviation Week, 8 May 2009.
  8. Military Deputy for Budget Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Financial Mgt and Comptroller) Lt. Gen. Edgar Stanton and Acting Director, Army Budget Office William Campbell May 07, 2009, News Transcript, U.S. Department of Defense, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs).
  9. Osborn, Kris. "FCS Is Dead; Programs Live On". Defense News. 18 May 2009.
  10. Chavanne, Bettina H. and Michael Bruno. "U.S. Army Continues to Face Pressure on FCS". Aviation Week, 19 May 2009.
  11. "Future Combat System (FCS) Prograto Army Brigade Combat Team Modernization", US DoD, 23 June 2009.
  12. SOSCOE, boeing.com


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